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THE LIFE AND COEEESPONDENCE 



OF THE LATE 



SAMUEL HIBBEET WAKE, 

M.D., F.K.S.E., ETC. 



i*jb J 






. / 



THE 



LIFE AND COBBESPONDENCE 

OF THE LATE 

SAMUEL HIBBEBT WABE 

M.D., F.R.S.E., ETC. 

SECRETARY AND VICE-PRESIDENT OP THE SOCIETY OP SCOTTISH ANTIQUARIES ; 

AUTHOR OP THE ' HISTORY OP THE FOUNDATIONS OF MANCHESTER, 

' THE PHILOSOPHY OP APPARITIONS,' ETC. 



BY 

MES. HIBBEET WAKE 

AUTHOK OF ' LIFE'S SEVEN AGES,' ' THE KINO OF BATH,' ' THE WATER TOWER," ETC. 




flj 



MANCHESTER: J. E. CORNISH 
16 ST. ANN'S SQUARE, AND 33 PICCADILLY 

1882 



Printed by R & R. CLARK, Edinburgh. 



LIST OF SUBSCBIBEBS. 

AINSWORTH, WILLIAM FRANCIS, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., etc., 
Ravenscourt Villa, Hammersmith, London. 

ARMSTRONG, H., Esq., 30 St. Ann's Street, Manchester. 

ARMSTRONG, THOMAS, Esq., Highfield Bank, Urmston, Lancashire. 

ATTOCK, F., Esq., Somerset House, Newton Heath, near Manchester. 

AXON, W. E. A., Esq., Bowker Street, Higher Broughton, Man- 
chester. 

BAGNALL, BENJAMIN, Esq., Ellerslie, Eaton Gardens, Brighton, West 

Sussex. 

BARNES-SLACKE, Rev. W. S., M.A., Fulshaw House, Wilmslow. 
BARROW, JOHN, Esq., 3 Edensor Place, Dickenson Road, Rusholme, 

Manchester. 

BARTON, RICHARD, Esq., West Leigh, Lancashire. 
BECKER, WILFRED, Esq., 15 Cross Street, Manchester. 
BODDINGTON, HENRY, Esq., The Cove, Silverdale, Carnforth. 
BOLTON SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARY, Bolton. 
BOOTH, ISAIAH, Esq., Firwood, Alderley Edge, Cheshire. 
BOTTOMLEY, E., Esq., J.P., Greenfield House, Greenfield. 
BOULTON, ALDERMAN ISAAC WATT, J.P., Stamford House, Ashtoii- 

under-Lyne 

BOWDLER, WILLIAM HENRY, Esq., J.P., Kirkham, near Preston. 
BRADSHAW, CHRISTOPHER, Esq., Albert Square, Manchester. 
BROOKS, SAMUEL, Esq., Union Iron Works, West Gorton, Manchester. 
BROOME, JOSEPH, Esq., Woodlawn, Didsbury, near Manchester, 

2 copies. 

BURNS, Rev. W. H., M.A., Clayton Hall, near Manchester. 
BURTON, ALFRED, Esq., 37 Cross Street, Manchester. 



VI LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

BUTLER, Mr. SAMUEL, Bookseller, 81 George Street, Altrincham, 
Cheshire, 3 copies. 

CARVER, BENJAMIN, Esq., 7 Lower Mosley Street, Manchester. 

CHAD WICK, JOHN, Esq., J.P., Buile Hill, Manchester. 

CHORLTON, THOMAS, Esq., Solicitor, Brazennose Street, Manchester. 

CHORLTON, WILLIAM, Esq., Morningside, Fairneld, near Manchester. 

CLAPHAM, JOHN, Esq., The Hills, Prestwich. 

CLARKE, KICHARD, Esq., 285 Bolton Road, Walkden, near Man- 
chester. 

COLLES, A. H., Esq., Whaley Bridge. 

COOKE, THOMAS, Esq., Rushobne Hall, Manchester. 

COOPER, THOMAS, Esq., Mossley House, Congleton. 

CORNISH BROTHERS, Messrs., Booksellers, 37 New Street, Birmingham. 

CORNISH, JAMES, and SONS, Messrs., Booksellers, 297 High Hoi- 
born, London. 

CORNISH, JAMES, and SONS, Messrs., Booksellers, 37 Lord Street, Liver- 
pool. 

COULTHART, JOHN Ross, Esq., Ashtoii-under-Lyne, Lancashire. 

CRAMPTON, Mrs. M., Spring Vale, Hale, Altrincham, Cheshire. 

CROSSLAND, ROBERT, Esq., 21 Northumberland Street, Higher 
Broughton. 

CROWTHER, WILLIAM, Esq., 23 Ellesmere Villas, Farnworth, near 
Bolton, Lancashire. 

CURTIS, RICHARD, Esq., Phoenix Works, Manchester. 

DAY, THOS. J., Esq., Heaton Moor, Stockport. 
DYSON, A. K., Esq., 38 George Street, Manchester. 

EARNSHAW, JACOB, Esq., 10 St. James Square, Manchester. 
EARWAKER, J. P., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Pensarn, Abergele, North 

Wales. 
EVANS, JOHN, Esq., Manchester. 

FLETCHER, ALFRED PETER, Esq., Beaucliffe, Eccles, near Manchester. 
FLETCHER, JAMES, Esq., Kearsley Vale House, Stoneclough, Man- 
chester. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. Vll 

FOSTER, Mrs., 10 Chester Terrace, Regent's Park, London. 

Fox, R. DACRE, Esq., M.R.C.S.E., 341 Oxford Road, Manchester. 

GIBSON, Rev. Canon N. "W., Polygon, Ardwick, near Manchester. 

GLAZEBROOK, "W. A., Esq., Princess Street, Manchester. 

GOODMAN, DAVENPORT, Esq., Eccles House, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Derby- 
shire. 

GRADWELL, SAMUEL, Esq., Holmes Chapel. 

GRATRIX, SAMUEL, Esq., J.P., Alport Town, Manchester. 

GRAY, Mr. HENRY, Antiquarian and Topographical Bookseller, 25 
Cathedral Yard, Manchester. 

GREEN, THOMAS, Esq., Les Douvres, Guernsey, and Poulton Lancelyn, 
Cheshire. 

GROVES, GEORGE H., Esq., Urmston, Lancashire. 

GRUNDY, ALFRED, Esq., Whitefield, near Manchester. 

GUEST, "W. H., Esq., 78 Cross Street, Manchester. 

HADFIELD, GEORGE, Esq., 110 King Street, Manchester. 

HADFIELD, W., Esq., Ferns House, Kirkmanshulme Lane, Longsight, 
Manchester. 

HALL, HENRY, Esq., Boothdale, Ashton-under-Lyne. 

HALL, JOHN, Esq., The Grange, Hale, Cheshire. 

HALL, JOHN ALBERT, Esq., Park Hill, Congleton. 

HALL, JOSEPH, Esq., Grammar School, Manchester. 

HAMMERSLEY, WILLIAM HENRY, Esq., Bridge House, Leek. 

HANBY, RICHARD, Esq., Chetham Library, Manchester. 

HANKINSON, G. H., Esq., 88 King Street, Manchester. 

HANMER, L., Esq., Grecian House, Higher Broughton, near Man- 
chester. 

HARRIS, GEORGE, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., Iselips Manor, Northott, 
Southall, Middlesex. 

HARRISON, ROBERT, Esq., Secretary and Librarian London Library, 

12 St. James Square, London S.W. 
HAWORTH, ABRAHAM, Esq., Hilston House, Altrincham. 
HAYWARD, Mr. THOS., Bookseller, 35 Oxford Road, Manchester, 

13 copies. 



viii LIST OF SUBSCRIBEKS. 

HEAP, HENRY, Esq., 99 Portland Street, Manchester. 

HEARD, JAS., Esq., Aytoun Street, Manchester. 

HERBERT, Mrs. ANNA MARIA, Upper Helmsley Hall, York. 

HIBBERT,^ EDWARD, Esq., J.P., Brook Bank, Godley, near Man- 
chester. 

HIBBERT, Colonel F. D., Bucknell Manor, Bicester, Oxfordshire. 

HIBBERT WARE, TITUS, Esq., 1 Bell Place, Bowdon, Cheshire, 
6 copies. 

HIGGINBOTTOM, JAS., Esq., Dorset House, Heaton Chapel, Stock- 
port. 

HINDE, C. H., Esq., 7 Mount Street, Manchester. 

HOLDEN, Mr. ADAM, Bookseller, 48 Church Street, Liverpool. 

HOLDEN, C. H., Esq., Bolton, Lancashire. 

HOLDEN, THOS., Esq., Spring Field, Bolton, Lancashire. 

HOLME, ENOCH, Esq., Boothroydon, Middleton. 

HOLMES, JAMES, Esq., 12 Egerton Road, Fallowfield, near Man- 
chester. 

HOLT, Mr. ROBERT, Bookseller, 28 Oak Street, Manchester, 7 copies. 

HUGHES, CHARLES, Esq., Cheetwood House, Manchester. 

JARROLD, S. J. J., Esq., Norwich. 

JONES, JAMES, Esq., Stoneleigh Rosset, near Wrexham. 

JORDAN, CHARLES, Esq., Telegraph Engineer, Jordan Street, Man- 
chester. 

JORDAN, FREDERICK WILLIAM, Esq., Astley House, Heaton Chapel, 
near Stockport. 

JORDAN, THOS. L., Esq., Astley House, Heaton Chapel, near Stock- 
port. 

KAY, JACOB, Esq., 5 Booth Street, Manchester. 
KIRK, JAMES, Esq., Bothomes Hall, Whaley Bridge. 
KNOOP, HENRY L., Esq., 62 Peter Street, Manchester. 

LANCASHIRE INDEPENDENT COLLEGE, Whalley Range, Manchester. 
LEECH, D. J., Esq., M.D., 96 Mosley Street, Manchester. 
LEFROY, GEO. BENTINCK, Esq., 23 Talbot Square, Hyde Park, Lon- 
don, W. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. IX 

LEFROY, Miss MARY, care of Mrs. Ernest Hawkins, Hillcote, Bourne- 
mouth, Hants. 

LINGARD-MONK, R. B. M., Esq., Fulshaw Hall, Wilmslow. 
LIVERPOOL FREE LIBRARY, per P. Cowell, Esq., librarian. 
LORD, W. C., Esq., Elm Lodge, Eccles, near Manchester. 
LUKE, H., Esq., 14 Brazennose Street, Manchester. 
LUND, EDWARD, Esq., F.R.C.S., St. John Street, Manchester. 

MACKENZIE, JOHN WHITEFORD, Esq., 16 Royal Circus, Edinburgh. 

MANCHESTER FREE REFERENCE LIBRARY, per C. W. Sutton, Esq., 
librarian. 

MARSLAND, SAMUEL, Esq., Chorlton House, Greenheys Lane, Man- 
chester. 

M'CONNEL, Mrs., Cressbrook, Bakewell. 

MORTON, W., Esq., 258 Birchfield Place, Stockport Road, Longsight, 
near Manchester. 

MURRAY, Miss, Milverton Hill, Leamington. 

NAYLOR, Miss ANNA J., The Knoll, near Altrincham, Cheshire. 
NELSON, Major-General A. A., C.B., Governor of Guernsey. 
NODAL, J. H., Esq., The Grange, Heaton Moor. 

OFFER, EDWYN, Esq., 4 Park Street, Higher Ardwick, near Man- 
chester. 

ORD, "W. G. H., Esq., Bowdon, Cheshire. 
ORME, ROBERT, Esq., Irwell Engraving Works, Salford. 
ORME, THOS., Esq., Longacre, Edgeley, Stockport. 
OSWALD, Lady, Southbank, Edinburgh. 
OWENS COLLEGE LIBRARY, Oxford Road, Manchester. 

PALMER and HOWE, Messrs., Booksellers, Princess Street, Manchester, 
4 copies. 

PARLANE, JAS., Esq., J.P., Appleby Lodge, Rusholme, near Man- 
chester. 

PEEL, GEO., Esq., J.P., Brookfield, Cheadle, Cheshire, 2 copies. 

PHILIPS, HERBERT, Esq., J.P., The Oak House, Sutton, Macclesfield. 



X LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

PICKFOED, Miss A. C., King Sterndale, Buxton, Derbyshire. 
PORTICO LIBRARY, Mosley Street, Manchester. 
POTTER, E. C., Esq., Rusholme House, Manchester. 

QUARITCH, Mr. BERNARD, Bookseller, 15 Piccadilly, London. 

REISS, FRITZ, Esq., Quay Street, Manchester. 

REYNOLDS, J. H., Esq., 2 Hampson Terrace, Seymour Grove, Man- 
chester. 

RICHMOND, T. G., Esq., F.R.C.S., Macclesfield. 
ROBBERDS, Rev. JOHN, B.A., Battledown Tower, Cheltenham. 
ROGERS, JAMES TAYLOR, Esq., "Wellington Lodge, Littleborough. 
ROUNDELL, C. S., Esq., M.P., 16 Curzon Street, Mayfair, London. 
ROWORTH, Mr. THOMAS, bookseller, St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 
ROYLE, JOHN, Esq., 53 Port Street, Piccadilly, Manchester. 

SALFORD FREE LIBRARY, Peel Park, near Manchester. 

SCHOFIELD, THOMAS, Esq., J.P., Thornfield, Old Trafford, near Man- 
chester. 

SCHRODER, JOHN M., Esq., 49 Faulkner Street, Manchester. 

SEDDON, JAMES, Esq., Race Hill, Altrincham. 

SHAW, JOHN, Esq., 70 Cannon Street, Manchester. 

SOTHERAN, Messrs. H. and Co., Booksellers, 49 Cross Street, Man- 
chester, 3 copies. 

SPAFFORD, GEORGE, Esq., 1 5 Mount Street, Manchester. 

STEPHENS, JAS., Esq., 68 Bridge Street, Manchester. 

STRAUS, HERBERT N., Esq., The Holme, Sedgley Park, Prestwich, near 
Manchester. 

STRAUS, JAMES R., Esq., The Holme, Sedgley Park, Prestwich, near 
Manchester. 

SUTTON, C. W., Esq., Librarian, Manchester Free Library. 

SWINDELLS, GEO. H., Esq., Oak Villa, Heaton Moor, Stockport. 

TAYLOR, H., Esq., Burton House, Patricroft. 
TAYLOR, JOHN, Esq., Eagle Brewery, Lloyd Street, Manchester. 
TAYLOR, JOSH., Esq., Eagle Brewery, Lloyd Street, Manchester. 
TWEEDALE, J. F., Esq., Higher Field, Werneth, Oldham. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. XI 

WALTHEW, JOHN, Esq., J.P., Sparth Mount, Heaton Norris. 
WARBURTON, S., Esq., Sunny Hill, Crumpsall, near Manchester. 
WATSON, Major JAMES, Inchyra, near Perth. 
WATTS, JOHN, Esq., 23 Strutt Street, Manchester. 
WOOD, R., Esq., J.P., Plumpton Hall, Heywood, near Manchester, 
2 copies. 

YATES, J. M., Esq., St. James Square, Manchester. 

YOUNG, HENRY A., Esq., Woodcroft Villa, Wavertree, near Liverpool. 



The Edition is limited to 250 copies. 



PEEFACE. 

THE compiler of this Memoir was induced to under- 
take the collection and arrangement of the corre- 
spondence of the late Dr. Samuel Hibbert Ware, in 
the hope that it might be found of interest to the 
readers of the History of the Foundations of Man- 
chester and other Works written by him. She 
moreover hopes that these pages may not be without 
interest for some residents in Edinburgh, where Dr. 
Hibbert Ware passed many pleasant years of his life. 

To enable her to complete the work she had 
undertaken, the letters which have been printed were 
placed in her hands by her husband, who is the 
eldest son of Dr. Hibbert Ware, and who has also 
supplied her with many incidents and anecdotes, 
he being almost the sole survivor of those with 
whom his late father was intimate. 

With what success she has performed her work 
she leaves her indulgent readers to judge; but she 
must observe that her efforts have been greatly 



XIV PREFACE. 

stimulated by the encouragement to undertake it 
which she received from C. W. Button, Esq., Chief 
Librarian of the Manchester Free Library, and from 
J. E. Bailey, Esq., F.S.A., of Stretford, the editor 
of the Palatine Note-Book, in which work appeared 
a short time since an outline of the Life of Dr. 
Hibbert Ware. 

It is scarcely likely that any of the writers in 
this Memoir are now alive, as they were all of 
middle-age when Dr. Hibbert Ware died. 

MARY CLEMENTINA HIBBERT WARE. 

10th April 1882. 



CONTENTS. 

PART I. MANCHESTER. 

CHAPTEK I. 

PAGE 

Titus Hibbert The Scots in Manchester in 1745 . 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Sylvanus Hibbert His pamphlet on the " State after Death " 9 

CHAPTER III. 

Another " Conceit " Perpetual Motion . , 13 

CHAPTER IV. 

A Dantzig commercial traveller's notes on Manchester customers 

Merchants and depositors of money . . .' 17 

CHAPTER V. 

Death of Titus Hibbert's wife The Presbyterian Chapel in 

Cross Street . . . . '. . 21 

CHAPTER VI. 

Cost of living one hundred years ago . . . 24 

CHAPTER VII. 

The firm of " Titus Hibbert and Son" The Duke of Bridge- 
water's canal boats Stage-coaches or " flying machines " 41 



XVI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAGE 

Nuisances and obstructions in the streets of Manchester 
Subscription for making improvements and names of 
subscribers ...... 46 

CHAPTER IX. 

Miss Sally Ware Robert Ware, Esq., of Dublin The Lan- 
cashire Militia Tim Bobbin and Miss Ware . . 53 

CHAPTER X. 

The American War of Independence Manchester Petitions, 
etc., and names of signatories John Wesley's " Calm 
Address" A Debating Society in Manchester Mr. 
George Duckworth . . . . . 63 

CHAPTER XL 

Mr. John Holt of Walton Canal-boat travelling . . 73 

CHAPTER XII. 

A.n Extravagancy ; or, London and a " Young Man from the 

Country" ...... 77 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Death of Paymaster Robert Ware Ladies travelling by stage- 
coach An expected marriage An unexpected marriage. 84 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Scarborough Manchester gossip .... 89 

CHAPTER XV. 

The birth of Samuel Hibbert, the subject of this Memoir . 93 



CONTENTS. XV11 



CHAPTER XVI. 

PAGE 

The importation of linen yarn The Prussian Government 
make inquiries of Manchester merchants respecting it 
Chamber of Commerce . > . \ 95 

CHAPTER XVII. 

"The Manchester Regiment," or 72d The fustian-tax Old 

Blackpool Ardwick Green . . .. " . 99 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

The first school Holland Watson A journey to Dublin a 

century ago . . . . .106 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Young Sam Hibbert and the poacher Manchester New 

College State education . . . .111 

CHAPTER XX. 

Peter Clare Electricity and the dogs Some names of Man- 
chester families . . . ' . . 120 

CHAPTER XXI. 

A passport from Ireland to England Buxton Sam Hibbert's 
poetry Practical jokes Volunteers The Peace of 
Amiens . . . . . .124 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Sam Hibbert and his brother Titus separate The Act of 
Union, strong feeling against in Ireland War Recruit- 
ing in Manchester Cowdroy Jimmy Watson Joseph 
Aston ,, , , . -. . ... 132 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Manchester Theatre Riley the actor at Harrogate 

Sam Hibbert marries . 143 



XV111 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

PAGE 

Liverpool, sea-bathing at Chorlton Eow in 1805 William 
Hibbert and the 40th Regiment Review at Ardwick 
Green by the Duke of Gloucester Arthur Thistlewood 150 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Samuel Hibbert elected a Member of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society, and of the Society of Arts in 
London The Peninsular War . . . 157 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Samuel Hibbert's pamphlet on Commercial Credit The Man- 
chester Local Militia . . . . .169 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

The sick soldier Dick Crompton and Marshal Mortier 
Manchester gossip Samuel Hibbert thinks of entering 
the Army The Duke of York and scandals on the sale 
of commissions . . . . .171 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Samuel Hibbert in the 1st Royal Lancashire Militia Man- 
chester gossip French prison near Bristol The marches 
in South Wales ..... 181 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Worcester Captain Byron and the Hottentot Venus Not- 
tingham York races Sam Hibbert charged with 
poisoning a racer . . . . .196 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Berwick-upon-Tweed Complaint of dirt of the town A 

Martinet General Route to Haddington is sent 204 



CONTENTS. XIX 



CHAPTEE XXXI. 

PAGE 

Haddington Sam Hibbert adopts the Spartan bringing-up of 
children Shabby inns A duel stopped Sam Hib- 
bert's youngest brother George enters the 1st Lancashires 
Dick Crompton again Vaccination Tour in the 
Highlands . . .' .- , ' .. . 212 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Mr. Joseph Jordan, surgeon Samuel Hibbert studies medicine 
in Edinburgh George Hibbert at Toulouse at Ghent 
The Duke of Wellington and the 40th Regiment 
Waterloo Death of Mr. Samuel Hibbert senior . 224 



PAET II EDINBURGH. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Samuel Hibbert removes to Edinburgh He graduates 
Goes to Shetland Discovers chromate of iron Pro- 
fessor Jameson considers the discovery important . 239 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

The Shetland chromate of iron and London manufacturers 
Dr. Hibbert makes a second journey to Shetland His 
rambles Appearance of the country . . ' . 249 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

The 1st Lancashires again Captains Jones and Marryat and 
Squire Waterton at Rome Captain Scoresby and young 
surgeons Dr. Hibbert contributes to the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal The Hermit of Roeness-hill . 260 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Phrenology The High School Dr. Hibbert receives a gold 
medal from the Society of Arts for his discovery of chro- 



XX CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

mate of iron in Shetland The native hydrate of mag- 
nesia discovered by him also Sir Walter Scott elected 
President of the Royal Society . . . 271 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Dr. Hibbert made a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and of the Scottish Antiquarian Society Sir Walter 
Scott's Pirate and Shetland Mr. Thomas Edmondston 
and the discovery of chromate of iron Dr. Hibbert's 
account of the discovery His work on Shetland is pub- 
lished Professor Jameson's opinion of it . . 278 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

A copy of the work on Shetland is sent to the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society Opinion of Shet- 
landers on the work Death of Mrs. Hibbert George 
IV. visits Edinburgh The boy born without forearms 
An account of the Manor of Ashton-under-Lyne Sir 
Walter Scott's opinion of it . . . . 294 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Edinburgh breakfast parties W. C. Trevelyan Dr. Rich- 
ardson, Franklin's companion Sale of the chromate of 
iron Thomas Edmondston and the chromate of iron 
Dr. Hibbert is made a secretary of the Antiquarian 
Society Publication of his work on Apparitions . 312 

CHAPTER XL. 

Royal Institution, Manchester Old carved oak panels at 
Hulme Hall Geological Lectures in Manchester Vit- 
rified Forts in Scotland Constable and " cheap lit- 
erature " Professor Buckland Dr. Hibbert elected a 
member of the Geological Society of London The Edin- 
burgh Journal of Science . . . . 326 

CHAPTER XLI. 

Dr. Hibbert's second marriage Vitrified Forts He becomes 
one of the editors of the Medical Journal Antiquarian 



CONTENTS. XXI 

PAGE 

dinners Sir Walter Scott and the black-jack The fossil 
elk Concretions at Alderley Edge Second edition of 
the work on Apparitions Sir George Mackenzie and Sir 
William Hamilton and Phrenology . . ., 342 

CHAPTER XLII. 

A journalistic squabble Constable the bookseller fails Mr. 
Thomas Agnew and the History of the Foundations of 
Manchester The second edition of the Philosophy of 
Apparitions An apparition in Earl Grey's family 
The Antiquarian Society and Dr. Hibbert . . i . . 355 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

Dr. Hibbert goes to the Continent to make Geological Re- 
searches The History of the Foundations of Manchester 
Returns to Manchester to give a course of lectures on 
Geology . . . . . . 367 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

Lectures on Geology at Manchester Article on Shetland in 
the Encyclopaedia (of Brevrster) Dr. Hibbert returns to 
Hanau Geologises at Claremont in France Rome 
Naples Returns to England An Antiquarian Society 
dinner '. '. '. ' '. '.'~ ' 382 

CHAPTER XLV. 

History of the Foundations of Manchester Sale of chromate of 
iron Fossil bones, etc., in the South of France Sir 
Walter Scott's Demonology Royal Commission to report 
on the Universities of Scotland Dr. Hibbert's spectral 
illusion at Dr. Brewster's A Tour in the Highlands and 
Shetland .. ,. . . . ^ . . 391 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

Dr. Hibbert made a Vice-President of the Antiquarian Society 
The History of the Extinct Volcanoes Is elected a 



XX11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

member of the Geological Society of France Of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen Discovers the 
fresh-water limestone at Burdiehouse, Edinburgh M. 
Agassiz Charles Lyell Professor Buckland Dr. Knox 
and Burke and Hare . . . . .411 

CHAPTER XLVII. 

The British Association meet at Edinburgh Professor Buck- 
land adds the name Hibberti to the saurian animals 
discovered at Burdiehouse Dr. Buckland and the 
nomenclature of fossil saurian fish of Burdiehouse 432 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 

Dr. Hibbert leaves Edinburgh Mrs. Hibbert dies at Harro- 

gate He settles in York . 439 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

York Mr. Joseph Jordan elected Surgeon to the Manchester 
Infirmary The Lancaster Cross and Baines' History of 
Lancashire Review of the History of the Foundations of 
Manchester in the Gentleman's Magazine Professor Buck- 
land's Bridgewater Treatise The Overland Route to 
India 449 



CHAPTER L. 

Antiquarian Tour in Ireland William Hibbert travels over- 
land to India His sketches Mahometan superstition 
Sore eyes among the poor in Upper Egypt Continua- 
tion of the History of the Foundations of Manchester . 467 



CHAPTER LI. 

Dr. Hibbert adds the name of Ware to his patronymic His 
recommendation of Mr. David Laing to the post of 
Librarian to the Signet Library Rafn's Antiquitates 
Americana .... 477 



CONTENTS. XX111 

CHAPTER LIT. 

PAGE 

Accident to the Governor of Goa William Hibbert sent there 
Embarks with the "Army of the Indus" March along 
the banks of that river . . Y . . 484 

CHAPTER LHI. 

" improvisa lethi 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentes " . . . 493 

CHAPTER LIV. 

Kiirachee, Gttznee, and Cabul taken Mr. Thomas Edmondston's 

curious claim to the discovery of the chromate of iron . 501 

CHAPTER LV. 

Major Hibbert in Afghanistan The Lancaster Runic cross, 
and Mr. Kemble's explanation Dr. Hibbert "Ware is 
elected a member of the Irish Archaeological Society 
Appendix to the History of the Foundations of Manchester 
Sir William Hamilton . . . . 513 

CHAPTER LVI. 

Afghanistan Letter from Major Hibbert at Kandahar Dr. 
Hibbert Ware placed on the Committee of the British 
Association for inquiring into the different races of man 
His collection of skulls, etc., and the New Zealander 
His third marriage . . -. ' . ' ". 520 

CHAPTER LVIL 

Kandahar General Nott's march to Cabul Return of Nott 

and Pollock to India . . . . .529 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

The Runic cross of Lancaster and Professor Finn Magnusson 
of Copenhagen The Chetham Society founded Dr. 
Hibbert Ware's Memorials of Lancashire w 1715 . 536 



XXIV CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER LIX. 

PAGE 

The Irish Exile . . . . . . 553 

CHAPTER LX. 

The History of the Foundations of Manchester Mr. John 

Harland Colonel Hibbert's death . . . 558 

CHAPTER LXI. 

Collegiate Chapter of Manchester and the Churchwardens 
Publication of the Appendix or Supplement of the 
History of the Foundations of Manchester . . 564 

CHAPTER LXII. 

" cinis et manes et fabula fies, 

Vive memor lethi, fugit hora " . . 573 



PART I. 
MANCHESTER 

CHAPTER I. 

Titus Hibbert The Scots in Manchester in 1745. 

THE Hibberts were one of the old Manchester mer- 
cantile families of the last century who acquired a 
considerable fortune in that town, which even at that 
date was rapidly rising to its present importance. 

Titus Hibbert, the founder of the firm "Titus 
Hibbert and Son," and the grandfather of the subject 
of our memoir, belonged to the family of the Hibberts 
of Werneth and Marple in Cheshire, the manor of 
which latter place was held by them in the seven- 
teenth century. From a copy of the Herald's Visita- 
tion in the Harleian MS., 2161, book 257 g, and 274 a, 
in the British Museum, it appears that the family 
had been settled at Marple in the time of Edward IV. 
The late Dr. Hibbert Ware conceived that they had 
migrated from a more southern county when the 
kingdom was convulsed with the Wars of the Roses ; 
and he was also of opinion that the Hibberts of 
Birtles, Godly, Hyde, and the neighbourhood were 

sprung from the same stock. 

B 



2 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAUE S 

Mr. Earwaker, in his excellent History of East 
Cheshire, vol. ii. p. 55, gives the armorial bearings 
(sanctioned by Eandal Holmes) and a pedigree of the 
Hibberts of Marple, whom he considers to have 
occupied the position of yeomen or smaller gentry. 

For some time before the year 1736, when he was 
not more than eighteen or nineteen years of age, Titus 
Hibbert had kept journals or memorandum books, 
partly written in shorthand, an art at that time 
taught by Mr. Byrom and Mr. Aulay Macaulay of St. 
Ann's Square to ladies as well as gentlemen. When 
scarce twenty years old his mind seems to have taken 
a peculiar, we might term it an eccentric, bent, as 
regards literature, for amongst his books was a large 
folio tome, in which he had written his name " Titus 
Hibbert ejus liber, 23d September 1736." The nature 
of this book may be judged of by its title, Physiologia, 
or a Fabrick of Science Natural, upon the Hypothesis 
of Atoms, by Walter Charleton, Physician to the late 
Charles, Monarch of Great Britain. London : Printed 
by Thomas Newcomb for Thomas Heath, and sold at 
his shop in Russel Street, 1654. 

His reading, in fact, seems to have been desultory, 
for he had acquired a considerable acquaintance with 
the general and also with the political literature of 
the day, as is evidenced by the extracts and notes he 
was in the habit of making from such works as 
Wollaston's Religion of Nature, The Independent 
Whig, John Seller's Atlas Ccelestis, Law's Appeal, 
Chaucer, Blackstone's Commentaries, Rennet's Roman 
Antiquities, etc. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 3 

In the troublous year of 1745 a ludicrous incident 
occurred to Titus Hibbert, which was told to the late 
Dr. Hibbert Ware by his father, and which we will 
here give, relating the circumstance in the manner in 
which it most probably occurred, when the army of 
Prince Charles was entering Manchester. 

" Hout, sirs, ye hae a braw pair o' shoon on !" 
Thus exclaimed a stalwart, kilted Highlander, with a 
round bossed target slung on his shoulder, and armed 
to the teeth, his drawn claymore in his right hand, 
his dirk and pistols in his belt, while a white cockade 
was conspicuously attached to his broad, flat blue 
bonnet. 

" Hout, sirs, ye hae a braw pair o' shoon on !" So 
saying, the warlike Celt halted abruptly before a 
small group of wondering spectators, and, as he spoke, 
cast a hasty downward glance, first at his own mud- 
bespattered, travel -worn, tattered, untanned leather 
brogues, and then surveyed, with earnest covetous 
eyes, the clean, trim, neat shoes adorned with large 
steel buckles, of a somewhat smartly dressed individual 
amongst the little group. This individual was Titus 
Hibbert, then a young man about seven and twenty 
years of age, slim of figure, and rather above the 
middle height, with a pleasant, good-tempered ex- 
pression of countenance, bright eyes, and brown hair 
tied with a black ribbon into a queue behind. 

Clad in their picturesque plaids of varied colours, 
green, purple, red, and bright scarlet, fastened round 
their waists by leather belts, and so arranged as to 
make vest and kilt in one piece, the army of Prince 



4 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Charles was nevertheless a ragged, bare-footed army, 
their shoes and brogues being almost worn off their 
feet. What wonder, then, that they should help them- 
selves to the shoes of others when they could, as it is 
recorded that they did, on more occasions than one ! 

" Hout, sirs, ye hae a braw pair o' shoon on ! " says 
the hardy mountaineer for the third time ; then, 
possessing as he did the vaguest possible notions of 
meum et tuum, quick as lightning, and to the amaze- 
ment of Mr. Hibbert, he whips off the " braw shoon " 
of the latter, amidst the laughter of both friends and 
foes, politely handing to the plundered Southerner his 
own mud-bespattered, tattered brogues. 

This hardy unscrupulous Highlander might have 
been a clansman of the Hurrays, led to fight for the 
cause of his legitimate sovereign by the gallant and 
intrepid Lord George Murray, always the first to 
rush, claymore in hand, into the midst of the enemy, 
and whose exhortation ever was, " I don't ask you 
to go forward, my lads, but only to follow me j" 1 or 
the unscrupulous Celt might have been a Stewart of 
the Clan Appin. Who can say ? Be that, however, 
as it may, unexpected and improbable things con- 
tinually happen in this world, and that the grandson 
of that same plundered Titus Hibbert should, nearly 
a century afterwards, marry the great niece of that 
same Lord George Murray was improbable ; and 
equally improbable was it that the writer of these 
pages should now be the wife of the great-grandson 
of the Manchester gentleman, so unceremoniously 

1 O'Collaghan's History of the Irish Brigade, p. 381. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 5 

unshod by the hardy Celt, who, if a Stewart, might 
perhaps have been a collateral ancestor of her own, 
for her great-grandfather, Dugald Stewart, a nephew 
of Appin, was one of the leaders of the clan at the 
battle of Prestonpans, where he lost a leg, having 
been the first officer who was wounded. 1 

It may be here remarked that it was generally 
the policy of the Highland chiefs, when the issue of 
an undertaking, like that of 1745, was doubtful, not 
to risk the forfeiture of their estates by personally 
taking part in it, but to permit the clan to go forth, 
led by some lack -land younger brother, nephew, or 
cousin. 

After the suppression of the insurrection of 1745, 
the town of Manchester, says Dr. Hibbert, in his 
History of the Foundations, vol. ii. p. 94, fell into 
a state of the greatest agitation ; commercial pursuits 
were, in a great measure, suspended, and poverty and 
distress prevailed on all sides. Indeed, the whole 
kingdom and Europe also were suffering under the 
miseries of a long and bloody war, nor did the sign- 
ing, a few years afterwards, of the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle ease the people of England of the heavy 
burden of taxation laid on them, and bring back good 
trade and prosperity to Manchester. 

Nevertheless, in spite of long and expensive wars, 
in which the English had little interest, and which 
were embarked in chiefly to protect the German 

1 In John Marchant's History of the Present Rebellion (1745), p. 
108, the circumstance of an officer having had his leg shot off is 
referred to. 



6 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE S 

dominions of King George, and in spite of heavy 
taxation and all that could cause depression and 
stagnation of trade, and in spite of the high price of 
corn and provisions, which often occasioned riots, as 
the "Shude Hill fight" in 1756, the trade of 
Manchester, writes Dr. Aikin in his Country round 
Manchester, page 184, published in 1795, was greatly 
pushed, during the forty years from 1730 to 1770, by 
the practice of merchants sending out riders with 
patterns in their bags (hence called " bagsmen ") to 
distant towns ; and, with its increased prosperity, 
foreigners were induced to reside in Manchester, 
which began to assume the style and manners of one 
of the commercial capitals of Europe. 

With trade prospering, renewed activity was dis- 
played amongst the merchants of Manchester, and 
before the year 1760 Titus Hibbert, as energetic as 
any of his commercial brethren, had established him- 
self on a firm basis, and we find him located in St. 
Ann's Square, then one of the best parts of the town. 

But the St. Ann's Square of that day differed 
much from the St. Ann's Square of to-day. At that 
time there were two rows of plane-trees planted along 
each side of the square, in front of the houses. The 
late Dr. Hibbert Ware often spoke of these trees as 
reminiscences of his boyhood ; and he would relate 
how St. Ann's Square was then a favourite lounge of 
the beaux or pretty fellows, as they were styled, of 
the day ; and how, when one day looking out of the 
play-room window, at the top of his father's house, 
he saw two officers quarrel and draw their swords 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 7 

upon each other, and one of them wound or " pink " 
the other, as the doctor expressed it, before they 
could be separated. 

Fashionable, however, as St. Ann's Square was, 
we learn from a writer in the Manchester Guardian, 
a few years back, that a cattle fair had been held in 
it for many centuries, and that, long after the stately 
houses in the square had been turned into shops, -this 
fair continued to be held on every 1st of October, 
till it became so intolerable a nuisance from the 
bellowing of cattle and the squeaking of unquiet pigs, 
that it was removed to Shude Hill and Campfield. 
But if the St. Ann's Square of the last century was so 
unlike the St. Ann's Square of 1882, so indeed was 
Manchester generally, and it may not be out of place 
here to quote a few words respecting Samuel Hibbert 
Ware's native town from the description of it by 
Marchant, the historian of the Rebellion, who wrote 
in 1746 : " Manchester," he writes, " stands near the 
conflux of the Irk with the Irwell, and is so much 
improved in this and the last century above its neigh- 
bours, that though it is not a corporation, nor sends 
members to Parliament, yet, as an inland town, it 
has perhaps the best trade of any in these north 
parts, and surpasses all the towns hereabouts in 
buildings and number of people, and its spacious 
market-place and college, . . . The fustian manu- 
factures, called Manchester cottons, for which it has 
been famous for almost one hundred and fifty years, 
have been very much improved of late by some in- 
ventions of dyeing and printing, which, with the great 



8 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKE'S 

variety of other manufactures, known by the name of 
Manchester Goods, as ticking, tapes, filleting, and 
linen cloth, enrich not only the town but the whole 
parish, and render the people industrious. As the 
Hague in Holland," continues that writer, " is deserv- 
edly called the most magnificent village in Europe, 
Manchester, with equal propriety, may be styled the 
greatest mere village in England, for 'tis not so much 
as a town, strictly speaking, the highest magistrate 
being a constable or headborough ; yet it is more 
populous than York, Norwich, or most cities in 
England, and as big as two or three of the lesser ones 
put together." 

Strangely altered, indeed, is Manchester during 
these past hundred years, in size, in appearance, in 
customs, and we can as little imagine St. Ann's Square, 
shaded with the leafy foliage of the rows of plane- 
trees, as we can imagine the clergy walking about the 
town in their cassocks and gowns, or the opulent 
merchant dining at one, and returning to his ware- 
house, which was usually at the back of his dwelling, 
about two o'clock, or his wife having tea-parties, often 
before five, and the good man himself coming home 
again to a heavy substantial supper, after the business 
of the day was over. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



CHAPTER II. 

Sylvanus Hibbert His pamphlet on the " State after Death." 

TITUS had a brother Sylvanus, and we may observe 
that these two unusual Christian names were family 
names in different branches of the Hibberts, and 
occur in the Stockport parish registers as early as 
the seventeenth century. As before noticed in the 
beginning of the last chapter, Titus Hibbert's mind 
appeared to have taken, when a very young man, a 
somewhat peculiar bent, as far as regards literature ; 
the same might be said of Sylvanus Hibbert, with 
this essential difference however, that the former did 
not let literature interfere with his worldly prospects, 
while the latter, neglecting other avocations, plunged 
into the reading of metaphysical works so far beyond 
his depth, and became so " mazed " in the considera- 
tion of the qualities of mind and matter, motion and 
space, and the immaterial, that he had in a great 
degree to lean upon his brother for things material. 

Between the years 1764 and 1776, when he died, 
Sylvanus Hibbert wrote many letters to his brother 
on metaphysical subjects, which that brother, with a 
lamentable want of reverence, styled " Sylvanus's 
conceits," and which the late Dr. Hibbert Ware col- 



10 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

lected together, writing at the same time, the fol- 
lowing memorandum on the "conceits" and their 
author : 

"Sylvanus Hibbert was deeply read in most of the meta- 
physical works of the time, and if, like many metaphysicians, he 
was wrong in his point du depart, he showed no less tact than the 
best of them, so far as relates to the strict logical manner in 
which he drew out his principles to their ultimate consequences. 
To the peace of mind, however, of Sylvanus Hibbert, in his latter 
days, these consequences, such as they were, were very annoying, 
as he was sadly afraid of his remains, after his death, being con- 
signed to their parent Earth, wishing, on the contrary, that they 
should be honoured with a funeral pile, after the manner of the 
ancients. Ridiculous as these ' conceits ' are, in the first blush of 
them, they flowed very naturally from the principles with which 
he set out relative to mind and matter." 

Here we must remark that one conceit, at least, 
or craze we should rather call it, would have found 
supporters in the present day. Sylvanus Hibbert, as 
an apostle of cremation, lived too soon ; he should 
have lived in these days. 

Not content, however, with holding within his 
own breast these conceits, as his brother termed them, 
Sylvanus wished to publish them to the world through 
the medium of the press, as the subjoined, quaint, and 
original letters of the would-be author show : 

ASHTON, "her 8th, 1764. 

DEAR BROTHER With my acknowledgment for all favours 
conferred, I adjoin this further request, that you would expose 
these my inducements, which I confess are most singular, to the 
fittest judge of any your acquaintance, in order to encourage or 
dissuade their publication. You will see they are designed for 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 11 

the Authors of the Monthly Review, and if you and your friends 
think proper that they be sent, direct them on the sheet they 
are included in, we having not at present any Eeview with 
proper directions. I send the postage by the bearer ; but once 
more, let me entreat you to post it off, or to send what objec- 
tions occur, for this, with me, is the prevailing motive. From 
your most affectionate brother, SYLVANUS HIBBERT. 

To Mr. TITUS HIBBERT, 
St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 

In another letter, dated 6th June 1767, the puzzled 
metaphysician writes to his brother : 

" I've put down some animadversions on your quaere, ' What 
can give life and motion to matter ? '" 

After the lapse of a few years, however, the meta- 
physical conceits of Sylvanus Hibbert took the shape 
of a pamphlet, entitled, " A Brief Inquiry into the 
State after Death, as touching the certainty thereof, 
and whether we shall exist in a material or immaterial 
substance, and whether the Scripture doctrine of a 
future state is supported by the light of reason : Flesh 
and blood cannot enjoy the Kingdom of Heaven, 
1 Cor. 1 5. Manchester : Printed for the Author, 
1771. Price Sixpence." 

A copy of this pamphlet, with a copper -plate 
engraving of the likeness of Sylvanus Hibbert, which 
the late Dr. Hibbert Ware, however, affirmed was an 
exaggerated caricature, as he had heard his older 
relations say, is in the Manchester Free Library. 

Sylvanus Hibbert died in Jannary 1776, but there 
is no record of his having had a funeral pile, in spite 



12 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of the pathetic appeal with which his pamphlet thus 
closes : 

" Bury me not, for Heaven's sake, 
In hopes that I must rise, 
If that's the object of my wish, 
Why not now mount the skies t" 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 13 



CHAPTER III. 

Another " Conceit " Perpetual Motion. 

POOR Sylvanus being now consigned to mother earth, 
and not burnt, alas ! as he wished to be, his brother 
Titus might reasonably have hoped to be henceforth 
at peace on the subject of matter and motion. The 
hope, however, if he entertained it, was destined to 
disappointment, for only three years later, a fresh 
enthusiast in the cause of motion addressed himself 
to the merchant. 

As the subject has something in common with the 
" conceits " of Sylvanus, we need scarcely apologise 
for anticipating the date of our narrative by a few 
years, and inserting here the following curious 
letters : 

MOSSLEY, 10th August '79. 

SIR Relying upon your good nature and generous behaviour 
towards me, I take the liberty to desire your opinion upon a 
particular concern. You would do me a very great service to 
send me a line, directed to me at Mossley, informing me what 
would be my most advisable course in my present circumstances 
and situation. 

I believe that from my acquaintance with the mathe- 
matics I have discovered a new principle in mechanics, whereby 
a machine may be constructed so as to retain within itself 
a constant part of any force which shall at once be applied 



14 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

to it, and will generate as much motion as will work mills, 
pumps, or other engines, such as are commonly wrought by 
water, wind, steam, etc. I have considered it mathematically, 
and also have made such experiments as I believed necessary to 
corroborate my theory, insomuch that it now only remains to 
have the machine made. I am not capacitated to get a model 
made upon my own bottom ; therefore a few friends have pro- 
mised to subscribe towards a complete model being made, upon 
condition that their money be returned if the machine answer. 
But now, sir, if the machine do answer, I am still at a loss which 
way to proceed to make my best advantage of it, and your 
opinion in this particular is what would greatly oblige. Sir, 
your very humble servant, JOSEPH WILLAN. 

N.B. My machine is what commonly bears the name of 
perpetual motion. 

P. S. The reason I suppose why such machines as I propose 
have not long since been made is because a great number of the 
learned have been discouraged from inquiry by building all their 
arguments upon the known properties of the mechanic power, 
and fancying that the properties already known were all the 
properties that belonged to them ; a great many great men, 
whose writings I have read, have argued in this manner. I am 
vastly pestered with a number of men in my neighbourhood who 
have read the assertions of great men without having thought 
themselves whether some of the arguments of their favourite 
authors were not hasty. J. W. 

My most respectful compliments to your son. 

I have read in the newspaper and in the London Review that 
the late Dr. Henrick had discovered some such machine as that 
which I propose, but not knowing whether it was anything more 
than a swell (sic) of the doctor, and nothing of the kind having 
appeared in the world, I have as great hopes of the success of 
my machine, as if I were the first inventor, whether I be or not, 
because I have not had the least assistance from any person. 

J. W. 
Mr. T. HIBBERT, Yarn Merchant. 

St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 15 

What reply Titus Hibbert made to Mr. Joseph 
Willan does not appear ; but the next letter from the 
latter, dated the 12th of February 1780, begins : - 

DEAR SIR Your favour of August last I received, and 
think myself particularly honoured by the good advice it con- 
tains. I should have wrote sooner to you upon the subject of 
my machine, but some doubts having arisen in my mind con- 
cerning its success, I was not willing to be at any expense until 
I had cleared every objection that offered. I have long known 
that the impossibility of a mechanical self-motion has never been 
proved, though all the means whereby it has hitherto been 
attempted to be done have either been mathematically demon- 
strated to be insufficient, or they have failed in practice. 

Then the writer goes on to say, that he is firmly 
persuaded that he has discovered a machine which 
will answer as a principle for working engines, and 
will find a constant supply of power from the joint of 
gravity and lateral ethereal tension. 

The machine (the writer continues) is not yet begun to 
be made, though a few of my neighbours have proffered to enter 
into a subscription towards putting it to the test, and have 
favoured me with their names to the enclosed proposal, which I 
take the liberty to present you with, requesting that you would 
show it to such gentlemen of your acquaintance as you believe 
to be friends to the Arts. 

Your account of Mr. Clare's machine for raising the Banker's 
Box was quite a riddle to me. I understood it not, till Mr. 
Hardy informed me how it was, from your description of it to 
him. I am, dear sir, your most obliged very humble servant, 

JOSEPH WILLAN. 

A postscript, as long as the letter, is appended, 
arguing the possibility of perpetual motion, and 
maintaining that the impossibility of such a move- 
ment is not a perfect axiom. 



16 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

To this letter Mr. Titus Hibbert appears to have 
replied by sending his subscription, through the 
before-mentioned Mr. Hardy, intimating, at the same 
time, that he had " no opinion of the proposed 
machine ever succeeding." 

This intimation called forth, after the presentation 
of thanks, a long letter closely written on three sides 
of foolscap, wherein Mr. Willan stoutly maintains his 
point, citing Mr. Emmerson, an able mechanic and 
writer, and after calling to his aid many mathematical 
axioms, he concludes : 

" If my limits here would permit I would give an universal 
refutation of any arguments that could possibly be advanced 
against a mechanical self-movement, by demonstrating the possi- 
bility of it. And if you can believe that I am able to know 
what a mathematical demonstration is, you must know that I 
need to ask no person's opinion to satisfy myself whether I be 
right or not. I therefore again desire that you would give your- 
self the trouble to get me a few subscriptions to my proposal, or 
I shall be obliged (through my fixed resolution made by my 
instructions) to publish the whole and throw away every hope of 
benefit to myself. Were you to show this letter along with my 
other papers, it might, perhaps, serve to convince that I am not 
misled for want of being acquainted with the principles of 
mechanics. I am desirous of having the papers returned as 
soon as possible, that I may the sooner get my mind exonerated 
of mechanical self-motion. I am, dear sir, your obliged very 
humble servant, JOSEPH WILLAN." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 17 



CHAPTER IV. 

A Dantzig commercial traveller's notes on Manchester customers 
Merchants and depositors of money. 

MORE than a century ago an important trade in linen 
yarn was carried on in Manchester. Titus Hibbert 
imported from Ireland and from Hamburg, Bremen, 
Dantzig, and other parts of Germany. He was a 
" foreign merchant," and as such, Diis cams ipsis, 
as Horace told us two thousand years ago ; and to 
whom even that aristocratic Tory, Edward Chamber- 
lain, allows a certain position in society, when he 
writes "that amongst the Commons of England, in 
the next place" (that is, after the yeomen having 
lands of their own to a good value, and living upon 
husbandry), " are reckoned tradesmen, among whom 
merchants of foreign traffic have, for their great 
benefit to the public, and for their great endowments 
and generous living, been of best repute in England." 
Chamberlain's State of England, Part I. p. 319. 
London, 1687. 

Among the papers of the late Dr. Hibbert Ware 
were found some stray leaves, which had evidently 
been the private memoranda of a commercial 
traveller for a Dantzig house. On these leaves he 

c 



18 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

had jotted down his business remarks on the different 
mercantile houses in Manchester, on whom he had 
called. We here annex a few extracts, which may 
amuse our mercantile readers : 

"Titus Hibbert imports sometimes yarns and linen, is a 
canny old gent n -, and may come to order. 

" Jebb and Twyford import yarn, but nothing from Dantzig. 

" Thomas Stott had already given his order for yarn, and if 
found reason to change, would do soon-, **~* D 

"Daniel Whitaker, large dealer in yarn, sometimes ( '. u 
may come to order. 

" Robert Grimshaw, a considerable manufacturer, sometimes 
imports, and may come to import 

" William Rigby, yarn, do import, but not a great deal e*^^. 

" De Ponthieu and Co. no more, Henry does business in 
London. 

" Rob*- and Nath. Hyde will continue do a good deal in 






"Hamilton orders from a relation of theirs, but may come 
to give us orders. 

" Josiah Birch and Sons, yarn, called thrice, but could not 

find him, talked the needful with his clerk, 

fLttJL 
"John Hill, jun.l,yarn and timber, an active bustling man, 

very proper for recommending our house Harriot and Hill. 

"Joshua Marriott, yarn and linen^ was gone to Germany. I 

*i Edward and^Willm. Borron^ in the Bolton velvets. 

"Thomas Chad wick, yarn, outrageous about his loss by 
Thome stirred up, I found, by P - , and finding him so, I 
did^not call on Mr. Battersby, both import considerably. 

" Nathaniel and John Philips^good obliging people, don't 
deal in yarn, but ready to render services, and may be of use by 
recommending. 

" Charles Ford does pretty largely in yarn, and may come to 
order. 

" John Poole and Son deal in yarn, and will in all probability 
give you an order next year. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 19 

" J. and J. Beever import little yarn at present, but may. 

"John Taylor may import yarn, and promises to give order. 

" John and James Entwisle, the greatest yarn importers this 
year, and if order the next will probably give you a good share 
of it but N.B. 

" William Hardman, the greatest dealer in ashes ; may per- 
haps come to order some. 

"John Potter, yarns very particular, talked of that affair, 
so nothing to be expected from him. 

"James Touchett, yarn said he dealt with Elliot's, so 
nothing to be expected. 

" Thos- Johnstone, yarn said he only did in Irish yarn. 

" Kobt- Hibbert and Co., yarn, but none from Dantzig gave 
them our firm, may perhaps ( . . . illegible). 

"James Clegg, yarn, mostly Irish. 

" Tho s - Tipping, Irish yarn, little in foreign, did not see 
him." 

In 1771 the first bank, pure and simple, was 
established in Manchester, as we are told by Mr. Leo 
H. Grindon in his interesting book on Manchester 
Banks, namely the " Manchester Bank," the partners 
in which were Mr. Edward Byrom, Mr. William Allen, 
the son of a Manchester merchant, Mr. Roger Sedg- 
wick, the son of a physician, and Mr. Edward Place ; 
but contemporaneous with the "Manchester Bank" 
was the house of John Jones and Company, tea 
merchants, of 104 Market Street Lane, which, after 
its removal to King Street, became of world -wide 
celebrity as the firm of " Jones, Loyd, and Company." 

At that early time, however, one department of 
banking namely, the depositing of money for safe 
custody was not entirely confined to the bankers. 
The merchants of Manchester were then in the habit 



20 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of receiving sums of various amounts from private 
individuals, for which they gave, by way of security, 
their notes or bonds, paying interest thereon at the 
rate of five per cent. These depositors were generally 
single ladies, professional gentlemen, private gentle- 
men, or the smaller tradesmen, residents in Manchester 
or in the neighbourhood. It is unnecessary to observe 
that the merchant receiving these deposits employed 
them in his trade, doubtless as much to his own 
advantage as that of the depositors. When the sums 
deposited were repaid by the merchant, his bonds, 
notes, or other securities, were given back to him. 
Of such there were several among the papers of Dr. 
Hibbert Ware. 

We here select a few names from a cash-book, 
dating from 1773, of Titus Hibbert and Son, of 
depositors of sums, varying in amount from 10 to 
upwards of 1000 ; for instance - 

Mrs. Mary Williamson, 10; Mrs. Sarah Potts, 50; Mrs. 
Isabel Eastham, 153; Mrs. Susanna Catterall, 225; Mrs. 
Elizabeth Percival (a relative of Dr. Percival), 590 ; Mr. John 
Moult, 900 ; Mrs. Margaret Moulson, 600 ; Mrs. Mary Guild- 
ford, 30; Miss Isabel Cash, 20; Mrs. Ann Bayley, 811 ; 
Mr. John Slacke (of Slack Hall, near Chapel le Frith), 850 ; 
Mr. Thomas Marriott, 1212; Miss Matty Hatfield, 1340; 
Thomas Percival, Esq., 650 ; and several other depositors. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 21 



CHAPTER V. 

Death of Titus Hibbert's wife The Presbyterian Chapel 
in Cross Street. 

" 22D FEBRUARY : Paid Mr. Mottersheacl for funeral 
discourse, 1 : Is." We simply quote this extract 
from the private account-book of Titus Hibbert for 
the year 1770, as showing the custom then prevalent 
of feeing the clergyman for preaching a special funeral 
sermon on the death of a relative. By the decease of 
his wife, a daughter of Mr. Thomas Heywood, prob- 
ably of Prestwich, and an ancestor of the late Mr. 
Thomas Heywood, surgeon, Titus Hibbert was left 
a widower with two children ; the elder, his son 
Samuel, then about twenty years of age, was the 
father of the subject of our present memoir ; the 
younger was a little girl, Hannah, barely eight years 
old. 

Mr. Titus Hibbert's wife was buried in the burial- 
yard of the Presbyterian Chapel in Cross Street, of 
which he was a steady supporter. 

It appears from an interesting little work, The 
Rise of Nonconformity in Manchester, by Mr. Richard 
Wade, lately published, that the Rev. Joseph Motters- 
head, who was the minister of that chapel for fifty- 



22 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

four years, had succeeded to Mr. Birch on the death 
of the latter in 1717. 

The Mosleys, the Lords of the Manor of Man- 
chester, were great patrons of the Presbyterian 
Chapel ; but they equally supported the Established 
Church, for Lady Bland, the heiress of Sir Edward 
Mosley, laid the foundation stone of St." Ann's Church, 
which was opened in 1712, the members of which 
were of the Low Church section. It is unnecessary to 
say that the congregations of St. Ann's and of St. 
Plungeon's, as the chapel in Cross Street was nick- 
named by many, were Whigs and Hanoverians. 

It has been thought by some, says Mr. Wade, that 
the place bore that name of St. Plungeon's, because 
the ducking-stool (for scolds) was plunged in the pool, 
in the croft called Poolfold, hard by ; but it is more 
probable that it was so called because it belonged to 
a family named Plungeon ; for in the list of eight 
hundred inhabitants of Manchester, who were ordered 
to take the oath of allegiance a few years before, there 
is the name " W. Plungeon." 

During the long ministry of Mr. Mottershead at 
the Cross Street Chapel, continues Mr. Wade, a great 
change of doctrine took place among the congregation, 
and a similar change occurred about the same period 
in most other English places of Presbyterian worship. 
Many of the eminent Presbyterian ministers went from 
Calvinism into Arminianism. This change went on 
gradually, but steadily, during the whole of the last 
century, and it was frequently the case that persons 
professing Trinitarian, Arian, and even Unitarian 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 23 

views, were members of the same congregation, and, 
where there were two ministers, as at the Cross Street 
Chapel, one was generally more advanced in hetero- 
doxy than the other. 

About the year 1780, however, several of the 
members of the Cross Street Chapel seceded, because 
Unitarianism was not sufficiently strongly preached, 
and they erected another chapel in Mosley Street, 
then quite a new street. 

The Hibberts adhered to the old chapel. 



24 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 



CHAPTER VI. 

Cost of living one hundred years ago. 

As the cost of living one hundred years ago may 
interest the housekeeping part of the inhabitants of 
Manchester of the present day, we may perhaps not 
be deemed tedious if we devote this chapter to such 
items as house -rent, taxes, articles of clothing, and 
consumption, and so forth, which we have selected 
from the old account-book kept by Titus Hibbert, 
when, on the death of his wife, he became his own 
housekeeper. 

The almost precise minuteness with which he 
entered down every item of his yearly expenditure 
shows that, though engaged in important commercial 
transactions, he was not above attending to the more 
trifling details of home expenses. But whatever he 
did he did thoroughly, and no man was more fully 
aware than he of the necessity of keeping a watchful eye 
on house-accounts as well as the mercantile ledger. 

As for the mercantile affairs of Titus Hibbert, he 
conducted them with probity and integrity, his in- 
variable maxim being, " Honesty is the best policy ;" 
" a rule," says an old writer, " to be observed by all 
men, but absolutely necessary for those engaged in 



LIVE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 25 

commerce, since they are more easily betrayed, 
unawares, into a breach of this rule, and more apt to 
palliate their sin, unless they are ever on their guard." 
But Titus Hibbert knew well, as we have just said, 
that not only must a man, to be successful, keep a 
watch over the management of his business concerns, 
but that the economy of his household must also be 
carefully supervised ; and his account -book shows 
how closely he adhered to this principle. 

The selection of various items we have made from 
this book will, we think, show exactly the prices of 
ordinary things a century ago, as compared with 
those of to-day. 

We will commence with house and warehouse, 
rent and taxes, and class other payments under 
different heads, giving items under each. 

The rents paid in 1770 will, we do not doubt, 
astonish tenants of 1882. However, it cannot but be 
gratifying to them to see how greatly Manchester has 
prospered in the course of one hundred years ! 

The house occupied by Titus Hibbert, and after- 
wards by his son, was that which ultimately came to 
be tenanted by Mr. Micah Furniss, jeweller. It stood 
at the corner of St. Ann's Square and St. Ann's Street 
until the year 1850, when it was taken down, to 
widen that street. The shop now occupied by Mr. 
James Furniss, jeweller, stands upon part of the site 
of the old house. It appears from Titus Hibbert 's 
account -book that for this dwelling-house he paid 
20 a year, in 1770, to Lady Houghton. The rent 
of the warehouse, at the back, in St. Ann's Street, 



26 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

which was held under Mr. Dawson, was 55. Since 
that period, hardly more than a hundred years, the 
rents of those premises have increased fifteen-fold ! 

The house next to that of Titus Hibbert, and 
which still exists in its original state, and is now 
in the occupation of Messrs. Coulbourn and Hulme, 
was leased, on the llth of November 1771, to Aulay 
Macaulay, the tea-dealer, for twenty years, at a rent 
of 38. 

Close to and facing one side of Titus Hibbert's 
house stood St. Ann's Church, the tower of which 
was, in his time, adorned with a cupola. This cupola, 
being deemed not very firm and steady, was taken 
down in the year 1779 and replaced by a steeple. 
In Titus Hibbert's account-book, in that year, we find 
an entry : " 24th May, paid subscription to St. Ann's 
Steeple, 2 : 2s/' This steeple (according to a MS. 
note of the late Dr. Hibbert Ware) was built in a 
spiral-like form, somewhat resembling St. Mary's ; but 
this new steeple was considered so unsafe, particularly 
during a " merry peal," that the inhabitants who lived 
adjacent to the church fled whenever the bells began 
to ring. 

Later on, when the trembling steeple was a thing 
of the past, Dr. Hibbert Ware remembered that, 
when a boy, a colony of rooks was located on the 
top of the church tower, and that he and his brothers, 
particularly his brother William, a mischievous lad, 
were wont to shoot at them with a cross-bow from 
the window of their play -room at the top of the 
house ; luckily, however, for the cawing colony, the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 27 

height of the tower must have placed them out of the 
reach of these incipient sportsmen, who, however, if 
they failed to disturb the rooks, disturbed the peace 
of mind of " Madam Bailey," a stately lady who lived 
on the opposite side of the square, where now stands 
Heywood's Bank, and who, whenever she happened 
to spy the young rogues in this diversion, would 
straightway cross over to Mrs. Hibbert and report 
what was going on above, out of her sight. 

A very stately lady, indeed, was this "Madam 
Bailey;" and she seems to have made a startling and 
enduring impression on the mind of the youthful 
Sam Hibbert, for in long after years, whenever he 
happened to encounter a stiff or severe -looking old 
lady, he would style her " a Madam Bailey." 

To come now to the taxes, etc., in 1770. The 
rates and taxes for Titus Hibbert's dwelling-house, 
which was rated at 15 ! were paid half-yearly ; these 
were : Poor-rate, 6s. ; highway-rate, 7s. ; window-tax, 
17s; house-tax, 3s. 9d. ; lamp-tax, 4s.; and the letter- 
carrier Is. a quarter. We do not find in the account- 
book any rate for police, and it is not until 1782 that 
we find any entry of this sort. In that year we read : 
17th December Paid Mr. Billinge subscription to- 
wards a night watch, 1 : Is. ; and again, 7th January 
1783, paid Mr. Philips for a watch on the east side of 
St. Ann's Square, 1 : Is. 

There was one tax rather obnoxious in the eyes 
of the Presbyterian, for we find entered, Paid Easter 
dues, " so called," 9^d. ! Other taxes were doubtless 
also obnoxious in the eyes of the British tax-payers 



28 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

generally, such as a tax of 5 per cent on all salaries 
of public officers above 1.00, a house-tax, and 6d. 
upon every window above fifteen. 

The gifts, or we may call them voluntary taxes, 
were trifling, being the Christmas boxes, always will- 
ingly paid ; gifts to the old quay men, Is. ; lamp- 
lighter, 3d. ; letter-carrier, 6d. ; porters, 2s., etc. etc. 

The prices of the ordinary articles of daily con- 
sumption were as follows : 

Butcher's meat in 1770 Paid Peter Low for 
13f Ibs. of beef, 3s. 3d. ; a leg of mutton, 10 Ibs., 
3s. 9d. ; a leg of lamb (in June), 6j Ibs., 2s. 8^d. ; 
8 Ibs. of veal (in August), 3s. 3d. ; calves' feet, 2d. ; 
a tongue, Is. 6d. 

Bread 2 dozen of flour, 3s. lOd. ; a loaf, 6d., 
also 5d. (but no weight is named) ; and manchets, i.e. 
small loaves of very fine flour, 3^d. 

Fish Salmon (in July), 2 Ibs., Is. Salmon, Dr. 
Aikin tells us, page 205, was brought in plenty from 
the Mersey and the Kibble, chiefly the latter. 

Vegetables Manchester, says the same author, 
was supplied with early potatoes, carrots, pease, and 
beans, from the sandy soil of Bowdon Downs. In 
the account-book of Titus Hibbert there is an entry 
of the payment of 2s. 6d. for half a load of potatoes 
in the year 1770. We are told that, not very many 
years prior to that period, these roots were cultivated 
only in the garden, and were considered a sort of 
luxury, and that they had not then been generally 
planted by farmers as a field crop. 

A ham weighing 27 Ibs. cost 6s. 9d. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 29 

Poultry For three chickens (in July) Is. 6d. was 
paid; for two fowls, 2s.; for two ducks (in June), 
Is. 6d. ; six pigeons cost 2s. 

A cheese of 13^ Ibs., from Mr. Joule, cost 3s. lid. ; 
for butter, 9d, and 8d. per Ib. were paid. 

Groceries Congo tea; bought of Aulay Macaulay, 
cost 8s. per Ib. ; hyson, 1 2s. ; souchong, 9s. ; Ib. 
of coffee, Is. 6d. ; and -J Ib. coffee, 3s. In sugar we 
find the following items : Paid for 4 1 Ibs. of loaf 
sugar, 1:3:11; for 8J Ibs. of blue sugar, 6s. (was 
this sugar wrapped in blue paper ?) ; brown sugar was 
5d. per Ib. ; sago, Is. 6d. per Ib. ; 3 Ibs. of rice cost 
8d. ; Seville oranges and lemons were Id. each ; and 
for 3 Ibs. of mould candles, six in the Ib., 2s. Id. were 
paid ; and Ib. of green wax taper cost Is. 3d. 

Fuel A load of coals of eighteen baskets to the 
load cost 9s. 9d. ; there is also in the account-book 
the following entry of a cheap (?) load : " Paid a 
lying fellow for a bad load of coals, 8s. 8d"! 

Wine and spirits Dr. Aikin says that in Man- 
chester, in the year 1720, home-made wines made a 
part in all feasts, and that when London or Bristol 
dealers came down to settle their accounts such wine 
was brought. This custom may have survived longer 
than 1720, for in Titus Hibbert's account -book we 
find the items : Two gallons of currant wine, 1 7s. ; 
and ten gallons of cider, lls. 8d. ; Mr. John Hadfield, 
Mr. Partington, and Mr. Samuel Mather, appear to 
have been the leading wine and spirit dealers in 
Manchester about the year 1770. 6 was paid to 
the latter for one-eighth of a pipe of wine. There is 



30 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

also an item : Paid Mr. Armstrong for three gallons 
of red port, " so called" 1 : Is. ! (at that time a white 
port wine was also drunk) ; and paid H. Mather for J- 
of a pipe of red port wine, 8 : 5s. ; also paid Mr. 
Armstrong for two gallons cognac brandy, 1 : 8s. ; 
two gallons of rum cost 19s. The measures of barrels 
of malt liquor not being stated, the price, compared 
with that of the present time cannot be estimated. 

Wages About 1770 a cook's wages were 5 a 
year, and a sweep for sweeping a chimney, 6d. ! and 
a few years later a day gardener was paid Is. 8d. a 
day. 

Physician's fees In 1770 Dr. Kay received the 
usual one guinea, and a few years afterwards, Dr. 
Percival the same ; but the ordinary medical attendant 
was an apothecary. 

Ladies' attire In the year 1778-9 Titus Hibbert's 
little daughter was then grown up to a young lady 
about the age of seventeen or eighteen, and we will 
pick out the prices of a few articles of clothing 7 
yards of blue silk, 2 : 5s. ; making a silk slip, 5s. ; 
green shoes, 4s. ; 3 yards of crimson broadcloth at 
19s. 6d., 2 : 18 : 6 ; 6 yards of sky silk for a petti- 
coat, 18s. ; 6^ yards of printed cotton at 3s., 19s. ; 
paid Walker for 5 yards of printed calico, 10s. lOd. ; 
paid for making a rochet, 2s. 3d. It was about the 
year 1773 that the manufacture of calicoes was intro- 
duced. At the risk of tiring our readers we continue 
to select further items : Two lawn handkerchiefs cost 
5s. 3d. ; 6 yards of printed muslin, 1:11:6; for 
^f yards of muslin at 8s., 9s. 6d. ; paid for 10 J yards 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 31 

of black lace, 16s. ; and for 3^ yards white lace 
at 3s. 8d., lls. 3d. ; a cap, 15s. ; another cap, 8s. 6d. ; 
paid for a straw hat, 3s. 6d. ; another hat, 10s. 6d. ; 
a chip hat, 2s. ; a riding hat, 16s. And a propos, 
there occurs in the account-book an entry : Paid John 
Whip (the saddler) for a pillion, 2:13:6. Prob- 
ably at the time this entry was made (1777) riding 
exercise had been recommended to Miss Hannah 
Hibbert, who was not strong. She would most likely 
ride on the pillion behind her brother ; but it was by 
no means unusual for ladies to ride in this manner 
behind any male relative, or even a man-servant, the 
lady steadying herself by taking hold of his belt. 

It may here, however, be mentioned, that riding 
was an accomplishment that was taught in Manchester 
at this period. In 1775 Mr. Deans, late riding-master 
of the Earl of Pembroke's dragoons, announces, in a 
newspaper of the time, that he will instruct ladies and 
gentlemen in the necessary principles of horseman- 
ship in the new riding school in the town : Terms, 
one guinea entrance, and one guinea a month for 
twelve lessons, horses being found by Mr. Deans, who 
also intimates that proper hours are set aside for the 
accommodation of ladies. 

Paid Mrs. Hooley for stays, 1 : Is. ; and paid for 
a wire hoop, 3s. ! ! I 

On this last interesting article of attire, a writer 
in the London Magazine for 1776, p. 605, tells us 
that lovely creatures have begun to transfer their 
attention from their fronts and faces to their backs, 
and that 'tis not for the prettiest face, but for the 



32 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

most expansive dress behind, that the ladies now 
contend ; and that every woman of fashion now 
supplies herself with a cork roundabout, which she 
conceals in the folds of her upper garment. 

But to proceed with our subject. The price of a 
pair of silk mittens was 3s. : a pair of shoes, 3s. 4d. ; 
and a pair of red shoes, 5s. 6d. ; two tiffany handker- 
chiefs, 4s. 6d. ; the prices of stockings were as follows 
a pair of silk ribbed stockings, 8s. ; thread stock- 
ings, 3s. 4d. ; and two pairs of cotton stockings, 6s. 2d. ; 
toed-clog pattens, 4s. 6d. 

Paid barber for cutting hair, Is. ; at another 
time, 6d. 

Miss Hannah Hibbert wore her own hair, un- 
powdered, even when grown up, as her portrait 
shows ; but, as there were fashionable ladies in Man- 
chester, it may be amusing to read the card of a 
certain Mr. Johnson, addressed to them in the local 
newspapers of the 30th July 1765. 

He announces himself as a hairdresser and cutter 
from Bath, and that he dresses in the highest taste 
in the English or French fashion ; likewise that he 
makes and sells ladies tetes, not distinguishable from 
their own hair, whereby a lady may dress herself in 
five minutes as completely as the best dresser in 
London can in two hours ; and after notifying that 
he has on sale cosmetics and balsam ointments for 
strengthening and colouring the hair, the industrious 
barber tells the ladies that he will dress their hair to 
keep its form for six weeks ! ! ! and that he is to be 
heard of at Mr. Benyon's at the bottom of Sugar Lane 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 33 

(wherever that may be) in Manchester. Are we to 
suppose that fine ladies slept with their hair dressed 
in form ? 

Male attire We select from Titus Hibbert's 
account-book some articles of men's clothing and the 
prices : Paid Samuel Birch for 2f yards of broad- 
cloth, 2:6:9; for 4^ yards of velveret for two 
pairs of breeches, 17s. Velverets, the Manchester 
annalists tell us, first appeared in 1763, and velveteens 
a few years afterwards. These goods were highly 
esteemed, not only over England, but in Europe, and 
were called " Manchesters." But to go on with the 
extracts : Paid for silk for two pairs of breeches, 1 ; 
knee buckles, 4s. 6d. ; silk and linen for a waistcoat 
piece, 5s. ; cashmere for a waistcoat, 10s. 

It appears to have been customary for persons to 
buy their own cloth in 1770 ; but later on, in 1788, 
two suits of clothes and the cloth cost 11: 4s. 
Messrs. Wright and Preston were tailors in Man- 
chester as early as 1770. 

Miss Sandford charged 3s. for making a shirt with 
ruffles, and for 3f yards for a shirt the price was 13s. ; 
the price of making a plain shirt was 2s. Irish cloth 
for shirts was 2s. a yard, and at 4s. a yard it was 
used for cravats ; silk gloves, 3s. 

Titus Hibbert, as appears from his portrait, wore 
what was called a full-bottomed wig, powdered white. 
His wigs cost 1 : Is. and 1:11:6, and seem to 
have been renewed about every couple of years. A 
wig box cost Is. 6d. Dr. Aikin, in his Country 
round Manchester, says that the price of a wedding 

D 



34 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

periling, at the beginning of that century, was 
2 : 10s. 

A hat cost 13s. About the year 1775 the hats 
manufactured in Manchester were, says Dr. Aikin, 
wrought by the felt-makers from fine Spanish goat's 
hair or wool from Germany, or the Levant, commonly 
called camel's hair, and were inferior in workmanship 
to none in the kingdom. 

The prices of shoes and stockings were as follows : 
Paid for shoes, 6s. 6d. ; for shoe buckles (steel), 
13s. 6d. Paid Mr. Fowler for two pairs of silk stock- 
ings, 1 : 10s. ; silk gloves, 3s. ; a pair of worsted 
stockings, 5s. ; a pair of thread stockings, 6s. ; a pair 
of white ribbed cotton hose, 5s. ; a pair of brown 
thread knit hose, 4s. 6d. 

There are also entries of prices of an article of 
general use now in wet weather, but which had not 
then been many years introduced into England 
Paid Mr. James Watson for an umbrella, 1 : 10s. ; 
and later, paid 5s. for a silk cover ; and for making 
two umbrellas, 1. These items occur in 1779. 

Before the introduction of umbrellas by Jonas 
Hanway, the well-known traveller and philanthropist, 
oil -cloth covers or hoods were worn by females to 
protect their bonnets from the rain. The first 
umbrellas were large and cumbersome, with heavy 
sticks and handles, and with strong brass rings to 
keep them close. They were not often seen in 
country towns and villages. 

Articles of furniture are passed over by us, because 
the prices paid for them depend on the tastes, luxuri- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 35 

ous or otherwise, of the purchasers ; but the value of 
silver in 1770 may be seen from the following entry : 
24th September, silver tankard, 24 oz. 9 pwt., 
7:5:6. 

Education In 1770 Titus Hibbert's little girl 
was, at her mother's death, about eight years old, 
when she was placed under the tuition of a lady in 
Manchester of the name of Heywood, with whom she 
continued to remain a few years. We find entries 
in the account-book from the year 1770 : Paid Miss 
Heywood 7s. 6d. for Hannah's quarter ; paid Mr. 
George Kellett for eighteen weeks' dancing and ball, 
1 : 17s. ; paid Mr. Whittaker for two quarters' writ- 
ing, 13s. 6d. ; and Mr. Kershaw was paid 9 for a 
spinet. A spinet was a small sort of harpsichord. 
The spinet had risen in price since the beginning of 
the century, for Dr. Aikin, in his Country round 
Manchester, writes, that at that time the price of 
one was 5 : 3s. 

An educated lady of the time of our great-grand- 
mothers would hardly pass the ordeal of a competitive 
examination of our days. We read in Humphrey 
Clinker that it was deemed enough for even a 
fashionable lady to write, spell, smatter a little 
French, dance, and play on the harpsichord. 

No surprise need be excited by the low prices 
which, as we have just seen, were charged in a 
Manchester day-school for a girl's education in those 
far-off days ; for in an advertisement in the Man- 
chester Mercury of 1768, Mr. Grimshaw of the 
Academy at Leeds notified that he had taken a large 



36 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

house in one of the best localities, furnished with 
every convenience, where young gentlemen might be 
genteelly boarded: if under ten years of age they 
would be instructed in English and the classics, with 
penmanship and accounts, at fifteen guineas a year ; 
and if from ten to fifteen years of age, they might be 
instructed in English, the classics, penmanship, arith- 
metic, mathematics, both speculative and practical, 
with necessary books, for seventeen guineas ; if any 
of the modern languages, the whole 19 : 5s. Wash- 
ing was included ; but drawing, dancing, and music 
were extras. Able masters were employed. 

There were two or three dancing -masters in 
Manchester in the year 1770, who advertised them- 
selves in the Manchester newspapers of the day. In 
1769 a Mr. Arnold Fisher, from the Theatre Royal in 
Covent Garden, London, begs leave to acquaint the 
public that he proposes to open a school in St. Ann's 
Square in May next, where all young ladies and 
gentlemen in the town and neighbourhood may ex- 
pect to meet with the politest treatment, and be 
taught in the most genteel and best manner. 

Continuing to glance over the pages of Titus 
Hibbert's account-book, they show us what periodical 
publications he was in the habit of reading. In 1770 
there is an entry : Paid Henry Whittaker a year's 
subscription to his paper, 6s. ; and paid for the London 
Evening Post for quarter of a year, 13s. 6d. ; for the 
Royal Calendar, 2s. ; and the London Directory of 
1774, Is. ; and paid 1:1:6 to Mr. Haslingden, a 
year's subscription for the Parliamentary Register, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 37 

This periodical appears to have come out in numbers, 
as there is in the account-book an entry of Is. for a 
lost number. 

As akin to education and literature, we may 
extract from the account-book a payment in 1773 of 
6s. for a year's subscription to the circulating library. 
The Manchester Circulating Library in King Street 
had been first instituted in 1756 ; but in 1770 a sub- 
scription library for promoting general knowledge had 
been opened. Payments for lectures may also be 
classed under the above heading, so on the 28th April 
1778 we see an entry Paid Peter Clare for a ticket 
for lectures on electricity, etc., 10s. 6d. This Peter 
Clare was doubtless the father of Friend Peter Clare, 
who afterwards also lectured on electricity, and con- 
cerning whom we shall hereafter relate an anecdote in 
connection with his experiments in that science. On 
the 18th November 1782 is an entry of payment of 
6s. for three tickets for Mr. Heron's lecture on heads 
(phrenology?); and on the 21st September 1783 
there is a payment of 4s. 6d. for tickets for Mr. 
Walker's lecture on astronomy for himself and Miss 
Hannah Hibbert. 

Under the head of amusements, we jot down the 
following entries in the account-book : 

March 1st (1770) Paid Mr. Whiteley for play 
tickets, 6s. ; these play tickets occur so frequently, 
more especially at Christmas time, as to indicate that 
Titus Hibbert, Presbyterian though he was, did not, 
like his Scottish co-religionists, consider the theatre 
to be the temple of the father of lies. The late Mr. 



38 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

John Harland says that in 1761, and later, the theatre 
was then held in the riding school in Salford, near 
Blackfriar Street, and the prices of admission were 2s. 
and Is., that companies from Drury Lane and Covent 
Garden possessed the theatre during the summer 
months (the Chetham Society Publications, vol. Ixxii. 
p. 57). 

In 1775 a new theatre in Spring Gardens was 
erected and placed under the management of Mattocks 
and Younger, and entitled the Theatre Koyal. Tim- 
perley and other Manchester annalists tell us that on 
the 29th of January 1777 John Philip Kemble made 
his first appearance in Manchester. 

But to return to expenditures. In 1 772, and after- 
wards, occur such items as, "chair to the concert," 
6d. ; "chair from the concert," Is. Before 1775 the 
concerts must have been held elsewhere than in the 
large room which was about that time erected in 
Fountain Street, and which could hold upwards of 
1000 persons. Chroniclers tell us that in that room 
there was a spacious orchestra for the performers, 
who were generally amateurs assisted by some profes- 
sional musicians. 

Flute-playing was much in vogue in the gentle- 
men's concert. 

Titus Hibbert appears to have made use of sedan 
chairs to convey him to concerts, etc. Dr. Aikin, in 
his Country round Manchester, tells us that in 1750 
there was a stand of hackney coaches in St. Ann's 
Square, but that these vehicles having been found 
less convenient for some purposes than sedan chairs, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 39 

the latter took the place of them. A sedan chair in 
the town cost 2s. As regards hackney coaches, the 
first entries of payments in Titus Hibbert's account- 
book are in 1793 and 1794 October 9th, paid for a 
stand coach, Is. 6d. ; and 28th April, paid for a stand 
coach, 3s. 8d. But chaises were always in readiness 
at the Bull's Head Inn in the Market Place, then the 
chief inn in the town. A chaise to Ardwick Green 
cost 2s. 6d. 

Besides the theatre and concerts, the good people 
of Manchester were entertained with flower shows 
even a hundred years ago. We read in Prescott's 
Manchester Journal of the 14th of August 1773 an 
advertisement of a show of flowers addressed " to all 
gentlemen florists." 

In 1776 a pack of playing cards cost Is. 2d. In 
truth, we fear that the Presbyterian Titus Hibbert 
indulged in other unsaintly amusements besides cards, 
plays, and concerts, for we meet with an entry in 
his accounts in 1782, 12th July: A chaise to the 
races, 6s. ! 

But there is one other amusement which we must 
not omit to mention, which, though barbarous, was 
considered passably genteel at the period of which we 
are writing cock-fighting ! Such advertisements as 
the following, illustrated with two cocks about to 
engage, are of common occurrence in the local papers 
of 1770 : 

A main of cocks will be fought at the new cock- 
pit, top of Deansgate, Manchester, on Monday the 
23d, Tuesday the 24th, and Wednesday the 25th, 



40 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

instant, March, between the gentlemen of Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, for two guineas the battle and twelve 
guineas the main. The cocks to be in the pit each 
day at eleven in the forenoon, and half-past three in 
the afternoon. To be fought in metal heels. 

HENRY BALL, ) . 

-/r -r^ {feeders. 

MATTHEW DICKY, ) 

Plays! horse - racing ! cards! and cock-fighting! 
What wonder that John Wesley, when, in July 1787, 
this celebrated field preacher visited Manchester, as 
we are told in vol. ii. p. 169 of the Collectanea, 
published by the Chetham Society, predicted that in 
1836 would come THE END or THE WORLD! 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 41 



CHAPTEE VII. 

" Titus Hibbert and Son " The Duke of Bridgewater's canal- 
boats Stage-coaches or "flying-machines." 

ABOUT the year 1771-2 Titus Hibbert took his son 
into partnership, and henceforth traded as the firm of 
" Titus Hibbert and Son." 

Young Samuel Hibbert commenced his commercial 
life by making a journey to Chester to attend the 
fair, where Irish yarns and linens were offered for 
sale. His letter to his father, dated Chester, October 
12th, 1772, begins, according to the custom of the 
time, " Hon d - Father," and ends, " Hon<*. Father, 
Your Dutiful Son." These expressions sound to our 
nineteenth century ears rather stilted and quaint, 
but yet, do we not run a little too far into the 
contrary extreme, and is not the lack of respect to- 
wards " the governor," often too plainly shown by the 
youth of to-day, both in their words and actions ? 

In this letter Samuel Hibbert speaks of having 
made the journey from Warrington to Frodsham on 
foot with two friends, and "viewing the Duke of 
Bridgewater's famous works at Runcorn ;" and then 
he proceeds to say that the weather becoming in- 
different and the roads being bad, they hired a chaise 



42 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

to Chester, which they found very crowded in con- 
sequence of the fair. 

Samuel Hibbert, wishing, like many other young 
men, to combine business and pleasure, made a part 
of his journey by way of the Duke of Bridgewater's 
canal, which had not then been long opened. 

At the time of which we are writing, the Castle 
Field at Manchester and the Quay were, as Mr. 
Harland tells us in his Manchester Collectanea, the 
resort of genteel strangers at stated times, to take the 
benefit of the passage boats on the canal, or the 
Irwell, as pleasure or business invited them. These 
boats went to Altrincham, Warrington, Runcorn, 
Liverpool, Chester. The " Duke's barges " went from 
Manchester to Altrincham in two hours. 

We can well imagine how agreeable and easy 
must have been the motion of the canal-boat, gliding 
smoothly through the water, as compared with the 
jolting and rumbling of the stage-coach, with the 
additional misery of the inside passengers, in hot 
weather, -when sitting closely packed together. 

The king's highways ! and turnpike roads ! one 
might expect that the roads should have been toler- 
ably good, for so far back as about the year 1748 
toll-gates had been established in different parts of 
England, exacting a toll from travellers with horses 
and carriages, in order to defray the cost of repairs ; 
but so bad was their state that in many places they 
were cut up with ruts from one to two feet deep, into 
which, by way of repairing them, were tumbled heaps 
of loose stones, that had the effect of saving the axle- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 43 

trees from breaking, it is true, but of almost dislocat- 
ing the joints of the unfortunate travellers. The 
highwaymen, or " gentlemen of the road," says that 
caustic Frenchman, the Abbe Le Blanc, in his letters 
from England, are almost the only surveyors, and the 
Government lets them exercise their jurisdiction upon 
passengers almost without molestation. In no other 
country in the world, says this satirical French writer, 
is the public good so much talked of and private 
interest so much pursued. 

Small wonder was it that with roads in the con- 
dition represented, coaches should have taken so long 
to accomplish even short distances. 

A few advertisements from Manchester papers of 
the day will better illustrate the tediousness of coach 
travelling in the times of our grandfathers and grand- 
mothers ; nor in the good old coaching days were 
accidents at all unfrequent, to say nothing of the 
chances of being stopped by the Abbe Le Blanc's 
" highway surveyors." 

In the Manchester Mercury of 1761 we read that 
a "flying -machine" travels from London to Man- 
chester in three days ! setting out from Mr. Eadford's, 
the Royal Oak Inn, in Market Street Lane, and lies 
at the George Inn in Derby the first night, the 
Angel in Northampton the second night, and at the 
Swan with Two Necks, Lad Lane, London, the third 
night. Each inside passenger is to pay 2 : 5s., and 
to be allowed 14 Ibs. weight of luggage, all above 
that is charged 3d. per Ib. ; outside passengers and 
children on the lap to pay half price. The journey 



44 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

will be performed (God willing) by Mr. Samuel 
Glanville. Places are to be taken, and parcels are 
taken in at the Eoyal Oak Inn in Manchester, and at 
the Swan with Two Necks in London. 

Twenty years later, in 1781, we find travelling to 
London so far improved that passengers were only 
two days on the way. " A new, elegant, and com- 
modious London post-coach" is advertised in the 
papers of the day to set out from the Eoyal Oak Inn, 
Market Street Lane, every Sunday, Tuesday, and 
Thursday morning at four o'clock 1 to breakfast at 
Buxton at nine, to dine at Derby at half-past two, to 
stop at Leicester at half-past eight, sup and sleep 
there, and set off again at four the next morning ; 
breakfast at Northampton at nine o'clock, dine at 
Dunstable at half-past two, and arrive at the Bull and 
Mouth Inn in London in the evening. The inside 
fare was 2 :2s., and each passenger might have a 
servant on the outside at half-price. " Short passen- 
gers" 3d. per mile inside and l^d. outside. 

And now we will close our extracts respecting the 
stage or " flying coaches," as they called them, with 
one more, showing, as we have said, that accidents 
were not unfrequent. 

In the London Magazine of 1770, p. 486, we read 
"that it were greatly to be wished that stage- 
coaches were put under some regulations as to the 
number of persons and quantity of luggage carried by 
them. Thirty -four persons were in and about the 
Hertford coach this day (Sunday, 2d September), 
which broke down by one of the braces giving way. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 45 

One of the outside passengers, a fellmonger from the 
Borough, was killed upon the spot ; a woman had 
both her legs broken, another had one leg broken, 
and very few of the passengers, either inside or out, 
but were severely bruised." 

There were, about the middle of the last century, 
as we learn from the Directories, stage-coaches running 
between Manchester and the neighbouring towns, but 
either the days or the hours of their starting, or some 
other reasons, seem to have prevented their being 
much used : be that as it may, there is no entry in the 
account -book of Titus Hibbert of any stage-coach 
fares; but from 1770 forwards there are very many 
entries of payments for chaises : as in 1770, chaises to 
Oldham, 8s. ; and in same year chaise to Stockport, 
lls. 6d. ; horse-hire to Ashton, 4s. ; chaise to Ashton, 
6s. ; a chaise to Eingley, 6s., and turnpike, Is. ; and 
in 1776 the fare by the pleasure-boat to Lymm was 
2s. 8d., and 2s. 6d. back to Manchester ; chaise to 
Blackburn, 18s. ; to Bury, 9s., and driver and turn- 
pike, 2s. 8d. ; a chaise to Bullock Smithy, 14s. ; and 
to the Spout House at Marple, 14s., and so forth. 

As we have remarked at the beginning of this 
chapter, Samuel Hibbert made his first entry into 
commercial life by a journey to Chester, during which 
he contrived to combine business with pleasure, so 
we find him, when visiting Drogheda for the purpose 
of attending the market there for linen yarns, taking 
advantage of a little leisure to ride in the stage-coach 
to Newry to see, as he writes to " Honored father," 
a little more of the country. 



46 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Nuisances and obstructions in the streets of Manchester Subscription 
for making improvements, and names of subscribers. 

AMONGST all the busy crowds that now throng the 
streets of Manchester, but few individuals, probably, 
as they jostle their fellow-pedestrians in its broad, 
handsome thoroughfares, ever cast a backward glance 
into the past state of their old city ; and yet, to go no 
farther back than a hundred years, what marvellous 
changes have been wrought in this great manufac- 
turing town I Stately public buildings, such as the 
New Town Hall and the Exchange, had not yet been 
called into being, and in lieu of such fine thorough- 
fares as Market Street, Portland Street, Mosley Street, 
Oxford Road, etc., the Manchester man of the last 
century had to traverse, in order to reach his home 
or his warehouse, a network of tortuous narrow 
streets, where not only manifold inconveniences beset 
his path, but absolute danger from various causes. 

To take only Market Street, or Market Street 
Lane, as it was then called, we have but to glance at 
the lithographic views of Old Manchester, published 
in 1825 by Mr. James, to see how narrow was that 
busy street, hardly, indeed, half the width it now is ; 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 47 

what a total disregard to uniformity or regularity 
was shown in the quaint old houses, some brick-built, 
many with plastered walls, crossed and recrossed with 
massive black timbers, and with overhanging gable 
ends, that almost excluded any view of the narrow 
strip of sky overhead. There was no Exchange Street 
then, and a passage, called the " Dark Entry," wide 
enough only for one carriage, was the sole thorough- 
fare from the Market Place to the fashionable St. 
Ann's Square. 

Such being the state of one of the main streets of 
Manchester, and of others to which we have not 
referred, it is not surprising that the notice should 
have been issued to which Mr. C. W. Bradley alludes 
in his Memorials of St. Ann's Church. "In 1771," 
he writes, " a notice was issued to the effect that, 
With the approbation and concurrence of the magis- 
trates, we the boroughreves and constables request the 
shopkeepers and innholders of this town who have not 
already taken down their signs to do the same as 
soon as possible, and place them against the walls of 
their houses, as they have been long and justly com- 
plained of as nuisances. They obstruct the free 
passage of the air, annoy the passengers in wet 
weather, darken the streets, all which inconveniences 
will be remedied by a compliance with our request, and 
be manifestly productive both of elegance and utility. 
THOMAS SCOTT, BENJAMIN BOWER, JOHN BELL." 

The state of the streets in Manchester was not 
likely to be better than that of the streets of the 
metropolis itself, where the very same nuisances, and 



48 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKE'S 

indeed much worse prevailed, as we may read in the 
petition to Parliament of the Commissioners of Sewers 
and Paving, set forth in the London Magazine for 
1766, p. 504. 

The streets of Manchester certainly stood in need 
of improvement, and accordingly a meeting was held 
by the merchants and others, at the Bull's Head 
Tavern, in order to consider the subject. 

It appears from a document, headed " Manchester, 
2d March 1775," and printed on a large sheet of 
paper by J. Harrop, opposite the Exchange, that 
previously to that year there had been considerable 
discussion and no little disagreement as to the im- 
provements to be made in the town. 

The first paragraph of this document begins " We 
whose names are hereunto subscribed being desirous 
of restoring the peace and harmony of the town, and 
willing to join in any general approved mode of 
raising money in order to render some of the narrow 
streets and passages more commodious, do hereby 
severally agree that we will, within three months 
from the date hereof, pay the several sums of money 
set opposite to our respective names, into the hands of 
such person or persons, as a majority, in value of the 
subscribers of 20 or upwards, shall appoint, after the 
subscription shall be filled for the purposes hereafter 
mentioned." 

These purposes were stated to be The buying 
of property in Old Millgate and St. Mary's Gate, to 
widen those thoroughfares, and also property between 
the Exchange [namely, the Old Exchange, which then 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 49 

stood where the large lamp in the Market Place now 
stands) and St. Ann's Square, in order to widen the 
passage to the latter. Six valuers were to be named 
by the subscribers and six by owners, whose property 
was to be taken ; and in case there should be owners 
unwilling or incapacitated to sell, then application 
was to be made to Parliament. Mr. John Chippen- 
dale, the secretary of the subscribers, certified, on the 
25th of July following, that the sum total subscribed 
was 10,771 : 3 : 6. The names of the subscribers, of 
whom there are upwards of 600, are ranged alpha- 
betically. Amongst them we notice out of this large 
number a few : as Mr. Holland Ackers, who gives 
60 ; Messrs. Allen, Sedgewick, and Company, the 
bankers, 100 ; Mr. Joseph Armstrong, 5 ; Lady 
Assheton, 50 ; Messrs. James and Robert Ash worth, 
10; John Astley, Esq., of Duckinfield, 150; Roger 
Aytoun, Esq., 100; Mr. Joseph Baron, 10; Messrs. 
Thomas and William Barrow, 40 ; Thomas B. Bay- 
ley, Esq., F.R.S., 100 ; Messrs. John and Jonathan 
Beever, 10 ; Michael Bentley, Esq., 10 ; Thomas 
Birch, Esq., of Ardwick, 50 ; Messrs. Edward and 
William Borron, 21 ; Mr. William Blackmore, 110 ; 
James Burchall, M.D., 20 ; James Bradshaw, Esq., 
10 ; Mr. William Bullock, 31 : 10s. ; Messrs. John 
Bury and Sons, 21 : Mrs. Byrom and Miss Byrom, 
60; John Chadwick, Esq., of Healey, 10; Mr. 
Peter Clare, 1 ; Messrs. John and Ashworth Clegg, 
20 ; Samuel Clowes, Esq., 100 ; the Earl of Derby, 
105; Mr. Edward E. Deacon, 5; Mr. James Darby- 
shire, 1 ; Samuel Egerton, Esq., Talton Park, 105 ; 

E 



50 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Messrs. J. and J. Entwisle, .50 ; the Rev. Charles 
Ethelstone, 20; Mr. Charles Ford, 100; Messrs. 
Ford and Rawlinson, 42 ; Mordecai Green, Esq., 
50 ; Messrs. George and John Grimshaw, Anden- 
shaw, 20 ; Mr. Samuel Goodier, 5 ; Mr. William 
Hanson, 5 ; Mr. R. E. Hall, 21 ; Mr. Samuel Hall, 
10 ; Mr. William Hardman, 20 ; Mr. John Hard- 
man, King Street, 10 ; Messrs. Harrison and 
Houghton, 80 ; Mr. Dyonesius Hargreaves, 2 ; 
Mr. Samuel Harrison, 2 : 2s. ; Mr. Joseph Harrop, 
21 ; Mr. Thomas Hatfield, 20 ; Mr. Thomas Henry, 
5 ; Mr. John Hadfield, 21 ; James Hey wood, Esq., 
London, 100; Mr. John Heywood, 5; Messrs. 
Robert and Samuel Hibbert, 60 ; Messrs. Titus Hib- 
bert and Son, 10 : 10s. ; Mr. William Hill, St. Mary's 
Gate, 1 ; James Hilton, Esq., of Pennington,_40 ; 
Mr. Robert Hindley, 10 ; Messrs. Robert and Nathan 
Hyde, 60 ; Messrs. John Jones and Sons, 21 ; Mr. 
William Jordan, 10 ; Samuel Kay, M.D., 20 ; 
Messrs. Leaf and Walker, 10 ; Messrs. Leigh and 
Darwell, 20 ; Mr. John Leigh, 5 ; Mr. Joshua Lin- 
gard, 5 ; Mr. Aulay Macaulay, 5 ; Peter Mainwaring, 
M.D., 20 ; Messrs. John Markland and Sons, 100 ; 
Mr. Joshua Marriott, 50; Mr. Nathaniel Milne, 10; 
Francis Mosley, Esq., 21 ; Messrs. R. Nay lor and 
Company, 20 ; Mr. John Olivant, 5 ; Messrs. Aaron 
Orme and Sons, 20 ; Thomas Percival, M.D., 20 ; 
Messrs. Thomas Philips and Company, 60 ; Messrs. 
Nathaniel and Faulkner Philips, 60 ; Mr. Matthew 
Pickford, 10 ; Messrs. James, Thomas, and Benjamin 
Potter, 50 ; Mr. William Rigby, 100 ; the Earl of 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 51 

Stamford, 100 ; Roger Sedgewick, M.B., 100 ; Mr. 
John Shaw, 10 ; Mr. Thomas SyddaU, 5 ; Mr. John 
Taylor, Alport Town, 5 : 5s. ; Mr. Charles Taylor, 
5 ; Mr. Joseph Tipping, 21 ; Mr. Thomas Tipping, 
100; Humphrey Trafford, Esq., 100 ; Mr. James 
Touchet, 20 ; Mr. C. White, F.R.S., 31 ; Mr. John 
Whipp, 5 ; Mr. Benjamin Luke Winter, 21 ; Rev. 
Dr. Wray, 10; Caril Worsley, Esq., 105; Messrs. 
Worsley and Worthington, 21. 

Many of the Manchester streets, which are now 
only business streets, and Deansgate, which, until 
within the last few years, was decidedly a very low 
neighbourhood, then contained the residences of the 
gentry, and even of titled ladies, as well as the lead- 
ing merchants. 

Lady Duckinfield lived at No. 8 King Street, and 
Lady Sempill in Deansgate ; Lady Assheton in Brown 
Street, and Dr. Deacon, surgeon, in St. Mary's Gate ; 
the Misses Byrom in Quay Street, and the Rev. 
Charles Ethelstone in Deansgate ; Mr. John Hardman, 
fustian manufacturer, in Deansgate ; Miss Touchet 
in Brazenose Street, and Mr. James Touchet, check 
manufacturer, in Pall Mall ; Charles White, surgeon, 
lived in Market Street Lane, and Ottiwell Wood, 
fustian manufacturer, in High Street. 

The name of Ottiwell Wood suggests an anecdote 
which is told either of that gentleman or of his son, 
of the same name, who afterwards went to Liverpool. 
He was fond of sporting, and having got leave from a 
friend to shoot over his estate, went out one day with 
dog and gun. By accident he unwittingly strayed on 



52 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

to the land of an adjoining proprietor. Very soon a 
gamekeeper confronted him and demanded his name. 
" Certainly," replied Mr. Ottiwell Wood, and " I will 
spell it for you too ;" and he began " 0-double-t-i-w-e- 
double-Z W-Aouble-o-d /" Any one spelling this in 
a quick tone, as did Mr. Wood, may easily picture to 
himself the perplexity of the honest gamekeeper. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 53 



CHAPTER IX. 

Miss Sally Ware Robert Ware, Esq., of Dublin The Lancashire 
Militia Tim Bobbin and Miss Ware. 

DEAR SALLY Having an opportunity by Mrs. Kyniston, I 
write to acquaint you I reed- yours, and shall be happy to have 
the pleasure of seeing you whenever it suits your conveniency, 
and that I am very much surprised never to receive a letter from 
your father since he left us here. Pray let me hear from you soon, 
and say if your mother has gone to visit the camp. 

I have no time at present to say more, than that I am, with 
great sincerity, your respectful friend, 

ELIZA BICKERSTAFF. 
Preston, Monday evening, 10 o'clock, 
To Miss Ware. 

We have given this hasty note as an introduction 
of Miss Ware, to whom this present chapter chiefly 
relates. Our readers will perceive that she was ad- 
dressed by her friend as " Dear Sally." Those were 
the days when Peggy and Betty and Molly and 
Sally were the names most in vogue amongst the 
fair sex, and Jack and Tom and Ned and Dick 
amongst the gentlemen ; " metis nous avons change 
tout cela," and nowadays Edith and Maud and Blanche 
and Percy and Ernest and Herbert and Reginald, 
and such grand names, have pretty well relegated the 
plain old familiar ones into the shades of oblivion. 



54 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

For ourselves, we must plead a liking for the latter, 
which have to our mind something honest and frank 
and cheery and, in short, English in their very sound. 
But perhaps we are too conservative in this our idea 
in these days of progress. 

And now having introduced Miss Sally Ware by 
name, we will say something further about her. She 
was the only daughter, by his first marriage, of an 
Irish gentleman, then a lieutenant in the Grenadier 
company of the Koyal Lancashire Militia, and the 
paymaster of the regiment. The headquarters of 
this corps, which at that time consisted of only one 
regiment, were generally at Manchester, often at 
Liverpool, and also at Preston. In the latter town 
Miss Sally's father had doubtless made the friendship 
of the Bickerstaffs, a friendship which lasted many 
years, and only ended with the deaths of the parties. 
To judge from a portrait taken in her youth, Miss 
Ware was an intelligent-looking and pretty girl, with 
fine hazel eyes and a lively expression of counte- 
nance, and the comeliness of her face and the neatness 
of her figure are perceptible, spite of the unbecoming 
fashion of her head-dress, trussed and turned up into 
a lofty pile, or her wide expansive hoop. Her hair 
was dark brown, for she used no powder. We will 
now shortly relate how it came to pass that Miss 
Ware's father had left Ireland and entered the Lan- 
cashire Militia. 

It appears from the rent-roll of the City of Dub- 
lin, which is given in Harris's History of that City, 
published in 1766, page 485, that before that year 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 55 

Kobert Ware, Esq., had a house in Castle Street. 
Some short time before then he had lost his wife, who 
left him an only child; and to make his situation 
worse, he had spent the whole or nearly the whole of 
his fortune. In this predicament he determined upon 
entering the army, and in order to be free to act 
according to his inclination, he confided his daughter 
Sarah, then a little girl about nine years old, to the 
care of his mother, Mrs. Margaret Ware, nee Fitz- 
gerald, of a Catholic family of that name, located near 
a town called Street, in Westmeath. 

The costly and sanguinary Seven Years' War, 
between England and her German allies against the 
French, was then being carried on, and Mr. Pitt, 
deeming that an expedition against the coast of France 
would oblige the French to weaken their army in 
Westphalia, in order to defend their own seaboard, 
and thus enable Prince Ferdinand to strike some 
decisive blow, decided upon sending a naval and 
military force to reduce Belleisle. Accordingly, an 
armament, consisting of ten ships of the line, under 
the command of Commodore Keppel, and about ten 
thousand land forces, commanded by General Hodgson, 
sailed from Spithead on the 29th of March 1761. A 
body of gentlemen volunteers, along with whom was 
Robert Ware, joined this force. The ships anchored 
before Belleisle on the 7th of April. A successful 
landing was made on the island, and the siege of 
Palais, its capital, was commenced with vigour, and 
its garrison, commanded by the brave Chevalier de St. 
Croix, made a gallant defence. The besiegers opened 



56 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKE'S 

numerous trenches, and the besieged made a succession 
of well-concerted sallies, in which the English lost a 
great number of men. It was in one of these sallies 
that Robert Ware was severely wounded. The ob- 
stinacy of the enemy only stimulated the ardour of 
the British troops, and at last they carried Palais by 
assault, and entered the streets, pell-mell, with the 
flying French. The latter having retired to the for- 
tress, a place of extraordinary strength, held it for 
some days, when the gallant St. Croix, seeing no 
prospect of relief from his own friends, capitulated 
on the 7th of June. 

This victory was purchased with the lives of two 
thousand British soldiers ; and though the object with 
which the expedition was undertaken had failed 
utterly in its ultimate aim, the taking of Belleisle was 
celebrated by the English populace with bonfires, illu- 
minations, and every expression of tumultuous joy, 
and, says Mr. Cormick in his continuation of Smollett, 
contributed no little to their military pride, which 
found vent in doggrel songs, composed by starving 
poets on the happy occasion ; one of which the late 
Dr. Hibbert Ware sometimes hummed, and began 
thus: 

" At the siege of Belleisle, 
I was there all the while," etc: 

The wound of Robert Ware had been received 
whilst endeavouring to save an officer in the trenches, 
when the French were making one of their desperate 
sallies. It was very severe, and in a part of the leg 
that disabled him for a long time from active service. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 57 

The name of the officer whom he saved was Bur- 
goyne, a connection of Lord Derby. Instead of 
returning to Ireland when the campaign was over, 
this circumstance, doubtless, introduced Robert Ware 
to the Royal Lancashire Militia, of which Lord Derby 
was the Colonel. Not being connected with Lanca- 
shire by birth, and not having the property qualifica- 
tion in the county required by the Militia Act of 
1757, Robert Ware could not have held a higher com- 
mission than that of lieutenant, but his situation as 
paymaster of the regiment entitled him by courtesy 
to rank as a captain. According to the Act just 
mentioned, each officer of militia was required to 
possess a landed property qualification in proportion 
to his rank a lieutenant-colonel or major was to 
have land worth 300 a year, a captain 200 a year, 
a lieutenant 100 a year, an ensign 50 ; and one- 
half of the qualification was to consist of land within 
the county (Gentleman's Mag., 1757). 

It may not be uninteresting to some of our Lan- 
cashire readers if we subjoin a list drawn out by 
Paymaster Ware of the officers of the Royal Lanca- 
shire Militia. The regiment was 800 strong, rank 
and file, as required by the Act, and its officers 
were 

Colonel Lord Derby. 

Lieut. -Colonel Chadwick. 

Major Cross. 

Captains Shaw, Walker, Buckley, Hill, William- 
son, Hampson, Machell. 

Captain-Lieutenant King. 



58 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Lieutenants Stainton, Hawkridge, Drinkwater, 
Ogden, Winstanley, Scott, Lithrop, Aspinall, Ware, 
Dodgson, Duke. 

Ensigns Jordan, Parkinson, Scott, Whitaker, 
Fowler, Moss. 

Mate Gell (does Mate mean Assistant Surgeon ?). 

Lieutenant Robert Ware, Paymaster. 

In 1779 the following additional names occur in 
the Paymaster's list : Ensign Seddon, Captain Holt, 
Ensign Pickmore, Captain Kenyon. 

Not very long after he had entered the militia, 
Robert Ware found favour in the eyes of a Derbyshire 
lady. The Lancashire Militia then, as in after years, 
when it consisted of several regiments, was as fine a 
body of men as any corps in the kingdom, so we can 
believe that it was the man himself, still in the prime 
of life, tall, well-built, and good-looking, and not his 
red coat, that made an impression on the lady's heart. 
To our mind, indeed, nothing could look more formal 
and less attractive than the military uniform of that 
day. The gallant son of Mars had his hair plastered 
and powdered and tied up behind in a queue or pig- 
tail ; he wore a three-cornered cocked hat, adorned 
with a black cockade, styled by the Jacobites the 
Hanoverian cockade to distinguish it from the white 
cockade of Prince Charlie ; and if a grenadier, his tall 
figure was made to look still taller by a lofty sugar- 
loaf-shaped hairy cap, like those with which Hogarth's 
picture of the march through Finchley has familiarised 
us ; a long skirted red coat, the skirts of which being 
hooked back, exposed the blue facings of the regiment 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 59 

to view ; whilst a pair of leather breeches and long 
black gaiters completed the costume. 

As we have remarked, we believe that it was not 
this stiff formal uniform but the wearer of it that 
found favour in the lady's eyes ; for, besides being 
good-looking, Robert Ware was of a gay and somewhat 
rollicking disposition. But to do him some justice, we 
must add that, notwithstanding all this, he was fonder 
of books than might have been expected, and he pos- 
sessed a small but well-selected library, consisting of 
such works as Sir James Ware's History and Anti- 
quities of Ireland (Harris's edition, 1766), Ho well's 
History of the World, Cowley's Works, Camden's 
Britannia, Josephus's Antiquities, Rapin's England, 
Swift's Works, the Gentleman's Magazine, and some 
few other books of the same class. 

But it is time we should name the lady whom 
Robert Ware led to the altar to become his second 
wife ; she was a daughter of Mr. John Slacke of Slack 
Hall, near Chapel le Frith. This family, we may ob- 
serve, is now represented by the Rev. William Barnes- 
Slacke, to whom Thomas Slacke, Esq., M.D. and J.P., 
who succeeded to the estate on the death of his elder 
brother, devised it in tail male, and failing such issue, 
to the eldest son of his friend Dr. Samuel Hibbert 
Ware. 

In the year 1763 Mrs. Ware presented her hus- 
band with a little girl, whom he named Margaret 
after his mother ; and a few years after the birth of 
little Peggy, as she was always called, Robert Ware 
sent for his eldest daughter Sally from Ireland. 



60 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Two daughters and a wife now constituted his 
" heavy baggage," to use an ungallant expression of 
the gentlemen of the sword, when the regiment was 
ordered to move from place to place ; but Kobert 
Ware always had a fixed home for his family, either 
at Liverpool, Preston, or Manchester, chiefly the latter 
town. They were also frequent visitors at Slack Hall. 

When Miss Sarah Ware left her native country to 
join her father's family in Lancashire, she was almost 
grown up to womanhood ; but brought up as she had 
been by an old lady, in a remote part of Westmeath, 
it is not surprising that she was somewhat unsophisti- 
cated, of which the following little episode is a proof. 

She had been invited to a dinner party, to which 
had also been asked the author of the dialogue 
between " Tummus o' William's o' Margit o' Roaph's 
and Meary o' Dicks o' Tummy's o' Peggy's," we mean 
Mr. John Collier, alias " Tim Bobbin." In the course 
of the dinner, a gentleman sitting next to Miss Ware, 
not knowing that she had just come from the Green 
Isle, and thinking that every one present had heard 
of Tim Bobbin, said to her in an undertone, as he 
glanced towards the opposite side of the table, " That 
gentleman is the celebrated Tim Bobbin." It was the 
fashion then, and a very annoying fashion it was, espe- 
cially for young and bashful people, for everybody to 
drink everybody's health. This drinking each other's 
healths, writes the caustic Abbe* le Blanc, is only an 
excuse to drink hard, and men invented this piece of 
politeness to palliate the vice of getting drunk and 
thus gratify their own taste for wine ; and at the same 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 61 

time force others to conform to it ; and so it happens 
that the more drunken a man is, the more polite he 
is. The healths not only of all present, continues the 
Abbe*, but the healths of absent persons, are proposed 
by all present, and all are obliged to drink to them 
under pain of being considered very unpolite. Young 
gentlemen toast their mistresses, merchants their 
correspondents, and parsons their bishops, or success 
to the Protestant succession, and confusion to the 
Pope and the Pretender. 

All the company at dinner were now politely 
drinking each other's health, and conformably to the 
custom, Miss Sally Ware, bashful and half-frightened, 
as we can easily imagine, began the round of health 
drinking. Making a bow to one and then to another, 
with " Your good health, Mrs. A. Your good health, 
Mr. B. Your good health, Miss C.," she then bowed 
to the old gentleman on the other side of the table, 
saying with admirable innocence, " Mr. Tim Bobbin, 
your good health." The laugh was general, and un- 
sophisticated Miss Sally, unconscious of having said 
anything absurd, blushed scarlet up to the very roots 
of her hair, and felt as if she could like to sink into 
the earth. 

Our Lancashire readers know who Mr. John 
Collier alias "Tim Bobbin" was; so, for those who 
do not belong to the county, we will merely say that 
he was born in 1708, and according to Dr. Aikin, at 
a village near Warrington, of which his father was 
curate. Tim, says that author, was a good companion 
and loved company, and company loved the droll 



62 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

humour of Tim. He often spent hours with persons 
of good fortune in the neighbourhood of Milnrow, 
where he lived. The hautboy and flute were Tim's 
favourite musical instruments. His poetry consisted 
chiefly of humorous rhymes, which vastly amused his 
friends ; and his droll and clever caricatures are well 
known in Lancashire. A Manchester gentleman, 
named Kershaw, lent him an old edition of Chaucer 
of 1561, with which he was so delighted, that he 
penned in it, in beautiful black-letter characters, some 
lines in imitation of our ancient poets. This old 
volume was given by Mr. Kershaw to Titus Hibbert, 
and is still in the possession of that gentleman's 
family. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 63 



CHAPTEE X. 

The American War of Independence Manchester Petitions, etc. 
John Wesley's "Calm Address" Replies to it A Debating 
Society in Manchester Mr. George Duckworth. 

WHEN George III. succeeded to the throne of his 
grandfather in the year 1760 he succeeded also to a 
war on the Continent, which had lasted seven years, 
burdening England with a debt of more than one 
hundred and forty millions. Out of this disastrous 
war sprang the disputes which at last separated the 
States of America from the mother country ; for the 
Minister, in laying taxes for the supplies, determined 
that, as a great part of the expenses caused by that 
war had been incurred by the protection afforded to 
the American colonies against the French, it was but 
just that they should contribute to their payment. 
An Act was therefore passed for levying a stamp-duty 
in America, the same as in England. 

The Americans were indignant ; they remon- 
strated, but without effect ; they took up arms, and 
by the year 1776 hostilities had spread all over 
America. 

The kingdom was divided into two parties on the 
American question, each of whom were highly excited, 



64 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

indeed almost violent in the advocacy of the side they 
had espoused ; and addresses were sent up from every 
county and large town to the king, the Tories advo- 
cating severity and coercion, whilst the Whigs, fearing 
lest, if they remained silent, it might be imputed to 
them that they were consenting to the opinions of the 
opposite party, presented counter-addresses. Accord- 
ingly, the Lancashire petition was initiated, which 
prays His Majesty "to exert his royal influence for 
the restoration of peace between Great Britain and 
the American colonies by such means as may put a 
stop to the dreadful and destructive consequences of 
a most unnatural civil war." The petition bears for 
its title " The Humble Address and Petition of the 
Gentlemen, Clergy, Traders, and Freeholders of the 
County Palatine of Lancaster," and was presented to 
the king on the 18th of December 1775 by the Right 
Hon. Lord George Cavendish, Lord Richard Caven- 
dish, and Sir Michael Le Fleming, Bart. It had the 
signatures of upwards of four thousand persons in 
different towns and districts of Lancashire, and after 
having been presented to the king it was printed by 
Mr. C. Wheeler of Hunter Lane, with the names of 
the signatories. 

We here transcribe names from the Manchester 
list : 

Robert Hibbert , Robert Hamilton ; Nathaniel 
Philips : Thomas Percival, M.D. ; William Stopford, 
B.A. ; Robert Kenyon ; John Philips ; Samuel Hib- 
bert ; John Withington ; Thomas Philips ; Isaac 
Moss jun. ; Joseph Atkinson ; James Naylor; Joseph 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 65 

Barrett ; Joseph Heywood ; Samuel Hibbert jun. ; 
Samuel Kay, M.D. ; Samuel Kenyon; Richard Naylor ; 
Daniel Gaskell ; William Rawlinson ; Benjamin Gas- 
kell, Clifton Hall ; Titus Hibbert, St. Ann's Square ; 
Moses Hatfield ; Samuel Mather ; Samuel Hardman ; 
Samuel Hibbert, St. Ann's Square ; John Kershaw ; 
J. C. Perzoldt ; Richard Taylor jun. ; John Taylor ; 
Samuel Withington ; William Lyon ; Thomas Ashton ; 
Thomas Withington ; Daniel Whittaker; Peter Poulet; 
John Howarth ; Isaac Ford ; William Mayor ; John 
Venables ; John Lawrence ; Aubrey Oakley ; Thomas 
Eccles ; Joseph Lawrence ; John Hardman ; Joseph 
Clarke ; Thomas Davenport ; John Warren ; Samuel 
Burgess ; John Swift ; Robert Warren ; William 
Garnett, clerk ; John Lord ; George Massey ; Richard 
Gregson ; Robert Holt ; Matthew Kirk ; Richard 
Hardman ; James Clegg ; Thomas Hatfield ; John 
Mangnall; James Hey wood ; Edward Siddall ; Richard 
Taylor of Ardwick ; John Green ; Thomas Nuttall ; 
Joseph Bealey ; Jer. Valentine ; Thomas Ogden ; 
Joseph Stopford ; John Radcliffe ; Thomas Carril 
Worsley of Platt ; Archibald Bell ; William Hardy ; 
John Pilkington ; John Grimshaw ; John Hobson ; 
William Ashton ; Isaac Lees ; Samuel Hatfield ; John 
Wylde ; James Chadwick ; George Webster ; Charles 
Wood ; John Hampson ; John Shawcross ; John Hay- 
hurst ; John Ogden ; John Gartside ; Peter Wright ; 
Peter Gee ; Richard Walkden ; Robert Grimshaw of 
Gorton ; John Kenworthy ; Robert Massey ; Edward 
Hilton ; James Royds ; John Pendlebury ; Thomas 
Kersley ; Thomas Walpole ; William Darkin ; John 



66 SAMUEL HIBBEHT WARE'S 

Lever; Bold Cooke ; William Falkner ; James Ward ; 
Win. Wilkes Blackmore ; Miles Dixon ; Daniel 
Byers ; John Goodwin ; Thos. Stringer ; John 
Weatherhead ; John Bigby ; James Barratt ; John 
Oldham ; David Tomlinson ; Thomas Birch ; Thomas 
Bradshaw; John Hulme; William Aldred; Samuel 
Dearden ; John Siddall ; Joseph Brierley ; James 
Hague ; George Barlow ; Thos. Crichlow ; Ralph 
Simister ; John Chorley ; Dan. Greenwood ; Joshua 
Oldham ; John Rudd ; George Catlow ; Thomas 
Worthington ; Solomon Bancroft ; Richard Beddes ; 
William Harrison ; Ottiwell Wood ; John Travis ; 
Matthew Rylance ; Rev. Timothy Priestley ; John 
Boulthea ; Benjamin Whitelegg ; Henry Barrow ; 
George Hibbert ; James Marshall ; William Edge ; 
John Thornelly ; John Leatherbarrow ; James Long- 
worth ; Thomas Fielding ; John Holland ; Samuel 
Mann ; William Darrand ; John Hey wood ; Rev. 
James Matthews ; Edmund Buckley ; John Parting- 
ton ; Aaron Orme ; Allwood Gilbert ; Rev. Robert 
Gore ; Rev. John Sudd Fermer of Monton ; Jo. 
Edensor; Rev. Joseph Lawton Siddal of Chorley; 
Edmund Chad wick; Samuel Goodier ; Edward Booth; 
Thomas Barton ; John Hartley ; William Ramsbotham ; 
Daniel Shelmerdine ; Rev. Ralph Harrison ; Benjamin 
Aspinall ; James Lodge of Castleton Hall. 

In this time of public excitement the Rev. John 
Wesley issued his noted pamphlet, espousing the 
part of the Government, which called forth a torrent 
of replies from the opposite party. The pamphlet 
was entitled, A Calm Address to our American 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 67 

Colonies, by John Wesley, M.A., with the following 

motto : 

" Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assuescite bella, 
Nee patrice valutas in viscera vertite vires." VIRGIL. 

This address began Brethren and countrymen, 
the grand question which is now debated (and with 
warmth enough on both sides) is this, Has the English 
Parliament power to tax the American colonies ? 
To this pamphlet, which answered the question pro- 
pounded in the affirmative, there were Constitutional 
Answers to John Wesley, Replies to Vindications of 
the Calm Address, Second Answers to John Wesley, 
and not a few very scurrilous pamphlets, as might be 
expected ; as, for instance, one published by M. Lewes 
of Paternoster Eow, entitled, "An Old Fox tarr'd 
and feather'd, occasioned by what is called Mr. John 
Wesley's Calm Address to the American people," by 
an Hanoverian. On its title-page an old fox is repre- 
sented in gown and bands, and the author begins 
thus : " Whereunto shall I liken Mr. John Wesley, 
and with what shall I compare him ? I will liken 
him unto a low and puny TADPOLE in divinity, which 
proudly seeks to disembowel an high and mighty 
WHALE in politics. For it came to pass, some months 
since, that Dr. Samuel Johnson set forth an EIGHTEEN- 
PENNY pamphlet, entitled, Taxation no Tyranny. 
And some days ago a Methodist Weathercock saluted 
the public with a TWOPENNY paper (extracted by 
whole paragraphs together from the aforesaid doctor), 
ycleped, A Calm Address to the American Colonies" 

Nor was the Sister Isle behind England in con- 



68 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

tributing her share of abuse of the Calm Address. A 
pamphlet made its appearance, bearing the title, " A 
Wolf in Sheep's Clothing; or, An old Jesuit Unmasked : 
containing an account of the wonderful apparition of 
Father Petre's ghost, in the form of the Rev. John 
"Wesley, with some conjectures concerning the secret 
causes that moved him to appear at this very critical 
juncture." The author assumes the name of Patrick 
Bull, JEsqre., and charges Is. 6d. a dozen, or 10s. a 
hundred, for his lucubrations. 

Titus Hibbert also took a part in the controversy 
raised by the publication of Wesley's Calm Address. 
Incited by his zeal for the liberty of the subject, which 
he considered infringed by the attempt of the English 
Parliament to tax the colonies against their consent, 
he plunged into print. 

The following is a rough draft of a letter addressed 
by him to " the authors of the Monthly Review : " 

MANCHESTER, November 29, 1775. 

GENTLEMEN Inclosed I send you a small publication which 
made its appearance here agreeable to its date. 

The author of it never published anything before, nor ever 
intended to appear in print, but seeing such inconsistencies, such 
unconstitutional principles, and such falsities wrote and published 
by aged gravity, and swallowed by the credulity of almost every 
age, and no one in these parts standing forth to stem the torrent 
of such corrupt and prevailing principles, he was excited to the 
work by a love to his king, his country, and our happy constitu- 
tion, mixt with real concern for the weakness of many, and an 
honest indignation at the wickedness of some. Mr. Wesley's 
Calm Address has been circulated through many counties : in 
these parts gratis, one impression at the expense of the Corpora- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 69 

tion of Liverpool, I am informed, and another impression free to 
the public at another town in this county. The inclosed publi- 
cation sells here at a penny to promote its circulation : if it 
gains your approbation the author will flatter himself it is not 
without some merit ; but whatever may be its merit, the author 
cannot be divested of the merit of meaning well. Gentlemen, 
your very humble servant, 

A LOVER OF TRUTH AND THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION. 

To this quaint epistle the following reply was 

received : 

MIDDLE TEMPLE, January 25, 1776. 

SIR I should have thanked you sooner for the pamphlet 
and the letter with which you favoured me, but that I was out 
of town. The eagerness and assiduity with which the arbitrary 
and unconstitutional doctrines of Mr. Wesley, miserably as they 
are maintained by him, have been received and propagated, is 
a melancholy proof how much of the Tory Jacobitical leaven 
still remains in the kingdom. Happily for America, happily for 
the rights and liberties of this country and of mankind, there is 
not enough of it beyond the Atlantic to taint the constitutional 
principles of the smallest villages through the whole Continent. 
I have put your very sensible strictures into a hand where I am 
promised they shall be communicated to the public. Indeed the 
old political profligate has been already so much exposed, that 
perhaps compassion may succeed to punishment urged to severity. 

I am happy that the appeals meet with approbation. If 
they, in any degree, promote the cause of truth and liberty, they 
will entirely answer the intentions with which they were written. 
There is another entitled a Speech, intended to have been 
delivered in support of the petition from the General Congress, 
which contains more information relative to the grievances and 
proceedings which have occasioned this most ruinous war. I 
shall always be happy in being favoured with any occasion of 
promoting the public cause. I am, sir, your most obedt. 
servant, ARTHUR LEE. 

To Titus Hibbert Esq., 
Manchester. 



70 SAMUEL H1BBERT WARE'S 

The pamphlet published by Mr. Titus Hibbert, 
and referred to in the foregoing correspondence, is 
not in the possession of the editor of this memoir ; 
but she has seen a rough MS. draft of a paper of his, 
entitled, " Letter to the Rev. John Wesley, occasioned 
by his Calm Address to the American Colonies" 
This letter is signed, "A Lover of Truth and the 
British Constitution," and fills twelve large sheets of 
draft paper, closely written. 

But neither the suffering nor general distress caused 
by a disastrous war, nor a more than usual severe winter, 
very much like three winters we have recently had, 
appear to have interfered with public amusements 
and enjoyment. 

" I had an exceeding good journey to Huntingdon," wrote 
Mr. Robert Holland of Burton -on -Trent to his cousin John 
Slack jun. of Slack Hall, on the 15th of February 1776, "and 
was greatly entertained with the music at Hinchbrooks ; Gardini 
led the band, which consisted of upwards of seventy performers, 
vocal and instrumental. There were several oratorios and con- 
certs performed, besides which a great number of catches, glees, 
etc. I went to Cambridge and called upon a gentleman that 
showed me all the university. I was agreeably detained by the 
snow at a gentleman's house eight or nine days. Brother Jack 
was at York when I heard from him last; he was upon his 
journey that snowy Sunday, and had he not been very stout, he 
must have perished in the snow. He got to a gentleman's house, 
who entertained him very hospitably, and a gentleman along 
with him, whom he found upon the road, and who, without his 
assistance, must have perished inevitably. I am, with our united 
best wishes and respects, your affectionate 

"ROBERT HOLLAND." 

Love affairs also went on as if happiness prevailed, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 71 

and there were neither distress nor misery in the 
country nor cruel wars, civil and foreign ; for about 
this time the young merchant, Samuel Hibbert, had 
succumbed to the usual fate of mankind he had 
fallen in love with Miss Sally Ware I In his case, 
however, the course of true love, as in many other 
cases, was not altogether smooth. The father of the 
young lady was of that party who wished to coerce 
the American patriots by force of arms, and he was 
very violent in his politics, while the Hibberts, on 
the other hand, were zealous supporters of peaceful 
measures. Thus it happened, that though Samuel 
Hibbert continued to pay his addresses to Miss Sally, 
their union did not take place until after her father's 
death. 

There was at this time a debating society in 
Manchester, and among its members there were John 
Slack jun., Samuel Hibbert, and George Duckworth, 
a lawyer, who, it may be observed, rose to great 
eminence in his profession, and was the founder of a 
firm of solicitors of very high standing in Manchester. 
In after years one of his sons was made a Master 
in Chancery, and his daughter married Judge 
Coltman. 

This worthy lawyer, who, on account of the skill 
he showed in his profession, was called " The Legal 
Star of the North," appears to have had little sym- 
pathy for those suffering from the tender passion ; at 
all events, he evinced slight compassion for his friend 
Sam Hibbert, as we may see from the following letter 
to John Slack jun. 



72 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

MANCHESTER, 6th Deer. 1776. 

DEAR SIR I gave your questions to Mr. Hibbert yesterday, 
but I suppose, through some unexpected disappointment in love, 
he was in too low spirits to attend a meeting of the Committee. 
He says they have several questions upon the carpet, and he 
thinks they will not admit any other till Christmas. There was 
a very poor debate last night, the nature of the question not 
admitting of a better. The next night's question is, " Are the 
pleasures of the understanding superior to those of the imagina- 
tion 1" And I expect a very good debate upon it. Mr. Ware 
is gone to Knowsley to-day to see Lord Derby. Please to make 
my best compliments to your father and mother, whose recovery 
I ardently wish for. I am, dear friend, your most obedient 
humble servant, GEORGE DUCKWORTH. 

N.B. I had forgot to tell you that Mr. Hibbert thought 
two or three of your questions had been debated. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 73 



CHAPTER XL 

Mr. John Holt of Walton Canal-boat travelling. 

IN that very interesting and useful volume, the List 
of Lancashire Authors, edited by Mr. Charles William 
Satton, Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free 
Library, and published for the Manchester Literary 
Club in 1876, Mr. John Holt is recorded as born at 
Hattersley, near Mottram, in Longendale, in 1744, 
and as having died on the 21st of March 1801, at 
Walton, near Liverpool, where he had lived for about 
fifty years. In this list of Lancashire authors it is 
stated that Mr. John Holt was the author of Lanca- 
shire Agriculture, 1795, and other works. The writer 
of these pages has been told by a friend, that about 
the year 1832 he saw a copy of Mr. Holt's work on 
agriculture, and that, to the best of his recollection, it 
is a large octavo volume, and has an engraved full- 
length portrait of the author, as he sits reading in his 
easy-chair. 

One of the other works of which Mr. John Holt 
was also the author is in three volumes, small octavo, 
and is entitled, Characters of the Kings and Queens 
of England, selected from several Histories, with Ob- 
servations and Reflections chiefly adapted to common 



74 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

life, with Notes Historical. This work, published by 
Messrs. Eobinson, Paternoster Row, London, 1786, 
was intended chiefly for youth, and the notes ap- 
pended by the author to illustrate the manners and 
habits of common life, trade inventions, etc., at dif- 
ferent periods of English history, show a great amount 
of industry and research. 

An intimate friendship appears to have existed 
between this gentleman and Mr. Titus Hibbert and 
his son Samuel, and particularly with the latter, who 
was near his own age, and with whom he frequently 
made pedestrian tours. 

A couple of Mr. John Holt's letters may interest 
the reader, especially one in which he describes a 
journey in a passenger boat on the Duke of Bridge- 
water's canal, which, as we have observed in a former 
chapter, was then a new mode of travelling. 

Where blanks occur in the letters, the part has 
been torn or rubbed away. 

Deer. 10th, 1777. 

DEAR SIR Last night after I had just laid my head upon 
the pillow, a proper time for meditation, you know, a journey to 
somewhere or other next summer popped into my head. Ay, 
and I will ride in my one-horse chaise with my new horse too 
(for I have just bought one). I hugged myself some time how 
nice that would be, till in popt No, I will not ride but walk, by 
way of novelty. What signifies whether I go ten or twenty 
miles per day. I can see the world more perfectly too ; I can stop 
to talk with this one, chatter with that mark how their pro- 
vincial dialect alters in a certain given space ; in short, I can see 
the world as it is, for I will call at every house as I go along 
when I am tired or want to make a push, why, I will hire a 
chaise then, and not till then. I was quite exulting in this 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 75 

reverie till, pop ! starts a thought how is the luggage to be 
carried, my lad ? I immediately turned that objection out of 
doors by saying, I will have some sturdy chubby little lad to 
trudge after me with my shirts, etc., upon his back. Oh, that 
will do to a minute, says I. Ay, but will it not be better to 
have somebody for company, to talk, converse with, somebody 
to observe to and with ? Some one to whom I can say, How 
enchanting the spot ! How beautiful that landscape ! Why yes, 
it will be better, and the lad will carry both our (torn away). I 
thought now I had quite completed ... to be altered for the 
better when . . . whispered in my ear, unreasonable ... to 
load a fellow-creature with it ... while you are enjoying, re- 
galing and ... at your ease . . . under the weight of a bundle 
of cloaths. Fie ! and oh, fie for shame ! how can ye ? To 
pacify this troublesome and impertinent intruder, I proposed the 
servant should have a horse with a portmanteau for our cloaths, 
and that he should ride and take care of our cloaths, and that 
we would trudge on foot and gratify our eyes. To this no 
objection being made, I quietly composed myself to sleep. 

In the morning, as soon as I had dressed myself, I took pen, 
ink, and paper, and scribbled the above, so that you have it 
piping hot and after one night's digestion upon the brain. In 
the summer, I propose a journey, but have not yet fixed where, 
in company with somebody, I do not yet know whom, and the 
plan of travelling I have not yet agreed what. You and I have 
sometimes talked of going together, but have only talked. Pray 
let me know whether you intend to make an excursion, and if 
you do, when 1 whither ? and how 1 And if it will suit both 
parties, we will strike hands and go together. My paper admits 
no more, therefore adieu, J. HOLT. 

The one-horse chaise which Mr. Holt mentions in 
this letter was probably a very homely conveyance 
for country use, seeing that between the years 1770 
and 1780 there were even in Manchester only three 
privates carriages kept, and of these two belonged to 
medical gentlemen, and the other to Madam Massey 



76 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

(see Manchester Collectanea, vol. ii. page 183, of the 
Chetham Society's Publications). What a contrast to 
the style of the present day ! 

Writing from his residence at Walton, on the 23d 
July 1778, Mr. John Holt, after thanking Mr. Samuel 
Hibbert for civilities received during his visit at Man- 
chester, describes his journey home by the Bridge- 
water canal, as follows : 

My journey in the boat as far as Altringham was very dis- 
agreeable not owing to the mode of travelling, as I experienced 
afterwards, but to a crowded boat, for after we had unshipped 
about half our cargo at the before-mentioned place, satisfaction 
and comfort almost instantaneously sat upon the countenance of 
every passenger. We had an opportunity of going aloft or 
staying below, as fancy suited, and sitting perfectly at our ease. 
The good women and others who had provided for that purpose, 
drew out of their pockets gooseberry pies, cold tongue, cold 
beef, etc., and I was a partaker of their bounty ; in short, we 
became one family, and chatted, laughed, and sang the remainder 
of our passage. I changed my former opinion, and was quite in 
love with this new mode of travelling. 

By-the-by, your postmistress in Manchester ought to be 
chastised for a breach of duty ; she had never put my letter in 
the bag, which your father saw me pay for, so had neither 
dinner or chaise provided for me at "Warringtou. I got a con- 
veyance in one of the Liverpool stages, alone with a Quaker. 
Whether it was owing to his gloomy looks and paucity of words, 
for he seldom exceeded Ay or No, or some other cause, I know 
not, but I came home with a violent headache. 

News from America that our Commissioners are quarrelling 
inter se, and that the Congress refuse to hearken to their terms. 
A pretty pickle we are in, to be sure. Human events are so in- 
tricate, so unaccountable to every one but Him who can see all 
things, that I have left forming conjectures, and leave the dis- 
posal to that Being who knows what must be. Adieu, Sir, 

J. HOLT. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 77 



CHAPTER XII. 

An Extravagancy ; or, London, and " the Young Man from the 
Country." 

WE have already mentioned that the course of true 
love betwixt Mr. Samuel Hibbert and Miss Sally 
Ware did not run quite smooth, and that the obstacle 
was probably a mutual coolness on the part of their 
respective sires, caused by the wide difference in their 
political opinions. 

Nevertheless, the love affair of the young people 
continued to progress, slowly indeed, as we may well 
imagine the gentleman thought, for he was an ardent 
lover, yet he solaced his feelings by frequently penning 
lengthy epistles, one of which we style an " Extrava- 
gancy," to his charmer, who was visiting her friend, 
Mrs. Bickerstaff, at Preston. But before we set forth 
his " Extravagancy," we will notice one or two of Mrs. 
BickerstafFs letters, as they afford a fair specimen of 
the somewhat quaint style of expression at that now 
distant date : as for instance, " you was," instead of 
" you were ; " "I desire," instead of " I wish ; " thus, 
in her letter inviting her "dear Sally" to Preston, 
she writes : " I sent you this day fortnight, by one 
of your newsmen (not Harrops), a piece of satin, which 



78 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

I desire Miss Hornby would make into an Italian 
nightgown. I should be glad to have it returned as 
soon as possible and at the same time the bracelets, 
which you promised to get for me." And the writer 
continues : " I should be still more obliged to you if 
you could favour me with your company at Preston 
for a couple of months. I am so confident of your 
father's friendship that I need not say anything more 
in order to prevail over him to bring you with him 
the next pay day, than that I am certain he will 
oblige me if it lies in his power. I must desire an 
answer to this last request, that I may have a room 
well aired for your occupation." 

In the month of May Samuel Hibbert's father had 
sent him up to London to attend to some business 
connected with the firm ; but this did not cause the 
young gentleman to neglect his correspondence with 
Miss Sally. We fear, however, that the same thing 
cannot be said as regards his correspondence with his 
"honoured father," for not only were some of the 
letters of the latter left unanswered, but when an- 
swered, the letters of Mr. Samuel appear to have con- 
tained sundry blunders which his " honoured father," 
like a precise man of business as he was, quickly 
detected, and commented upon somewhat testily. For 
instance, in reply to one of his son's letters, the old 
merchant wrote as follows : 

The ship Ann, Mr. Scott, from Bremen, is arrived, and no 
insurance made on her, as well as the Richard, Captain Mobb, 
from the same place. This morning, May 10, received yours of 
6th inst., I think should have been dated 7th. I hope you have 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 79 

rec d - my three letters, though I can remember the contents of them. 
. . . My best respects and wishes attend you and Mr. Hadfield. 
Yarn at Deny has got up again to 2/ and higher ; it was once at 
22d. At Dublin and Sligo and Drogheda I believe it continues 
low. Young Mr. Fanhurst of Wigan is dead, insolvent, and owes 
to Mr. J. B of our town 1100, Mr. T. C. 1000, W. R. 700 or 800, 
Mr. Potter and Mr. Hodson a good sum to each. This is what 
I hear. Give my respectful compliments to such as know and 
inquire after me. Yours most affectionately, T. H. 

To Mr. SAMUEL HIBBERT, 

With Mr. Em. Phil. Bize, 

Merchant, 

In London. 

But we must beg the indulgence of our readers for 
this digression from the heading of our chapter ; and 
we now subjoin a letter from Mr. Samuel Hibbert to 
his fair enslaver ; but since the writer expressly dis- 
claims its being a love letter, we may at any rate call 
it an " Extravagancy," whether we consider it as giving 
the experience of a " young man from the country " 
in London, in the last century, or as inflicting almost 
endless reading on the lady. 

He begins his letter rather formally, " Dear Miss 
"Ware ; " but his genuine love letters began in the fol- 
lowing quaint style of his times, namely, " Dear Miss," 
while they ended, " Dear Miss, your affectionate 
lover," or "Your faithful lover," or "Your sincere 
lover and friend," or " Your constant lover." 

LONDON, May ZQth, 1778. 

DEAR Miss WARE Amidst all the hurry and bustle of 
London, in my hours of retirement, I do not forget my friends at 
Manchester, and may I be allowed to rank you amongst that 
number. Pray excuse my freedom in sending this ; it's not a 



80 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

love letter I am going to write ; there is no occasion for writing 
upon that subject. Conversation is a better method of carrying 
that on when it can be had to tell you the truth, I had a mind 
to write something of a description of London, and know no way 
more agreeable than to send it to you. As to the curiosities of 
London, which travellers in general go to see, you may know 
enough of them by others, and much more than I could pretend 
to say in a letter. I shall only notice a few occurrences in my 
travels that struck me particularly, and express them in my own 
manner. 

After rattling on from stage to stage, out of one chaise and 
into another, for two days and one night, I got safe here. What 
excited my curiosity upon the road much was remarking how much 
forwarder the spring was, as I approached nearer London, than 
with us ; and when I arrived here I was surprised to find the 
fields in such vernal bloom, and the fruit-trees all in blossom. 
This had something of the effect upon me as if I had slept for 
two or three weeks together at Manchester, and upon my waking 
taken a walk towards Castlefield, supposing it to be at this time 
of the year. And now I have been here near three weeks, and 
have almost tired myself with being so continually on the wing, 
for half our time is taken up with rambling from one place of 
curiosity to another in a place of such large extent as this. But 
London itself has not satisfied me. I have been to Blackheatli, 
to see his Majesty review his troops ; to Woolwich, to see him 
review the artillery ; to the place where the poor convicts work, 
upon the banks of the Thames ; then to Greenwich, famous for a 
very fine hospital, and a most delightful situation, and back to 
London. This was one day's work. It was something curious 
to see his Majesty scramble up a steep hill, as he did part of the 
way, with the help of his hands, while experiments were about 
making with the cannon. The Prince of Wales and Prince 
Frederick were there, and very fine youths they are. The second 
son has a most pleasing countenance indeed. A gentleman was 
so kind as to send his servant to go along with me as a guide, 
and it was comical enough to see the respect they paid me at the 
inn upon that account, . . . and how many apologies they made 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 81 

that they had nothing fit for me to eat. Well, thought I, how 
the world is governed by mere outside pomp and show ! Another 
day I took a ramble to Eichmond Hill, a place famous for afford- 
ing one of the finest prospects in England, then to the palace of 
Hampton Court. These rambles and others afforded me more 
pleasure than anything I saw in London, except, indeed, one 
thing, which is the greatest of all entertainments to me, though 
perhaps my taste may differ from most other people's the 
thing I mean is, hearing the debates in the Houses of Parlia- 
ment ; this curiosity I have lately had opportunities of gratifying 
fully. I have been six times in the House of Commons and 
twice in the House of Lords, and often heard strong debates 
upon subjects of importance to the nation ; once from four o'clock 
in the afternoon till half-past one in the morning, with very little 
intermission. This was a feast for the mind, indeed, but as to 
the body, it rather suffered for it, as I could get nothing but 
bread and water for my supper when I came back. Was not 
I a great rake for staying out so late ? How do you think I 
durst venture in ... rascally place as London ? Why, I got a 
coach as soon as I cou'd, and was very glad to shut myself up in 
it, I can assure you, having no ... then, but before I could 
get in such a flock of girls, or whatever else you please to call 
them, crying out, Let me ride with you ; pray let me get in. 
London ! a sad place all extravagance and dissipation ; mum- 
mery, compliments, and foppery. One evening I went with a 
friend to Ranelagh, and there I expected fine entertainment, but it 
did not answer those expectations. There were, indeed, a most 
brilliant assembly in the Rotunda there, but when you have seen 
the company and the room, you have seen all. They kept walking 
round and round and round again, in slow and solemn procession, 
just as if it had been to a funeral. There is music, indeed, but the 
burring noise they keep up, and the rustling of their silk gowns, 
prevent one from hearing anything ; and in this way they spend 
the evening and part of the morning too, as I did for once. 
But I had enough of that. I have been at each of the two 
theatres. There I had some better entertainment, but tho' the 
performances are finer than we have, I cannot say they afford me 

G 



82 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

as much pleasure as seeing a play at Manchester, especially if I 
have agreeable company. Last Sunday I was at the Chapel 
Royal, when service was performed, which lasted from twelve 
till two o'clock, and the King and Queen were present, and the 
chapel was filled as full of company as any auction-room, except 
the seats where the Koyal family and some of the grandees are. 
It seemed a little odd to see the aisle, which, in other places, you 
know, is only for the poorer sort, filled with ladies with high 
head-dresses and gentlemen all bepowdered, and all crowded 
together without distinction ; but what inconveniences cannot be 
submitted to when a king is present ! The number of fine voices 
in this place is very pleasing, and they gave us plenty of music, 
indeed, but a very short sermon, tho' a good one. The Sunday 
before I went to Hackney, just to hear Dr. Price preach, one of 
the great political champions in favour of the Americans. I then 
took a ramble to the Royal Palace of Kensington, where there is 
a beautiful park. The curiosities in the Tower and in West- 
minster Abbey are also well worth seeing, and also the prospect 
from the top of St. Paul's, where you see London all at one view. 
Indeed, the prospect there is so great that it gives you the idea 
of a whole country built over more properly than that of a town. 
There are many people from Manchester in this part of the 
world, but in such a place as this a person knows not where to 
find any one if he gets out of sight. I think there is hardly a 
place in the world better calculated than London for spending 
money in ; the amazing number of rich shops, finely decorated at 
the windows, present a temptation to the eye continually to those 
who are curious and have their pockets well lined. In short, 
luxury and grandeur appear in their full extent ; and I may say 
also, in the outskirts of London they have beggary too. I have 
seen Mr. Scott's daughter, but not the son-in-law. I dined at 
their house one day. Vauxhall is to be opened to-morrow night, 
and there I expect to see a paradise, by the description I have 
had of it I mean with respect to the fine gardens only, not 
with respect to the innocence of the sons and daughters of Adam 
who frequent it. But not to dwell upon things I have not seen, 
I shall only just mention another curiosity I have seen, and that 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 83 

is the British Museum ; but only think what a confusion of ideas 
a man wou'd have in looking over the whole in two hours, which, 
if he must view in such a manner as a person of curiosity would 
wish, it wou'd take up a fortnight very well. It is too much for 
the mind, one thing puts out another, and so you have but a 
confused idea of all. Indeed, the whole of London seems confu- 
sion, and will appear so, I think, to any one the first time he sees 
itj and, therefore, if this letter be a confused one you must 
excuse it, and regard it only as a further token of esteem from, 
Madam, your sincere well-wisher and humble servant, 

SAMUEL HIBBERT. 

I thought proper to direct this to Mrs. Ware, to whom give 
my respects. 



84 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Death of Paymaster Robert Ware Ladies travelling by stage-coaches 
An expected marriage An unexpected marriage. 

" SUNDAY s'night, as Robert Ware, Esqre., Lieutenant and Pay- 
master of the Royal Lancashire Militia, was bathing in the sea 
at Tynemouth, he was seized with an apoplectic fit and expired 
immediately. On Wednesday morning at eight o'clock his 
remains were interred in St. Nicholas' Church with military 
honours. The street was lined by the regiment from his lodging 
in the Close to the Church. He was a gentleman much respected 
by the officers and beloved by the privates." 

The above paragraph appeared in the Chester 
Chronicle of July 30, 1779. 

The Lancashire Militia was at that time quar- 
tered at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and here the sad event 
occurred which deprived Miss Sally Ware of her 
surviving parent. 

In company with two other officers, Kobert Ware 
had ridden from Newcastle to Tynemouth, a distance 
of some few miles to enjoy the luxury of bathing in 
the sea, on a hot July day. Possibly, the gentlemen 
may have ridden hard, and Paymaster Ware may have 
been both tired and heated ; however that might be, 
he was struck with apoplexy so soon as he had 
entered the water, and the seizure was at once fatal. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 85 

His remains were interred in a gentleman's vault 
in the church of St. Nicholas with military honours, as 
stated in the Chester Chronicle. 

Miss Peggy Ware, Kobert Ware's youngest 
daughter, then about sixteen years old, was at a 
boarding - school near London at the time of her 
father's death, and we will give a letter, written by 
Mr. Samul Hibbert when she was about to visit her 
friends in the north at Christmas time, and after- 
wards return to London, as it in some degree illus- 
trates the care and trouble ladies had to take, as 
well as the inconveniences they had to suffer, when 
travelling by stage-coach, in the last century. 

It was not considered safe at that time for ladies 
to travel by that mode of conveyance unless escorted 
by some male friend or acquaintance ; so it would not 
unfrequently happen that a lady might have to wait 
several weeks before she could meet with a gentle- 
man travelling in the same direction. The late Dr. 
Hibbert Ware remembered this state of things existing 
in his youthful days. 

" DEAR Miss," wrote Mr. Sam Hibbert from Manchester on 
Jan. 2, 1780, to his charmer, "I have just had the pleasure 
of hearing by Mr. Slack's letter to Mrs. "Ware, that you got safe 
to Burton. She hopes her daughter Peggy will be with you be- 
fore this comes to hand. This morning she had a letter from 
Mr. Duckworth, informing her that Peggy intended to have set 
off last Thursday, but as there was no other passenger in the 
coach, Mrs. Brown thinks it would not be so safe to let her go 
alone, as they travel so much in the night; she had also a 
letter from Peggy on Friday last, and it seems, by her letter and 
Mr. Duckworth's, that she has a great mind to see her mother 



86 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

and grandfather at Slack Hall or here. Mr. Duckworth says the 
additional expense of going back to London is only thirteen shillings 
more than going from Burton, besides, she would have a better 
chance of returning with some acquaintance from Manchester 
than from Burton, and that this consideration, he thinks, ought 
to have some weight." 

Many love letters were, of course, at this time 
passing between Mr. Hibbert and his future bride. 
We do not hesitate to give an extract from another, 
as it makes mention of a Manchester name that has 
since acquired very great celebrity, we mean Quincey 
or De Quincey, as the distinguished author of the 
Opium Eater wrote it. 

Writing from Manchester on the 28th of January 
1780, Mr. Samuel Hibbert, after saying all that a 
man in his position might be expected to say, proceeds 
as follows : 

I have little more news for you. Yesterday, Mr. Quincey 
of this town was married to my friend and acquaintance, Miss 
Goodyear, after about a week's courtship. She has managed the 
affair very snugly, tho' I think not so prudently, for her relations 
knew nothing of the matter till all was over. I remain, dear 
Miss, your assured friend and lover, SAM. HIBBERT. 

To Miss Ware, 

at The Revd. Mr. Holland's, 

Burton-upon-Trent 

As we shall soon see, Mr. Samuel Hibbert was to 
find out before long, and much to his surprise, that 
other people, as well as the lady he writes of, could 
manage " the affair very snugly." 

Before concluding our mention of Mr. Hibbert's 
courtship, it may not be considered out of place by 
any of our female readers, inasmuch as it touches 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 87 

upon courtship, if we here insert an extract from a 
letter which tends to show us a sort of game played 
on St. Valentine's day by our great-grandmothers, to 
whom the penny post was unknown, or such an over- 
loaded animal as the postman of 1882, staggering 
along under sacks of Valentines on each 14th of 
February. 

"On the 12th instant," wrote Miss Holland from Burton, on 
the 24th of February 1780, to her friend Sally Ware, then at 
Mr. Slack's, " we drank tea with Miss Cottons' in the evening, 
and were very merry drawing Valentines, and wished very much 
for your company. We made Sally your substitute and she 
drew Mr. Hibbert. Miss Hannah Cotton drew the handsome 
Scotchman. The night we were at the George, to hear Sig. 
Rossinole, a gentleman fell very much in love with you, and 
made the utmost enquiry after you. Miss Cotton's maid told him 
you was engaged, or he certainly would have paid you a visit. 
I can't prevail on Sally to tell me who the gentleman was." 

There is an end to all things in this world, and so 
probably thought Jacob when his seven years' court- 
ship was drawing to a close. By a deed, of a nature 
very interesting to ladies about to enter the married 
state, bearing date the 27th of May 1780, in which 
John Slack junior, gentleman, and William Dawson 
of Manchester, gentleman, were named the trustees, 
a small estate at Hale - Barns Green, Altrincham, 
purchased by Paymaster Ware, was settled on his 
daughter, Miss Sally, and the next morning Mr. 
Samuel Hibbert was rewarded for his long courtship 
by being at length made a happy man. 

The wedding cake, however, had scarcely been 
eaten, when Mr. Sam found out that his " honoured 



88 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAEE*S 

father" understood, quite as well as his friend Miss 
Goodyear, now Mrs. Quincey, how to keep both his 
courtship and " the affair very snugly." 

Writing to his wife's friend Miss Holland of 
Burton, on the 2d of September 1780, Mr. Sam 
Hibbert says : 

DEAR Miss When I wrote to you informing you of my 
marriage, I little expected that my next letter to you would in- 
form you of another marriage in our family, but thus it is, such 
a thing has taken place. About a fortnight after you left this 
town, my father gave me notice of his intentions, and last 
Monday he was married to Miss France. 

His father's second nuptials were evidently not 
quite pleasing to Mr. Samuel, but as the lady, for- 
merly governess to Miss Hannah Hibbert, was of the 
mature age of fifty, Mr. Titus Hibbert being bent, 
we must suppose, upon marrying again could hardly 
have made a more suitable match. 

To the credit of all parties, this unlooked-for 
event made no change in the affectionate relations 
existing between the father and son, the simple differ- 
ence being the removing of the young couple into a 
house of their own, instead of living with Titus Hibbert 
in St. Ann's Square, as had been previously arranged. 

Samuel Hibbert took a house in Brazenose 
Street. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 89 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Scarborough Manchester gossip. 

IN the summer of 1781 Mrs. Samuel Hibbert not 
being very well, her husband had taken her to Scar- 
borough, and we will now give extracts from two of 
his letters ; one showing the length of time it then 
required to travel from Hull, by the diligence to 
Manchester, a hundred years ago, and the other 
containing a little gossip about Manchester. 

Mr. Samuel Hibbert was very methodical, not 
only in his business correspondence, but also when 
writing to private and intimate friends, for in both 
cases he equally made rough drafts of his letters. 
Writing to his sister, Miss Hannah Hibbert, from 
Hull, on the 15th of August 1781, he says : 

" I have taken places in the diligence for Monday morning, 
and hope to be at Manchester on Tuesday evening, if all be well. 
My wife wishes much to be at home now, being still but poorly. 
I can give you a curiosity the bellman of Scarborough going 
about offering four guineas to any one who wou'd part with two 
good sound fore-teeth ! ! ! There were a very great number of 
smart, genteel people, both old and young, at Scarborough, and 
some old that would be young, as you may judge from the above. 
There are many fine walks about this town, particularly by the 
side of the Humber the new dock and the garrison. Here we 



90 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

saw a number of French and Dutch prisoners in the prison-yard. 
In these might well be observed the genius and disposition of 
the two countries the French were all in action of some sort, 
volatile and sprightly ; the Dutchmen, some squatted down on 
the ground, others walking in sober thoughtfulness, two or three 
with pipes in their mouths." 

We were then at war, not only with the Americans, 
the French, and the Spaniards, but the Dutch also had 
ranged themselves on the side of our enemies, and as 
a natural consequence, the high prices of provisions 
kept pace with the heavy taxation, and the distress 
in the kingdom became greater every day, and trade 
more depressed. 

Before quitting this letter, we must offer an 
observation on the Scarborough bellman's cry for two 
"good sound teeth." If, as Mr. Hibbert alleged, 
there were old people that would be young, they had, 
even at that date, every opportunity of gratifying 
their wish in Manchester, so far as the teeth were con- 
cerned, for, in Prescott's Manchester Journal of the 
25th of August 1773, we read an advertisement in which 
Mr. Wolfenden announces to the fashionable world 
of Manchester that he performs all operations on the 
teeth, and fixes in artificial teeth with the enamel on 
every tooth. A few years later, however, this dentist 
appears to have been eclipsed by a Frenchman ; for 
we read in the same journal, at the date 30th Sep- 
tember 1780, that M. Anthony Chevenez from Paris, 
a pupil of the famous M. Moulton, dentist to His 
Most Christian Majesty, respectfully thanks the ladies 
and gentlemen of Manchester for their past favours, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 91 

and flatters himself that they being already convinced 
of his abilities will continue to honour him. His 
terms, he goes on to say, are as follows : For cleaning 
the teeth, 5s. ; when they are very black and tartarised, 
so as not to be cleaned at one sitting, then 5s. for 
each sitting ; for drawing a tooth, 5s. ; for drawing a 
stump, half-a-guinea ; for making and setting in an 
artificial tooth, one guinea ; then the artist tells the 
public that he makes teeth even, and stops them, and 
that he makes artificial palates, and artificial teeth, 
which will answer the purpose of real ones. 

To return from this digression, though not quite 
inappropriate ; the other letter of Mr. Samuel Hibbert, 
which we have referred to, makes mention of one or 
two inhabitants of Manchester, better known after- 
wards : 

" DEAR Miss," he writes on the 31st of March, 1782, to Miss 
Holland of Burton," I must again desire you to accept of my 
writing instead of Mrs. Hibbert's. She is still averse to writing 
letters, and puts the task on me. She is pretty well in health, 
considering it is so near April. 

" Mr. Marsland, as we hear, still pays his addresses to Miss 
Harrison, but we cannot at present guess what they will make 
of it, or how far advanced the courtship is ; we suppose there 
may have been obstacles thrown in the way, which, like those in 
our political negotiations, may have retarded the adjusting of 
the preliminaries. 

" Poor Miss Duckworth went off sooner than was expected 
her mother was much affected by her death. Mr. Duckworth 
has now taken a house in Princes Street, next door to Mr. 
Kirkham's, and proposes to go into it very soon. This day we 
had the pleasure of hearing your cousin Bayley preach at our 
Chapel for the first time, and in my opinion his sermon fully 
justified the good opinion his own congregation have formed of 



92 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

him. The attention of the town is now taken up with the suit 
betwixt the Lord of the Manor, and the proprietors of the New 
Market, it being expected to come on at Lancaster this week, 
and a number of people are going there to give evidence." 

Mr. Marsland, to whom Samuel Hibbert alludes in 
this letter, was a merchant of good position. He 
afterwards built a country house in Chorlton Eow, 
then quite a rural district. This house, we believe, 
still stands, and is situate at the corner of Grosvenor 
Square, and the Stretford Eoad, and after the family 
had parted with it was used as a Lyceum. When 
the Marslands lived in it, it was surrounded by a 
garden ; there was no All Saints Church there then, 
nor any neighbouring houses. Mr. Marsland's sons, 
John, Samuel, and Henry, carried on business in 
Manchester, during the earlier part of this century. 
The Miss Harrison whom that gentleman courted was 
of the family of the Eev. Kalph Harrison, one of the 
ministers of Cross Street Presbyterian Chapel. Of 
this family also was the mother of the late William 
Harrison Ainsworth, the well-known novelist. 

The house in Princes Street, which Mr. Duckworth 
is mentioned in the foregoing letter as having taken, 
stood until lately on the site of a portion of the 
present Albert Square. In it the firm of Duckworth 
and Chippendall, afterwards Duckworth and Denison, 
carried on business in the early part of this century. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 93 



CHAPTER XV. 

The birth of Samuel Hibbert, the subject of this memoir. 

"SAMUEL, their son, born Sunday, April 21st, 1782, 
three-quarters past one, afternoon." 

Such was the entry penned by Mr. Samuel 
Hibbert on the fly-leaf of the old black leather- 
bound family Bible, as he sat in the parlour of his 
house in Brazenose Street- on the afternoon of the 
day which witnessed the birth of the subject of this 
memoir. 

The birth of the first-born is usually welcomed by 
father and mother with feelings of intense and novel 
happiness. The very name of parent, assumed for 
the first time, has so tender and sacred a sound ! 
Other children may come and be welcomed and be 
loved, but still the joy of the mother or the pride of 
the father, when the infant cry of their first-born is 
heard, can never be realised again. 

A not uneventful life lay stretched out before the 
child born to Samuel Hibbert, on the day that we 
have recorded, in the old city of Manchester. To 
this, his native town, he was ever attached, and in 
the years to come, of all his literary works, the history 
of The Foundations of Manchester, we may truly 



94 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

say, was the one in which he took the deepest and 
most earnest interest. 

He knew every nook and corner of the old city, 
and every spot in and around it was familiar to him, 
many of them dear to his heart from tender memories 
and associations. 

When at a distance from Manchester nothing, 
however slight, connected with it failed to interest 
him, and the evening of his life saw him settled once 
more in the vicinity of Manchester. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 95 



CHAPTER XVI. 

The importation of linen yarn The Prussian Government make 
inquiries of Manchester merchants concerning it Chamber of 
Commerce. 

BEFORE the end of the year 1782 a hope of better 
times began to dawn on the nation. France and Spain, 
as weary of the war as England, were equally desirous 
of peace, and in November the independence of 
America was fully recognised at Paris by the British 
Government, and treaties of peace between England, 
France, and Spain were signed in the January 
following. 

Merchants and traders looked forward now to a 
revival of trade, and with all their old activity and 
energy, Titus Hibbert and Son hailed the advent of a 
brighter era in mercantile affairs. 

Towards the latter end of 1782 the Prussian 
Government had instructed its consuls, or some other 
officials, who represented it in England, to make 
inquiries respecting the importation and use of linen 
yarns, and Mr. Titus Hibbert, as one of the leading 
merchants and importers of yarns from abroad, was 
applied to for information on the subject. 

A rough draft of his reply to the different ques- 



96 

tions put to him has been preserved amongst his 
private papers, and thinking it may be of some 
interest to Manchester mercantile men, even of the 
present day, we copy it. 

If there had been a Chamber of Commerce at that 
time in Manchester the Prussian Government would 
probably have applied there for the information sought 
for; but a Manchester chronicler, we think Butter- 
worth, says that the Chamber of Commerce was 
established first in 1820, yet, without disputing this 
assertion, we must observe that in Titus Hibbert's 
account-book, to which we have before referred, the 
following entry occurs in the year 1787: "29th 
Octr., Paid E. Whamsley subscription to Chamber 
of Commerce, 1 : Is." 

"We now proceed with the reply of Titus Hibbert 
to the Prussian queries : 

MANCHESTER, Jany. 6, 1783. 

SIR I am honoured by yours of the 29th Deer., and am 
sorry that it is not in my power to answer your queries in a 
manner so satisfactory as I really wish to do ; however, I judge 
it better to give you the best information in my power, without 
waiting to collect more particular information, which would be a 
work of time and pains. 

In answer to your first query The greatest quantity of 
foreign yarn is imported from Hamburg and Bremen, Dantzig 
and Konigsberg, and the greatest part of it, by far, is manu- 
factured at Manchester and by the manufacturers, who live in 
the country and lesser towns, near enough to come weekly to 
Manchester, which they do, to buy yarn and cotton and sell 
goods ; the rest at Blackburn, Preston, Wigan, Walton, Notting- 
ham, etc. 

2d. I never knew of any yarn imported from France, and 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 97 

very little from any foreign ports, except those above mentioned. 
Yarn imported pays no duty in England, nor at the places it is 
imported from: it has come free of duty since 1756; (illegible) 
is flaxen yarn. In Germany and Poland there is yarn made 
from hemp, which is liable to Id. per pound duty in England, 
but little or none is imported. 

3d, The quality of the yarn rules the price both of Irish and 
foreign ; and when the quality of the different sorts is very near 
equal, so is the price. Note. We import no sort of yarn which 
is sold by weight, but Irish head yarn ; all other sorts are such 
as reel and count, and sold by the bundle. Dishonest practices 
and reforms have taken place, as in Ireland ; at foot you shall 
have the reel and count of the different sorts most in use. 

4th, At Manchester we use every grist of spangle yarn, from 
4 to 1 5 Ibs. in the bundle, though not much of 4 Ib. ; and of 
head yarn every grist from 12s. to 40s. per head, and some very 
small matter may be finer ; and coarser Irish spangle yarn from 
4^ Ib. to 15 Ib. in the bundle is very much in demand here; 
we cannot certainly tell which weight is most in demand, for 
some years more of one sort is wanted, and other years more 
of another sort, as the demands for different manufactures 
increase or decrease. Of Hamburg yarn we import from 2 
Ibs. to 12 Ib. in the bundle, which bundle is about equal 
to !! hanks of Irish spangle yarn; and the yarn we get 
from Dantzig and Konigsberg, which is called Ermland yarn, 
taking its name from the bishoprick of Ermland, where it is 
much made ; a good deal of it runs heavier than any spangle 
yarn we get from Ireland ; a bundle of this is about equal to 4-J- 
spangle of Irish, and runs in weight from 8 Ib. to 38 Ib. per 
bundle, but the great demand is from 10 Ib. to 18 Ib. per 
bundle. This sort and Hamburg yarn, from 8 to 12 Ib., are 
very much used for the manufacture of sheeting in this town 
and county, and Irish yarn but very little ; the heavy spangle, 
it is not good enough, and head yarn is too dear. 

5th, It is impossible to answer your 5th query ; the gentle- 
men in Ireland who buy for exportation could do this if they 
were all willing, but in order to give you all the satisfaction in our 

H 



98 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

power we subjoin an account of our importations and consign- 
ments for last year : in our view, but one thing is to be con- 
sidered, that our import of head yarn and Drogheda spangle is 
much less in proportion than some of our neighbours. 

6th, Nor is it in our power to inform you of the proportions 
of the different sorts of yarn used in this town and county, etc., 
but there is very much used of both Irish and foreign ; but we 
are of opinion the value of the Irish is greater, if not the weight ; 
but English yarn and Scotch yarn are very little used here. 
Irish head yarn from 6d. to lid. per Ib. is the best yarn made ; 
for the smallware makers, the middling and fine head yarn is the 
best for bed ticks, and warp for furniture checks. Irish web 
yarn and 3 crown Hamburg from 2 to 4|- Ib. are nearly equal 
in goodness, and are the best for fine fustians, but heavy 3 crown 
Hamburg yarn from 5 to 8, or 9 Ib. per bundle, is the best for 
the coarser sorts of fustian. Irish web yarn is best for the 
Blackburn manufacture ; Drogheda yarn the second best ; Sligo 
the third. Note. Fine Hamburg yarn and Bremen yarn can be 
substituted very well in printing goods, and are so, when the 
price is not too high. Great quantities of Deny tow yarn and 
Ermland are made into checks and other goods for exportation, 
etc. not that such is best for checks, but the makers of these 
goods cannot afford to buy the best sorts of yarn. So the fine 
Sligo yarn is much used for weft for African goods, and by the 
handkerchief makers, partly because it is more length for the 
money than web and Drogheda yarns. 

We apprehend there is very little foreign flax imported into 
England. There are linens made in Somersetshire, in Cumber- 
land, and in some parts of Yorkshire, and we believe the flax is 
grown in said counties, but this is a matter we know very little 
about. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 99 



CHAPTER XVII. 

" The Manchester Regiment," or 72d The fustian-tax Old Blackpool 
Ardwick Green. 

" IN no town has opulence been more honourably and respectably 
enjoyed than in Manchester ; and upon all occasions, public and 
private, it is but justice to say that the purses of Manchester 
have been open to the calls of charity and patriotism." 

Thus writes Dr. Aikin, in his Country round 
Manchester; and among the entries of payments to 
different charities in the account-book of Titus Hib- 
bert we find that on the 6th of September 1783 he 
"paid Mr. Parker, at Mr. Allen's bank, 1 : Is., his 
subscription for the relief of the widows and children 
of the soldiers who fell in defending Gibraltar." 

"The Manchester Regiment," or 72d, had been 
raised to fight against the Americans, but it escaped 
taking part in this unnatural war by being sent to 
Gibraltar, to aid in the defence of that fortress against 
the Spaniards. Here these gallant Manchester men 
acquitted themselves so bravely as to reflect the 
greatest honour on their native town. At the close 
of the war they returned to England and were dis- 
banded. 

Though the Manchester merchants and tradesmen 



100 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

subscribed cheerfully towards relieving the widows 
and children of the soldiers who had fallen at Gibraltar, 
they were by no means so well disposed to pay the 
bill of costs for the war, when it came in ; and the tax 
on fustian, in particular, caused such great consterna- 
tion that numbers of petitions from the town and 
neighbourhood were sent up to Government against 
it, and also a deputation, consisting of Messrs. Walker 
and Richardson. These gentlemen were so successful 
that they obtained a repeal of the tax, and after their 
return to Manchester they were each presented with 
a silver cup, and honoured with a splendid procession 
and bands of music. 

In Titus Hibbert's account-book we find the follow- 
ing entries of payments towards collections, which 
were soon after made in reference to this affair ; one 
of which is notable, as it mentions a " Chamber of 
Manufacturers : " 

14th December 1785 Paid Thos. Walker and 
John Heywood donation towards the charges of 
repealing the tax on fustians, 2 : 2s. Paid same a 
subscription towards supporting the Chamber of 
Manufacturers, 1 : Is. 

1786, 13th May Paid Mr. James Barton a gra- 
tuity for Mr. Walker and Mr. Richardson, for assiduity 
in procuring a repeal of the fustian-tax, 2 : 2s. 

The Mr. Thomas Walker just mentioned was a 
gentleman living in South Parade ; but there was a 
John Walker, a fustian and smallware manufacturer, 
in Water Street, Salford, probably a relation of the 
former. Mr. James Barton was most likely connected 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 101 

with Kichard, George, and Henry Barton, fustian 
manufacturers, in Market Street Lane. 

Titus Hibbert had now more cause for deep 
anxiety than the fustian-tax, odious as it was : his 
only daughter Hannah, who he had fondly believed 
would soothe his declining years, had fallen into very 
ill health. Early in September 1785 he had sent her, 
along with her stepmother, to Blackpool, for the bene- 
fit of the sea air. 

As Blackpool has ever been a favourite watering- 
place of Manchester people, it may not be without 
interest to have some notion of what it was like, when 
Baldwin, of Paternoster Eow, published a description 
of that place in 1789, which, he says, was then only 
rising into existence, and quite in its infancy, and too 
insignificant to be noticed by the gay or invalids at 
a distance. It derived, that writer tells us, its chief 
support from Lancashire, and especially Manchester. 
In August the company were most numerous, then 
amounting to about four hundred ; but in October no 
one was to be seen. At that time there were only 
about fifty scattered houses to the extent of a mile 
along the beach, and none of the superior houses for 
the reception of company seemed to have been more 
than seven years old. A gentleman who had regularly 
visited Blackpool since 1770 declared to Mr. Baldwin 
that when he first knew the place, the little white 
cottage, at the lane end, which became the news-house 
in 1788, was the only one of public resort. Even in 
this latter year there was no place of worship in 
Blackpool, nor was any service performed in any of 



102 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

the rooms, nor was there to be seen, the author assures 
us, " one Methodist preacher roaring against a wall 1 " 

Yet the infant Blackpool afforded pleasure and 
gratification to visitors. It was health-giving, and 
had fine sands for walks or rides ; there was a parade 
too for the company to promenade along ; it was a 
pretty grass walk on the verge of the sea, about 6 
yards wide and 200 long, with an alcove at one end 
and a vile pit at the other. 

The chief inns or boarding-houses in 1788 were 
those of Bailey, Forshaw, Hull, and Hudson, and of 
these Bailey's was by far the most fashionable. But, 
continues the author of the guide book, the same 
spirit prevailed in young Blackpool as in other 
watering-places ; no visitor of a superior house must 
know the visitor of an inferior one, and, indeed, the 
company in one house must not know the company in 
another ; he of Bailey's will scarcely recognise him of 
Forshaw's, and she of Hull's does not know her of 
Hudson's. She is not of our house, says the lady 
of Bailey's, with a toss of her head. 

In taking the healthful and invigorating dip in 
the briny, certain rules were rigorously enforced. A 
bell rang at the time of bathing as a signal for the 
ladies. Some used machines drawn by one horse, a 
few travelled from their apartments in their " water- 
dresses," but the majority clothed in the boxes which 
stood on the beach for their use. If a gentleman was 
then seen on the parade, he was made to pay for his 
imprudent intrusion the forfeit of a bottle of wine. 
As soon as the ladies had retired, the bell rang again 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 103 

for the gentlemen, who acted the second part in this 
marine drama. 

It appears from this guide book that the highest 
price our grandfathers and grandmothers then paid 
for boarding, which included lodging, was 3s. 4d. a 
day, exclusive of liquors namely, for dinner and 
supper, Is. each ; for tea and breakfast, 8d. each. A 
lower fare was 2s. 6d. for eating, the party finding 
his or her tea, coffee, sugar, and liquors. A third fare 
was Is. 6d. a day. 

People who were well-to-do, and wished to save 
time, travelled in post-chaises ; but for those who 
went to Blackpool by the stage-coach, we are informed 
by the Manchester papers of 1781, that there was a 
conveyance called "The Manchester and Blackpool 
Diligence," from the Royal Oak, in the Market Place, 
every morning at six o'clock, which arrived at the 
Red Lion Inn, in Preston, at noon ; met the Lancaster, 
Penrith, and Carlisle Diligence, and went to For- 
shaw's, at Blackpool. Fare to Blackpool, 15s. "The 
journey performed by Pickford & Co., D. V." 

Miss Hannah Hibbert returned from Blackpool, 
but the sea breezes had not restored her former health, 
and consequently Mr. Titus Hibbert decided upon 
removing from Manchester, in order to secure for his 
beloved daughter a purer air than that of the town. 
He selected Ardwick Green, then quite a country 
place, separated from the town by green fields, the 
road even to which was so bad that we find in his 
account-book an entry of payment, on the 12th of 
April 1787 "Subscription for improving road to 



104 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

Ardwick, 2 : 2s. ; " and on the 30th, " a further sub- 
scription of 2 : 2s." 

In this rural village he bought a house and garden ; 
for rural it still was, though we read in Prescott's 
Manchester Journal, so far back as 1st May 1773, an 
advertisement of a Mr. Jones, attorney-at-law, stating 
that any part of a croft, situate at Bank Top, would 
be sold for building upon. 

In December 1785 Mr. Titus Hibbert removed 
with his family to his new residence, but his daughter's 
disease had made too great progress for change of air 
to be of any avail, and she died in the following 
January, at the early age of twenty-three. 

Abbe le Blanc, in his Letters from England in- 
veighing against undertakers and costly funerals, says 
drily, that " it is satisfactory to die in England, for 
there you are certain to have a fine funeral after death, 
if you are let starve before that event." 

This remark is true enough, for the levying of 
black mail by the undertakers had spread from London 
into the country, if we may judge from sundry items 
in the bill for Miss Hibbert's funeral, such as 

" Pd. Mr. Meanley, for 42 hatbands and 72 pair of 
gloves, 34 : 14 : 3." 

As Titus Hibbert had gone to Ardwick Green 
solely on account of his daughter's health, after her 
death there was no inducement for him to remain 
there, and he accordingly let his house in the following 
year and returned to Manchester, not, however, to St. 
Ann's Square, but to a house in King Street, which he 
occupied until his death, in the year 1795 ; for he 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 105 

would not disturb his son and daughter-in-law, who 
had removed into the old house in the square, with 
their fast-increasing family, little Sam by that time 
having three brothers, Titus, Kobert, and William. 

Little Sam meanwhile was growing apace, and 
possibly developing that love for books which distin- 
guished him in after-life, for on the 19th of April 
1786 his grandfather enters down amongst his private 
accounts, "A book for little Samuel, Is." His first 
book most likely, and intended as a birthday gift, on 
the 21st of that month. 



106 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The first school Holland Watson A journey to Dublin 
a century ago. 

SAMUEL HIBBERT, the subject of our Memoir, com- 
menced his education at Mr. Littlewood's academy at 
Ardwick Green, where he was placed as a boarder, 
when about six or seven years of age. 

To his school life we shall make some reference 
presently, but the boy's earliest recollections were his 
visits, during the holidays, to Slack Hall, where his 
aunt, Miss Peggy Ware, who was very good to him, 
chiefly resided. 

Miss Peggy was now grown to womanhood, and 
was very accomplished. 

Of her musical talents her little nephew retained 
the liveliest remembrance. Even in his boyhood he 
was exceedingly fond of music, an art which he 
esteemed so highly that in his early manhood we 
shall find him writing and reading to a learned society 
an able and masterly essay upon it. He had, indeed, 
that true love of music which seems to characterise 
the sons and daughters of Manchester, and which has 
made them so liberally patronise musical genius. . 

To the last years of his life, he would still speak 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 107 

with pleasure of that reminiscence of his boyhood, 
when he used to sit and listen, entranced, to the 
sweet notes his aunt drew from her harpsichord. 

As amiable as she was gifted, Miss Peggy Ware's 
life was destined not to be a long one. In 1790 she 
married Mr. Holland Watson, attorney -at -law at 
Stockport, a gentleman of the family of the Hollands 
of Rhodes, as we read in vol. cix. p. 103, of the 
Chetham Society's Publications, and a man of con- 
siderable antiquarian acquirements. Only seven weeks, 
however, had elapsed since her marriage, when the 
young bride was stricken by the hand of death. In 
the obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine for 1790, 
vol. Ix. part 1, there is a notice of her death, prob- 
ably written by her husband, from which we make a 
brief extract : 

" The nuptial tie had scarcely existed, when it was dissolved, 
and that for ever. On Sunday, June 13th, her body was 
deposited near that very altar where, but seven weeks before, 
she had pledged herself in wedlock, with flattering, but delusive 
hopes." 

Mrs. Holland Watson was buried in the Rector of 
Stockport's vault, in the church of that town. 

Mr. Littlewood's academy, to which we have 
already alluded, ranked high amongst the educational 
establishments of Manchester ; the classics were 
taught by able masters, and French by a refugee 
nobleman, a native of that unhappy country, then in 
the most violent throes of one of the bloodiest revolu- 
tions the world has ever seen. 

In the month of May 1793 we find young Samuel 



108 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

removed temporarily, along with his brother Titus, 
from the school. The cause we gather from two 
letters written by Mr. Hibbert, one to the principal, 
the other to an usher, against whom his cause of 
complaint lay. 

As some of his remarks seem very pertinent, and 
may interest parents, we subjoin a few. In his letter 
to the Kev. Mr. C , the usher, he writes : 

" If you had studied human nature as well as the classics, 
you would have been convinced of the impropriety of frequently 
exposing a child to the scorn and derision of his schoolfellows, 
and in particular, of delegating your authority of correction 
to boys (a power which is but itself a delegated one). Such 
conduct," continues the writer, " has a tendency to blunt all the 
finer feelings of nature, and harden, either against ridicule or 
proper reproof, or even correction, if that were necessary ; and 
when the sense of shame is extinguished, honour and virtue 
have lost their best shield and supporter." 

In his letter to the principal, Mr. Samuel Hibbert 

complains, "the Rev. Mr. C struck Samuel in 

such a manner yesterday as I myself durst not have 
done." 

The mercantile transactions of Mr. Hibbert having 
called him to Ireland, it may be amusing to give an 
account of one of his journeys to that country, vid 
Liverpool, for travelling was then somewhat different 
to what it now is. Writing to Mrs. Hibbert from 
Dublin, after first expressing his great regret that he 
had ever allowed himself to be persuaded to make the 
journey vid Liverpool, he proceeds : 

" After the fine prospect of embarking, what a sickly Sunday 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 109 

we had ! when I saw it was about seven o'clock, how did I long 
for daylight on Monday, when we might put into some safe 
harbour ! This being accomplished, we had a sail of some length 
from the ship to the shore, but that was in smooth water. I 
left Christopher in the vessel, our luggage and tea-store being 
also in it, and landed about one o'clock on Monday, and walked 
about half-a-mile to the town of Beaumaris. All the cabin pass- 
engers were with us at the inn, for I do not know whether there 
is above one in the town fit for gentlemen ; and there were also 
a few others belonging to a vessel from Parkgate, who had put 
in several days before ; so in order to make sure of the best 
lodging I could get, I went to bed early, before any of the 
company, imagining that much ceremony would not be used by 
some of them, as I believe they were rather short of beds ; when 
lo ! before midnight, the passengers in the town were roused by 
beat of drum to go to the vessel. I got up and went a little 
way, when there came messengers with contrary orders, that the 
captain would not sail that night. The next morning, about 
twelve, we set off to the vessel again. Monday afternoon we 
made some way, as the sea phrase is, and spent it upon deck, 
and sailed along the Welsh coast, much nearer to it than I was 
before. Monday night and part of Tuesday, we had bad weather 
and sometimes rather hard gales and too much of the westerly 
in them. Wednesday morning we had a view of the Irish coast, 
but think how distressing to us, who had been so long at sea, 
and young sailors, to remain a day and night so near the shore 
without being able to reach it ! About noon that day, when we 
were pretty near the Bay of Dublin, there came on a violent 
storm, which upon the first appearance induced the captain to 
alter his intended course and steer for the Skerries, as the wind 
was against us entirely for Dublin, but the storm increased to 
such a degree as to render it unsafe to attempt anything but 
keeping out at sea, which, as the wind was, was easy to do. 
So we kept out during the violence of the gale, with the sails 
tied fast about the masts. The storm happily did not last long 
so violent, and we then stood again for the bay, by a different 
course from the usual one, and at night got round the Hill of 



110 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Howth into the bay, so as that we might rest ourselves in 
security, though the wind being still against us, we could not 
get to a landing place until Thursday morning, which was at the 
lighthouse. From there we walked two miles, got breakfast, and 
took a coach to Dublin." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. Ill 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Young Sam Hibbert and the poacher Manchester New College 
State education. 

THE late Dr. Hibbert Ware sometimes spoke of the 
school of a Mr. Hathersedge at Ardwick, which he had 
been sent to, but there are no written papers to show 
this ; however, after the obnoxious usher, the Rev. 

Mr. C , had left the academy of Mr. Littlewood, 

young Sam Hibbert and his brother returned there 
again. The former generally spent a part of his 
holidays at Slack Hall the old Slack Hall which is 
marked in Dr. Aikin's map in his Country round 
Manchester. Here a characteristic which distin- 
guished him in after life began already to make itself 
apparent. We allude to the ease with which he could 
accommodate himself to any society into which he 
might chance to be thrown, his readiness to receive 
information from any person, no matter who, and 
upon any and every subject, whether important or 
trivial, and his good memory, which made him in after 
life an ever-welcome guest, for his conversation was 
replete with anecdotes, and scarce a topic could come 
under discussion upon which he could not furnish 
some interesting information. As a boy young 



112 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Samuel was thought rather odd in his tastes, and even 
at that tender age he was called by his schoolfellows 
" Old Sam," and certainly, his earliest acquaintance 
at Slack Hall, one " Owd Jack," a man half weaver 
and half poacher, might have warranted their con- 
clusion that Old Sam was rather odd. 

One day Owd Jack, when loitering about probably 
to mark some spot where game might be trapped, 
came upon Master Samuel, as he was then styled, 
sitting under a tree by the side of a brook reading. 
Some sort of free masonry there might have been 
between the two, a consciousness perhaps in each, of 
the innate humour and originality possessed by the 
other ; at any rate, there and then they struck up an 
acquaintance, which was cemented by the poacher 
telling the boy a story, garnished with plenty of fun, 
and the boy in return reading to the man some pass- 
ages from his book. The poacher, a shrewd fellow, 
was so enchanted with the wonderful matter therein 
contained, that a bargain was made to the effect, that 
Master Samuel should come every day to the same 
spot, and read a chapter from the book, and that the 
poacher should, in return, relate one of his stories, of 
which he possessed an inexhaustible fund. 

Now it may be asked what was the book that 
could thus interest Owd Jack, a weaver and poacher ? 
It was none other than honest John Bunyan's Pil- 
grim: 's Progress, a copy of which young Samuel had 
found in the library at Slack Hall. The marvellous 
nature of the relation was doubtless increased by the 
earnest and thrilling manner in which the boy would 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 113 

read it, for from his earliest childhood he was a good 
reader, and the various inflections of his voice added 
point and strength to what he read. 

Young Samuel when grown to manhood would 
often laugh over his hours with Owd Jack, and tell 
how, when reading some exciting passage, he would 
steal a glance at his companion to watch the changes 
in his countenance, varying with Christian's fortunes, 
now exultant, now depressed and overcast, according 
to the good or evil plight of the hero of John 
Bunyan's allegory. 

It would have been a good subject for an artist 
to paint the rough old poacher and the intelligent- 
looking boy, sitting side by side, earnestly turning 
over the pages of the volume, the former listening 
with deep attention to every word that was uttered 
by his young companion, and the latter earnestly 
attentive also to the subject he was reading, but with 
a rather waggish expression on his face. 

But of all his recollections of the weaver poacher, 
none furnished Sam Hibbert with more amusement 
than the following little episode, which in after life 
he would sometimes tell of with much relish. 

A body of Methodists had established themselves 
at Chapel-le-Frith, and besides preaching in season 
and out of season, they were much given, especially 
on days of jubilee, to the singing of hymns every 
verse culminating in stentorian Hallelujahs. Owd 
Jack had never before heard a Hallelujah chorus 
sung, so these Methodist Hallelujahs, it would appear, 
made a powerful impression upon him, and being, like 

i 



114 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

many of the peasantry of the northern counties, pos- 
sessed of an ear for music, he caught the air of the 
Methodist song but not the exact word Hallelujah. 
It so happened that once when Master Sam had gone 
as usual to invite the weaver to an hour's converse with 
the Pilgrim, he heard the shuttle going at a furious 
rate, and Owd Jack humming very energetically but 
very correctly one of the Methodist psalm-tunes, and 
shouting out the chorus most lustily. The transfor- 
mation, however, which the word Hallelujah had 
undergone called forth such an outburst of mirth from 
the young school lad, that he laughed till his sides 
ached, whilst the weaver, all unconscious of the eaves- 
dropper, cast his shuttle from right to left, and from 
left to right, accompanying its movements with the 
hum of the tune, and at every throw shouting in 
tones, as stentorian as those of the Methodists, " Harry 
long legs ! Harry long legs !" 

After young Sam had been two or three years at 
the Ardwick Green School, his father removed him, 
but he did not send him to any 

. . . magni 
Quo pueri magnis e centurionibus oiii 

were sent, such as Harrow, Westminster, etc., but, 
like the father of the Eoman poet, he sent him to a 
less aristocratic seminary, one in his own town, namely 
the Manchester Academy, of which the Eev. Dr. 
Barnes, one of the ministers at Cross Street Chapel, 
was president. 

This seminary had changed its name from the 
Manchester Academy to that of the Manchester New 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 115 

College. From the reports of the progress of the 
pupils, sent to their respective parents or guardians 
periodically, it appears that the following were amongst 
the various subjects taught there, for which there 
were different professors : Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
French, Italian, Logic, Mental Philosophy, History, 
Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, Laws and Constitu- 
tion of England, Composition, Elocution, Commerce, 
Geography, Use of the Globes, Grammar, Writing, 
Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, and the Higher 
Mathematics, also Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, in 
which branch Mr., afterwards the celebrated Dr. John, 
Dalton was a professor ; and along with other sciences, 
Theology was taught. 

The total amount of the fees for the academical 
session, which commenced the first week in September 
and closed in June, amounted to fifteen guineas. 
French, Italian, writing, drawing, and accounts, were 
extras. 

The proficiency and conduct of the student were 
indicated in the periodical reports by a scale of figures, 
from to 20, the being supposed to stand for the 
lowest and the 20 for the highest degree of merit. 

We subjoin a report of young Sam Hibbert's 
progress in the year 1797 : 

Latin, 15 is satisfactory. 

French and Italian, 16 very satisfactoiy. 

Composition, 18 very satisfactory. 

Moral Philosophy, 17 very satisfactory. 

Elocution, 17 very satisfactory. 

Geography, 15 satisfactory. 

Use of the Globes, 16 very satisfactory. 



116 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

English Grammar, 15 satisfactory. 

Arithmetic and Book-keeping, 16 very satisfactory. 

Geometry, 16 very satisfactory. 

Mechanics, 13 commendable. 

Electricity, 16 very satisfactory. 

Magnetism, 1 5 satisfactory. 

Sam Hibbert became a ripe classical scholar, and 
his translations of one or two of the plays of Terence 
are very creditable ; he was also an enthusiastic 
admirer of Homer, as he himself testifies by the 
following lines written in his copy of the Iliad : 

" Read Homer once, and you will read no more, 
For all books else appear so mean and poor. 
Read Homer o'er again, the more you read, 
Homer will be the only book you need." 

Among his fellow -students at that time were 
Edward Percival, M.D., and John Ash ton Yates, M.P. 
for Carlow county. About this time also there was 
another student, who afterwards attained great 
celebrity, young Mortier, the future Marshal Mortier 
of the French Empire (Chetham's Society's Publica- 
tions, vol. 72, page 239). Mortier, who was the son 
of a French merchant at Lyons, left the College in 
1793, in consequence of war having broken out 
between England and the French Eepublic, after the 
execution of Louis XVI. He was subsequently, for 
his military exploits, created Duke de Treviso, and 
in July 1835 he was killed by Fieschi's infernal 
machine. 

The Manchester Academy or New College had 
succeeded to the Warrington Academy, on the decline 
of the latter in the year 1786, when spacious premises 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 117 

in Mosley Street were taken for the purposes of the 
Institution. 

The names of the first promoters of the Manchester 
Academy were J. Bayley ; E. Bayley ; Josiah Birch ; 
John Birch; D. Campbell; John Clegg; A. Clegg; 
William Crane ; J. Cririe ; G. Duckworth ; E. Evans ; 
Eob. Grimshaw ; Will. Hanson ; S. Hardman ; Will. 
Hassel ; Thomas Hatfield ; Josh. Heywood ; Titus 
Hibbert ; Sam. Hibbert, St. Ann's Square ; Sam. 
Hibbert, King Street; Sam. Jones, Will. Jones (the 
bankers) ; Will. Kenyon ; E. Kirkham ; H. Mather ; 
Henry Norris ; Thos. Percival, M.D. ; John Phillips ; 
John Pilkington ; John Potter ; James Potter ; Eich. 
Potter; Thos. Potter; Tho. Eadford ; Will. Eigby; 
Sam. Eobinson ; Will. Eobinson ; Tho. Eobinson ; E. 
Eobinson ; Jane Sempill (nee Bayley) ; Sam. Taylor ; 
James Touchett ; J. Withington ; Henry Marsland and 
Sons of Stockport ; John Brocklehurst of Macclesfield ; 
Samuel Crompton of Derby ; and Josiah Wedgewood 
of Etruria. 

Among the gentlemen placed on the first com- 
mittee was Titus Hibbert. 

An extract from a sermon preached, on the 26th 
April 1786, by Andrew Kippis, D.D., F.E.S., etc., at 
the Old Jewry, London, on occasion of the project of 
an academy like that of Manchester, may be of 
interest, as showing the change which, in the course 
of a century, the opinions of the Dissenters have 
undergone as regards State Education. 

One question, says Dr. Kippis, is, Whether the 
State ought to interfere in the business of education. 



118 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

After referring to the system in Sparta, the preacher 
goes on to say : But whatever advantage might, in 
certain cases, be supposed to flow from the interposi- 
tion of Governments in directing the principles and 
the modes in which children should be educated, the 
experiment is, in general, too hazardous to be trusted 
in the hands of such mistaken and interested persons 
as the rulers of public communities usually are. It 
is a prerogative that would be perverted to the ends 
of selfishness and ambition, and become the engine 
of injustice, oppression, and tyranny. The inter- 
ference of the Legislature in the affair of education, 
even if conducted with some degree of caution and 
prudence, would be little adapted to the manners of 
modern times in most of the nations of Europe, and 
still less suited to the situation of things in this free 
country. A grand, an insuperable objection is, that 
it would deprive parents of one of their dearest rights. 
... I am sure that the hearts of the fathers and 
mothers who hear me vibrate to this sentiment, and 
testify how cruel they would think it, to have their 
offspring wrested out of their hands, and committed 
to public teachers whose principles and views might 
be totally opposite to their own. And yet, while I 
feel how severe and dangerous it would be for the 
State so to interpose in the business of education as 
to rob the parent of the exercise of his own will in the 
instruction of his children, I am deeply sensible how 
insufficient many fathers and mothers are to this great 
work. I am deeply sensible that their ignorance, 
their folly, their weakness, and their wickedness are 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 119 

the sources of innumerable ills to their progeny. The 
preacher concludes this part of his sermon, expressing 
the wish that parents may become as virtuous as 
possible, that they may not stand charged with the 
ignorance, the iniquity, and the misery of their 
offspring. 

Such were the sentiments, a hundred years ago, of 
the dissenting body, as regards the interference of the 
State in education. Whether, in setting aside these 
sentiments for those of an opposite nature, they have 
acted wisely, the rising generation will show, sooner 
or later. 



120 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XX. 

Peter dare Electricity and the clogs Some names of Manchester 

families. 

WHEN young Samuel Hibbert's college course was ter- 
minated, had he acceded to his father's wish he would 
at once have taken a seat in the counting-house and 
entered upon mercantile life ; but though possessing 
in an eminent degree some qualities which would 
have fitted him for a man of business, his tastes were 
entirely opposed to commerce, and his father, ever a 
kind and indulgent parent, would not force his in- 
clinations ; so for a while young Samuel devoted 
himself to various pursuits, and we shall see him 
by turns chemist, poet, and volunteer. 

It was probably whilst a student at the Manchester 
College that he first became imbued with a love of 
chemistry, from attending John Dalton's lectures and 
witnessing his experiments. 

The seat of the neophyte's chemical labours, his 
laboratory in fact, was a room at the top of his father's 
house, which^he deemed though, alas ! fallaciously as 
it proved sacred from intrusion ; and hither he trans- 
ported crucibles, pipes, and retorts, acids, alkalies, and 
chemicals of various kinds. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 121 

Here, shut up alone, he spent many hours of the 
day, absorbed in his beloved experiments. Many a 
time the olfactory organs of every inmate of the 
establishment were distressed by the noxious odours 
which, issuing from his chamber, descended even from 
above, and permeated the whole house. 

Mr. Hibbert, being mostly in his warehouse, did 
not suffer from the nuisance, so Sam's mother and the 
servants were the chief complainants. One luckless 
day, at last, when a particularly vile smell had poi- 
soned the atmosphere of the paternal dwelling, Mrs. 
Hibbert decided upon putting an end to the infliction. 
Accordingly, taking advantage of the going out of her 
delinquent son, she made her way with all haste up- 
stairs, with a servant, to the laboratory, and there 
and then cleared off all his apparatus and chemicals, 
bidding the servant throw them into the midden ! 

In after years, when alluding to this raid of his 
mother, he would say, with an air half comical, half 
reproachful, " She was very hard upon me." 

Another science, however, also engrossed his atten- 
tion, in the pursuit of which he perhaps solaced him- 
self for the defeat he had received in the cause of 
chemistry we refer to electricity ; his proficiency in 
this branch of study having been mentioned, as we 
have seen, in the College report, as very satisfactory. 
His pursuit of this science brought about an intimacy 
with Friend Peter Clare, a well-known electrician 
in Manchester, and the son of a man equally learned 
in the same branch. His father, who bore the 
same Christian name, lived in Deansgate, and, as 



122 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

we have before mentioned, read a course of lectures 
on electricity in the old concert -room. Peter Clare 
junior afterwards assisted his father in giving lectures. 
A description of this distinguished native of their 
town, given by one who knew him well, may not be 
uninteresting to the citizens of Manchester of the 
present day. He was about the middle height, and a 
little inclined to be stout. His features were very 
regular, indeed almost handsome, and enlivened with 
a pleasant, agreeable smile. He dressed very neatly, 
a broad-brimmed hat and a brown suit of clothes, the 
coat having a plain stand-up collar, such as Quakers 
formerly wore, knee-breeches, and gray worsted 
stockings. 

Born in 1781, Peter Clare junior was just one 
year older than Samuel Hibbert, and the acquaintance, 
first brought about by a pursuit of the same branch of 
science, ripened into an enduring and firm friendship. 
Ardently devoted to the study of electricity, young 
Peter Clare had constructed a battery, the strength of 
which he was often anxious to test. Bipeds were not 
always willing to be the subjects of his experiments, 
so the electrician was compelled to have recourse to 
quadrupeds. Accordingly, he lured with bits of meat 
the dogs of the neighbourhood into his house, in 
order to operate upon them. In the course of time, 
however, the philosopher became better known than 
liked by our canine friends, and when narrating his 
experiences to Sam Hibbert, Friend Peter Clare would 
say, with a quiet smile : " Thou see'st, Friend Hibbert, 
that when I give a dog the galvanic shock, I am 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 123 

obliged to throw wide open every door and window ; 
for he bounds straight forward, and if he should take 
the direction of my windows he would smash them. 
But," continued Friend Peter, looking very archly, " I 
am beginning to fall short of patients, for all the dogs 
hereabouts know me now, and whenever they have 
to pass my house they cross to the other side of the 
street." 

Before bidding adieu to the last century we will 
quote from the Manchester Guardian of the 1st of June 
1850 the names of some among the leading families 
of Manchester. "In 1799," wrote the correspondent 
of that paper, " there were several rich families long 
resident in the town : The Byroms, Bayleys, Bar- 
rows, Barrons, Bradocks, Heywoods, Hydes, Hibberts, 
Hamiltons, Johnsons, Jones, Marklands, Harriots, 
Norrises, Philipses, Percivals, Rawlinsons, Robinsons, 
Rigbys, Thackereys, Tippings, Touchets, Walkers, 
etc." 



124 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XXL 

A passport from Ireland to England Buxton Sam Hibbert's poetry 
Practical jokes The volunteers The peace of Amiens. 

MR. HIBBERT having occasion again to go to Dublin 
(indeed his avocations very often called him to Ire- 
land), took along with him, as a treat, his second son 
Titus, and in the meanwhile young Sam paid a visit 
to that fashionable watering-place, Buxton. 

But before accompanying the latter thither, we 
will make a short extract from a letter, written by 
Mr. Hibbert from Con way, on the 1st of August 
1800, when on his way home from Dublin, which tells 
us of a novel inconvenience to which travellers be- 
tween England and Ireland had then to submit a 
result probably of the insurrection. 

" I meant to have left Dublin two days sooner," wrote Mr. 
Hibbert to his wife, "but I staid one day longer, principally 
to oblige Titus, who had not sufficiently gratified his curiosity, 
and the next day my thoughts were so engaged with settling 
our accounts and taking the necessary care about other things, 
that I forgot a passport in due time, which was a new thing to 
me, and we could not go without." 

It was the height of the season when Samuel 
Hibbert repaired to Buxton, and we shall give an 
extract from a letter to his mother, showing that on 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 125 

the verge of manhood the old propensity of making 
queer acquaintances was still strong within him. 
Writing on the 22d September, he says : 

" We have here Mr. Ackers and his lady. There is one 
young gentleman whom I like very well he is much respected 
here indeed, I have been very careful whom I have got ac- 
quainted with since I was at Bootle last year. A person is soon 
known here whether he can pay his way or not, as bills of ex- 
penses are sent in every week. I have been introduced to several 
ladies at the other hotels when I was at the assemblies. We 
dine at 4 o'clock, and I sit down with no small degree of appe- 
tite, especially after a ride in the country." 

Mr. Ackers, who is mentioned in the preceding 
letter, was of the firm of George Ackers and Son, silk 
and linen manufacturers in Manchester. 

Probably when attending the assemblies at the 
fashionable Buxton hotels, Sam Hibbert dressed like 
other gentlemen ; but hereafter we shall see him so 
negligent in his attire, except when courting, that his 
mother chid him and his brother jeered him. Care- 
lessness in dress was one of his foibles. 

Although absorbed in the study of chemistry and 
electricity, as we have before observed, Samuel Hib- 
bert found time also for versification. He was about 
eighteen years of age when he began to pen sonnets 
and elegies, dramatic poems and ghostly ballads, after 
Monk Lewis. In course of time some of his poetic 
effusions found their way into print, as, for instance, 
in 1801, when "Wulfhard and Hestretha," a ballad 
of the last-mentioned kind, appeared in the European 
Magazine ^of 16th April, and a " Love Elegy" in the 
Monthly Magazine ; but the publication of any of his 



126 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

productions does not vouch for their merit, since 
everyone knows that verses, good (and these but rare), 
bad, and indifferent, make their way into magazines, 
provided only that the author has a friend on their 
staff. 

Of his poetry we will give one specimen, and that 
merely to show what a Whig of 1801 thought of the 
Kussians, who at that time were either friends or foes 
to England, just as it suited their own interests. The 
following extract is from some lines entitled " The 
Russian Emperor : " 

" Of emperors and kings, of great men, great and small, 
There is no one so great as the Emperor Paul 
Cries the Emperor, ' My prowess no foe can withstand, 
I'll extend my dominions o'er sea and o'er land, 
I'll join the Allies, and the French give a wiper, 
By-the-by, I'll take care some one else pays the piper,' " etc. 

In thus indulging in versification and dabbling in 
sciences, Sam Hibbert's father laid no check upon 
him, knowing well that much of his time was really 
given to hard study, for he was even then laying the 
foundations of the fund of learning which he exhibited 
in after life. 

Ardent student as he was, Samuel Hibbert was, 
however, anything but a recluse, for he mingled 
freely in society ; and it may be observed here that, 
even as late as in the early part of this century, prac- 
tical jokes, such as would not now be tolerated, were 
then practised ; nay, even royal personages, the " first 
gentleman (?) in Europe," as one was called, did not 
hesitate to set the example. Accordingly, we need 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 127 

not be surprised if Sam Hibbert, like others, was some- 
times the victim of a practical joke. 

The following incident has been narrated to us : 
At an evening party a game, in which a young lady 
and gentleman were to figure as king and queen, was 
to be played. Sam Hibbert was elected king, and a 
Miss H , in after years the mother of a late cele- 
brated novelist, was to be his queen. The young 
couple first walked a stately minuet ; that done, the 
monarch conducted his fair partner to the thrones 
prepared for them, and gallantly seated her in her 
place, and took possession of his own throne, next to 
hers. But lo ! the royal body suddenly disappeared, 
and nothing but a pair of legs were seen elevated in 
the air, while a loud splash was heard. The king's 
throne consisted of a large tub of water covered with 
a cloth. 

But practical joking was not restricted to private 
life, and the young bloods of that day cared little 
upon whom, or in what places, they perpetrated their 
frolics. 

The late Mr. Proctor, in his History of the Streets 
of Manchester, informs us that one James Robinson 
was the first to cry and retail Chelsea buns in the 
town. Now, as these dainties were sold hot, we do 
not doubt that they were the articles referred to in 
the following episode, told by the late Dr. Hibbert 
Ware. Some young sparks had taken umbrage at 
the denunciations thundered forth by a Methodist 
preacher against playhouses and races, and, bent 
upon taking their revenge, they one day got hold 



128 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of an old blind woman who was in the habit of 
crying " hot Chelsea buns " in the streets. Having 
paid her well, they told her that they would lead her 
to a place where she would find plenty of customers 
as soon as ever she cried out her buns. Accordingly, 
they took her to the doors of the chapel of the obnox- 
ious preacher, where a week-day service was being 
held, and led her up the aisle. The minister was in 
the act of thumping his cushions, and with loud ana- 
themas devoting all sinners to the flames of hell, when 
suddenly there rose high above his voice that of the 
blind retailer of Chelsea buns, shouting, as she walked 
leisurely up the middle of the chapel, " All hot ! all 
hot I Piping hot ! piping hot ! " 

About the year 1801 Samuel Hibbert became in- 
spired with the military enthusiasm, which stirred 
the hearts of Britons of all classes in the kingdom, 
and led to the formation of numerous volunteer regi- 
ments to repel the threatened invasions of the French. 
Accordingly, we find from the following settled ac- 
count that he had joined the 2d Manchester and 
Salford Volunteers, commanded by Colonel Sylvester. 
We give this account, as it both shows that a clothing 
committee supplied the officers' uniforms, and, of 
course, debited them with the amount ; and also 
what articles this committee considered requisite for 
a volunteer officer at that time : 

Sword belt, -= . . ..... . 17 

Sword, .. , -. .- .-360 
Sash, . "/ , . '..... . ./.* . \, 2 14 5 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 129 

Regimental coat . . ^ 

White waistcoat and smalls . > 9130 
One pair blue pantaloons . ) 

1 Epaulette . . . . 2 15 

1 Pair shirt corners . . , 010 6 

1 Sword knot . - . ... . ' v 111 6 

1 Gorget . ; . ; . . . ' 086 

1 Breastplate \ , ^ . 130 

1 Hat, rosette, cockade . ". 2 14 

1 Pair dress boots . . 240 

1 undress ditto . ... 240 

1 Feather . - , / -. ; '.;-: 14 

1 Common sword knot . . 090 

1 Stock and clasp .... 2 



31 6 3 

The war carried on by England with the French 
Republic had now lasted eight or nine years ; and 
the French having been somewhat humbled by the 
victories of Nelson on the Nile and Abercrombie in 
Egypt, peace was at last concluded by the Treaty of 
Amiens, and great were the rejoicings all over the 
kingdom, and especially in Manchester, where trade 
had suffered so much. 

The following letter, written to Mrs. Hibbert by a 
friend in London, will show how this wished-for peace 
was celebrated in the Guildhall, on Lord Mayor's 
Day, in the 'year of grace 1801 : 

LONDON, 11 Jany. 1802. 

DEAR MADAM I should have wrote to you long ago to 
thank you for your kind attention in procuring me the Whit- 
worth medicine but thought that it would have done good, 
which, as is the case with most quackery, it did not. I wished 
much for your company here on the 9th of November, that you 

K 



130 SAMUEL HIBBEET WAKE'S 

might have accompanied Mr. Sawyer and myself to the Lord 
Mayor's dinner at the Guildhall, as I think you would have been 
a few hours greatly entertained. The hall where we dined was 
illuminated, in the most splendid manner, with variegated lamps, 
forming different devices, and interspersed with beautiful trans- 
parent paintings, emblematic of the Peace : one, I think the finest 
I ever saw the four quarters of the world presenting presents 
to Britain. About six hundred persons sat down to tables 
covered with every delicacy of the season. But prior to this is 
the ceremony of the drawing-room, which is similar to that of St. 
James's. A platform is raised at the upper end of the room, on 
which is placed a state chair, gilt and covered with crimson velvet, 
on which the Lady Mayoress sits to receive the company who 
are presented. She is always in a full Court dress : her's was 
white satin, the petticoat richly embroidered in stripes of gold, 
and spangled ; her head-dress was a white crape turban, with a 
bandeau of diamonds and three large ostrich feathers in front. 
I was very fortunate in procuring an excellent situation for seeing, 
being only the fourth person from her ladyship. Amongst the 
distinguished persons in the circle were the Duke of Portland, 
the Lord Chancellor, Lord Wood, Sir William Hamilton, Lord 
Nelson, the Turkish Ambassador, Mr. and Mrs. Otto, who all 
partook of the dinner. The evening concluded, as usual, with a 
ball, which was opened about ten o'clock, when four minuets 
were danced, country dances then commenced, when we left very 
well entertained. Your obedient humble servant, 

M SAWYER. 

The Whitworth medicine, or quackery, to which 
Mrs. Sawyer alludes at the commencement of her letter 
was a composition of the " Whitworth doctors," who 
were well known in Manchester and the neighbour- 
hood as late as the first half of this century. Their 
name was Taylor, and the surviving partner lived in 
Oldfield Lane, in Manchester, and was popularly 
called " T' Owdfield Lane Doctor." Whether or not 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 131 

his medicines were quackeries, there is no doubt that 
what was called his " Redbottle " was held, far and 
wide, in Lancashire, in high repute for curing sprains, 
bruises, and suchlike accidents. Notwithstanding Mr. 
Taylor's great wealth, his daughters, so it was said, 
would personally sell this bottle to any customer com- 
ing to the surgery. But " T' Owdfield Lane Doctor's " 
pre-eminence was in setting broken bones, and even 
people in good position would employ him in this 
branch of surgery. It was also said of him that when 
bleeding patients he would operate on several at once, 
causing them to sit in a row in his surgery, and then 
proceeding to bleed one after another, and when the 
last had been operated on, begin again with the first 
to bind up their arms ; and if even one should faint, 
then he or she would have to lie until his or her 
turn came. His favourite patients, however, were 
animals, especially dogs, and to attend to these he 
would let any human patient wait. 

There is some account of the " Whitworth doctosr " 
in the Palatine Note-Book. 



132 SAMUEL HTBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Sam Hibbert and his brother Titus separate Act of Union, strong 
feeling against in Ireland War Recruiting in Manchester 
Cowdroy Jimmy Watson Joseph Aston. 

NOVEMBER of the year 1802 saw the first real separa- 
tion between Samuel Hibbert and his brother Titus, 
his companion from infancy. At home, and at school, 
they had always been together, from boyhood up- 
wards, till each was verging on manhood, and then 
it was that they drifted apart, Titus going up to 
London to study for the Bar, and Samuel remaining 
in Manchester. 

In 1799 the former had been articled to Messrs. 
Duckworth and Chippendall, then one of the leading 
firms of attorneys in Manchester. We may notice here 
the expenses of articling a pupil at that time, with a 
firm of high standing, as compared with what it is 
now. The premium paid by Mr. Hibbert for the 
apprenticeship of his son, for five years, was 210, 
whilst the duty to Government was only 11 !! 

Mr. George Duckworth, the old friend of the 
family, had always treated Titus Hibbert with great 
consideration and kindness, but differences having 
arisen between the latter and Mr. Edward Chippendall, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 133 

and these differences becoming greater as time went 
on, Mr. Hibbert determined, at the end of three 
years, with the full concurrence of Mr. Duckworth, 
on removing his son to London ; this determination 
having been strengthened also by the youth's wish 
to study for the Bar. 

Before his son's departure to London, Mr. Hibbert 
took him with him again as his companion to Dublin. 

Though England was now at peace with all the 
world, Ireland was still a thorn in her side. The Act 
of Union, passed in January 1800, was to take effect 
from January 1801, but there was a bitter feeling 
against it in Ireland, as we may see from the follow- 
ing extract of a letter from Titus Hibbert to his 
mother, dated Dublin, 16th August 1804 : 

" We went in a jingle to-day to Rocktown and dined there. 
I must not forget to tell you that we had a Member of Parlia- 
men (I think his name is James) with us. He talked very 
violently against the Union, and amongst other things said that 
he had formerly gone to England with a great deal of pleasure ; 
but now he could scarce bear to behold an Englishman's face. 
He said too, that every Englishman was a tyrant by nature. He 
is of opinion that before long the whole nation will rise up 
against the Union, and that the Irish Parliament will sit in 
Ireland again shortly." 

Soon after the return of Mr. Hibbert and his son 
from Dublin, the latter started for London by the 
stage-coach. A brief reference to a letter written to 
his mother on his arrival will show the railway traveller 
of to-day what inconveniences and discomforts the 
stage-coach traveller in the early part of the present 
century was destined to endure : 



134 SAMUEL H1BBERT WAREV 

" We had a very pleasant journey as far as Leicester, where 
we changed coaches, and got wedged, six of us, into a coach that 
would scarcely hold four. We had such poor horses, we were 
obliged to get out, in the middle of the night, to walk to ease 
them a little." 

When Titus Hibbert arrived in London, he found 
his friend Mr. George Duckworth there, and the latter 
then lost no time in taking him to the celebrated 
conveyancer Mr. Charles Butler, who, being a Catholic, 
practised under the Bar. An extract from a letter of 
Titus Hibbert to his father, dated 8th November 1802, 
shows the terms upon which this eminent lawyer 
accepted pupils : 

" I went with Mr. Duckworth this morning to Mr. Butler, 

under whom he means to place me. He will give Mr. D 

an answer to-morrow, whether he has a vacancy. His terms are 
100 per annum the two first years. I can stay with him after- 
wards without any further fee. I went to see Midas at Drury 
Lane; the scenery in it exceeds any I ever saw. Kelly was 
Apollo. He played as ill as ever." 

In another letter Titus Hibbert says : 

" Mr. Butler is almost the only conveyancer in town who 
takes any pains to give his pupils instruction, besides what they 
may receive from his business." 

In December the young law student took a 
violent cold, the precursor of an illness which soon 
terminated fatally. From this time till his death, in 
the following month, he received unremitting kind- 
ness and attention from Mr. Lewis Loyd the banker, 
with whose house Mr. Hibbert banked, and who was 
also a personal friend. That gentleman took great 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 135 

pains to find lodgings for the invalid in a purer air. 
He writes to Titus Hibbert : 

LOTHBURY, 28th Dee. 1802. 

DEAR SIR I received the enclosed note, late last night, 
respecting the lodgings on Clapham Common. You will see 
they cannot be had before the 5th of January. If the doctor 
and you think it desirable not to wait so long, I will, with 
pleasure, inquire for you in some other quarter. 

I hope to be able to give you a call in the course of the day. 
I remain, dear sir, yours very sincerely, LEWIS LOYD. 

T. Hibbert, Esq., 
44 Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane. 

The invalid had, on the recommendation of Mr. 
Thomas, his medical adviser, been removed into the 
Brompton district, from whence he wrote, on the 1st 
of January 1803, to his mother, who was in a state 
of great anxiety about him : 

DEAR MOTHER In my last letter I informed you Mr. Loyd 
had written about a place in the country. I received a letter 
from him saying that it would be some days before it would be 
disengaged. Mr. Thomas had heard of a place where he had 
had some patients before, and on the same day I received Mr. 
Loyd's note he removed me to it. I have been here ever since. 
It is at Michael's Place, Brompton, opposite Kensington House. 
The air is very good, and I think I have found much benefit 
from it. There is a captain also in this house, who is here for 
his health. Mr. Loyd intends coming to see me, and Mr. 
Bentley will call to-morrow. My hand is so weak I cannot 
write better. 

Only a few days later, on the 12th of the month, 
the writer had ceased to exist. His end was so 
sudden that his two brothers, who had hurried up 
from Manchester so soon as his illness had been de- 



136 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

clared serious, only arrived the day after his decease. 
Thus the farewell which had passed between Samuel 
Hibbert and the brother who had been his constant 
companion for so many years, was destined to be 
a final parting, and on earth they met no more. 
Samuel, however, always cherished the memory of 
his early playmate with tender and undying affection, 
and often alluded to him in after life. 

The Peace of Amiens, which only a few months 
ago had brought such joy to all hearts in England, 
and nowhere more than in Manchester, had now 
become a thing of the past, and the sword had to be 
drawn again, and the unhappy people had once more 
to execrate dire war, 

"Hie matres, miserceque nurus, hie chara sororum 
Pectora masrentum, puerigue, par&ntibus orbi 
Dirum execrantur bellum." ./EN., ii. v. 215. 

And once more did Buonaparte menace England with 
invasion, whilst the French armies overran Italy and 
Spain, and General Mortier, the whilom alumnus of 
the Manchester New College, took possession, of 
Hanover. 

A general enrolment had been immediately passed 
by the British Parliament, but this was hardly neces- 
sary, for nearly all the male population spontaneously 
came forward to enrol themselves. Manchester was 
not behind the rest of' the country in patriotism, and 
several volunteer corps were raised, whilst recruiting 
for the regulars went on merrily and briskly, for there 
had been bad harvests and bad trade. As many as 
from a hundred to a hundred and fifty recruits were 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 137 

sent out monthly from Manchester, to the different 
regiments, says Mr. Harland in his Manchester Col- 
lectanea. 

The public-houses of the town were thronged. In 
one, might be heard some strapping young fellow 
bawling out at the pitch of his voice, as Sergeant 
Crimp patted his shoulders and winked at Sergeant 

Kite, 

" How happy the soldier who lives on his pay, 
And spends half-a-crown out of sixpence a day ; 
He fears neither justices, warrants, nor bums, 
But pays all his debts with the roll of the drums;" 

whilst in another tap-room a noisy set of young lads, 
who had just taken the shilling, shouted themselves 
hoarse, as they joined in the chorus of a song of 
bygone days, now only to be met with in some old 
penny Garland: 

" Ye hearts of oak of Manchester, 

Come listen to my song, 
To the marine corps in this town, 
The praise of it belong. 

Chorus. " This corps, so tight, is the delight 

Of lasses neat and clean, 
No girl that's wise will e'er despise 
A Manchester marine. 

" The gentlemen of Manchester 
Five hundred men to raise, 
And more to prove their loyalty, 
Six guineas bounty pays. 

" They wear cockades of pink and blue 

For to adorn their head, 
And dress their men in uniform 
Of handsome white and red. 



138 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" A band of music sweetly plays, 
Before them in their round, 
While every heart is cheer'd to hear 
Its captivating sound. 

* * * * 
" The Manchester marines are men 

That's loyal, free, and bold, 
And does declare they'll nobly die, 
Before they'll be controul'd. 

" To fight the proud insulting French 

They valiantly will go, 
And in defence of Britons' rights, 
Much courage they will show. 

" When France is taught to know her own, 

If fortune spare our lives, 
To Manchester we will return 
To our sweethearts and wives. 

* * * * 
" Their bells will ring and music play, 

While Britons drink and sing, 
God bless the Manchester marines 
And save great George our King." 

Before the recruits were sent off to Chatham, to 
join their respective regiments, they were marched 
through the streets of Manchester, with cockades and 
ribbons, blue, white, and red, streaming from their 
hats, whilst the band, drums, and fifes played the 
tune of the old song " Farewell, Manchester." 

The sergeants headed them, strutting boldly on, 
with loaves of good bread on the points of their 
swords, indicating that in His Majesty's service no 
man need starve. Large bounties, moreover, were 
given to each recruit, amounting often to ten or 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 139 

fifteen guineas. These processions usually formed in 
St. Ann's Square. 

When speaking of these times in after years, the 
late Dr. Hibbert Ware used to say, that he had often 
seen these processions of half-starving fellows, tempted 
by the loaves of bread on the points of the sergeants' 
swords, but that sometimes, and perhaps too often, 
Sergeant Kite would enlist a man without his consent. 
Dr. Hibbert remembered seeing one day a poor 
fellow brought before the magistrates to be sworn as 
an enlisted soldier. The man protested that he had 
never enlisted, that he had been deceived. Sergeant 
Kite swore that he had enlisted the man, that he had 
given him the shilling, which had been accepted. 
The case was clear the man was a soldier and must 
go. "Well," said the poor fellow, addressing the 
magistrate, " if I mun be a sodgier, I mun, but please 
your worship, tell me if the shilling the sergeant gave 
me be a good un 1" "Let me see it," said the magis- 
trate. The man handed him a shilling, which his 
worship took and looked at, but before he could pro- 
nounce as to the genuineness of the coin, the recruit 
exclaimed, " You are enlisted, sir ; you have taken the 
shilling." "What do you mean, fellow?" exclaimed 
the indignant magistrate. " That is just the way he 
served me, sir," retorted the recruit. 

Inflamed as much with military ardour as any of 
his fellow- townsmen, Sam Hibbert was again most 
punctual at parade and drill, assiduously practised the 
duck-step, and assisted with zeal at every martial 
exercise. But though in him the enthusiasm of 



140 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

youth lent somewhat of a charm to all the pomp 
and circumstance of " roaring war," his more prudent 
and matter-of-fact sire groaned over the heavy taxes ; 
and well he might, for in some old tax re<*eipts of that 
period we find that Mr. Hibbert paid a poor rate at 
the rate of 6s. in the pound, and another at 3s. in the 
pound for paying the bounties to balloted men to 
serve in the militia and army of reserve ; and in 
addition to the house tax and window taxes, he paid 
5 : 5s. for a two-wheeled carriage, 3 : Is. for male 
servants, for a horse 2 : 8s., for a dog 11s., and (it 
looks like a grim joke) to crown all, there was a duty 
of ten per cent laid on the whole assessment ! that is 
to say, the Government laid a tax on the gross 
amount of the very taxes which the poor Briton 
had to pay ! 

Having now attained the age of twenty-one, 
Samuel Hibbert began to cultivate manly acquaint- 
ances, but the intimacies he formed seemed already 
to foreshadow his future pursuits, and the sort of 
friends whom those pursuits would gather around 
him. Literary men and wits, journalists and actors, 
were his chief acquaintance, and with these he passed 
many pleasant hours ; nor did his father object to 
his son bringing his friends to his table, for he was a 
man of a kind and hospitable nature. The most 
noted perhaps, at this time, of Sam Hibbert's 
acquaintance were, Mr. William Cowdroy, the editor 
of the Manchester Gazette ; Mr. James Watson, fami- 
liarly called Jimmy Watson or Doctor Watson ; and 
Mr. Joseph Aston, a literary man and poet, who after- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 141 

wards edited the Exchange Herald. "We can hardly 
give a better delineation of Mr. Cowdroy than by 
quoting from a newspaper, in which appeared an 
obituary notice of him : " His convivial talents," 
says the writer, " were perhaps without parallel. The 
board was festive with the unceasing exertion of his 
raillery, wit, and humour." 

Doctor Hibbert Ware used to tell how on one 
occasion Cowdroy, criticising the amateur actors of 
a play performed for the benefit of the Infirmary, 
and which was by no means a firstrate specimen of 
acting, after strongly recommending the object for 
which the play had been got up, concluded by writing, 
" Of the actors we have little more to say, than that 
charity covereth a multitude of sins." 

Jimmy Watson was a frequent contributor to 
Cowdroy's Gazette, which often teemed with his wit ; 
he was of a very social disposition, and of convivial 
habits, an instance of which we can give the reader 
on the authority of the late Mr. Joseph Jordan, 
surgeon. 

Jimmy Watson and Cowdroy had been spending 
the evening with Sam Hibbert in St. Ann's Square, 
and all of them had been very merry. When it was 
time to separate it poured with rain, and the two 
visitors asked for the loan of an umbrella. Amongst 
those articles on the stand in the lobby were one or 
two without any covers, which Mrs. Hibbert had 
placed there in order to send to the umbrella-maker 
the next morning. Sam Hibbert laid hold of one and 
handed it to his friends. Having put it up they 



142 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

proceeded with as steady a pace as, in their elevated 
state, they could walk, towards Mr. Cowdroy's house ; 
but when they arrived there they were quite wet 
through ! and no wonder, for the umbrella which 
Sam, either in a fit of absence of mind a failing of 
his or more probably in a state of exhilaration, had 
given them, was one of those destined by his mother 
to go to the umbrella-maker to be covered anew. 

Poor Jimmy Watson's fate was a sad one. Many 
years after, when Dr. Hibbert Ware was settled in 
Edinburgh, he received a letter from the late Mr. 
Thomas Golland, dated June 27th, 1820, saying that 
Dr. Watson had drowned himself at Cheadle on the 
previous Saturday, but had not yet been found ; that 
he had pulled off his coat, hat, and cravat, and that 
his stick, with a letter, had been found by the side of 
the river. 

We will now say a few words of the last of the 
three wits whom we have mentioned Mr. Joseph 
Aston. He was on intimate terms with many literary 
men, and with all the noted play-actors in Manchester, 
the distinguished Mr. Charles Young amongst the 
number. In 1809 Mr. Aston published a poem of 
considerable merit, entitled, "An Heroic Epistle from 
the Quadruple Obelisk in the Market Place to the 
New Exchange, to which are added Notes, etc." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 143 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Manchester Theatre Biley the actor Sam Hibbert marries. 

As a young man, and indeed throughout his life, 
Samuel Hibbert was a great admirer of the drama. 
He was what might be termed a playgoer, and in 
his early manhood numbered many members of the 
dramatic profession amongst his personal friends. 

In 1803 the Manchester theatre came under the 
management of Messrs. Ward and Young, the latter of 
whom afterwards became so celebrated. While these 
gentlemen were at the helm the Manchester theatre 
could boast of a constellation of talent which no other 
provincial house could show. John Kemble, Mrs. 
Siddons, Miss Farren, afterwards Countess of Derby, 
adorned the Manchester stage, together with other 
celebrities, as Mesdames Powell, Taylor, Glover, and 
Moreton, the Misses Comely and Daniels ; Bannister 
also, and the so-called " Itinerant " Riley, figured on 
its boards. With many of these sons and daughters 
of Thespis, Samuel Hibbert jun. was very intimate, 
and he occasionally wrote prologues, which were 
spoken on the stage and afterwards made their 
appearance in print in Cowdroy's Gazette and other 
papers. 



144 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

In the Monthly Mirror, in the early part of this 
century, a notice appears of some lines written by 
hi m: _"0n Wednesday the 22d ult.," writes the 
Mirror, " a young lady, only eighteen years of age, 
of the name of Clarke, the daughter of Mr. Cowdroy, 
proprietor of the Manchester Gazette, made her first 
appearance in any theatre on our boards, in the 
arduous character of Euphrasia, in Murphy's tragedy 
of the Grecian Daughter. Her reception on her entree 
was highly flattering, and at the close of the first act 
she received nine distinct rounds of applause. She 
walked the stage with an ease and elegance that 
would have done credit to the most experienced 
veteran ; she possesses a fine figure, a most expres- 
sive countenance. Among the company (theatrical) 
at present are Messrs. Meggett, Barrymore, our acting 
manager, Melvin, Harley, Barnes, Atkinson, Mrs. 
Glover, and Miss Taylor. 

The following lines, written by Sam Hibbert 
jun., Esq., of this town, were forcibly delivered by 
Mr. Barrymore. 

We shall only give so many lines of this prologue 
as claim the indulgence of the audience for the young 
lady : 

* * * * 

" She who is doomed this night to fall or rise, 

Whose apprehensions are beyond disguise, 

The fiat craves of her own gen'rous town 

Her first endeavours to condemn or crown ! 

* * * * 

Ah ! think, ye fair, what fears the heart confound, 
On your first entrance to life's giddy round ; 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 145 

When fashion's glittering ball-room strikes the eye, 
What palpitations rise, ye know not why ! 
What then must be our heroine's first advance 
To meet your awful, scrutinising glance, 
And, by the dazzling lamps' exposing glow, 
Her judges view, in formidable show ! 

Let your indulgent smiles her prospect cheer, 
And chase the gloomy phantoms rais'd by Fear ; 
Whilst Liberality's benignant flame 
May light the toilsome road that leads to Fame." 

Sam's friends amongst the actors were, as we have 
said, welcomed at his father's board ; but his mother 
did not altogether approve of his intimacy with the 
actresses ; the good lady was, in fact, afraid lest her 
son should fall in love. 

Whether there were any grounds for such fears or 
not, her youngest son George, a boy of about twelve 
years of age, with all a lad's sharpness, perceived 
them, and took a mischievous delight in increasing 
them. Many a time would he, in a spirit of playful 
mischief, run to his mother and, with a laugh, exclaim 

" Mamma, I have just seen Sam with Miss , 

and they are walking towards the Oxford Road." 
The poor lady would sit in a state of the greatest 
possible alarm until she saw Sam return safe home. 
But if she could have dived into his soul she would, 
for the most part, have been quite at ease, for his 
attentions were not confined to one fair Thespian 
only, but to many ; nor indeed was love, as his 
mother feared, the theme of their earnest talk, but 
matters theatrical. 

In after years, when little George had become a 

L 



146 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

lieutenant- colonel in the army and Sam an old man, 
the two brothers would laugh over the mischievous 
tricks the former had played off. 

Another theatrical friend of Samuel Hibbert was 
the " Itinerant " Kiley. He was a veiy jovial man, 
though blunt spoken, and not very refined in the 
practical jokes which he occasionally played off. He 
was full of humour, an inimitable comic actor, and 
his features and limbs were as comical as his acting. 

The late Dr. Hibbert Ware would occasionally 
relate the following episode which occurred at one of 
the hotels at Harrogate, where he happened to be 
staying while Riley was there. It was the custom at 
the hotels then that the wine drank by the ladies 
should be ticketed with their respective names, so 
that each might know her own bottle when it was 
again brought on at dinner time. Riley had been at 
the Green Dragon for a week or more, and had seen 
these ticketed bottles appear daily. At last, one day 
after dinner, when the ladies had retired, as usual, 
and their wine had been removed to the sideboard, 
Riley, who had silently watched the operation, burst 
out with an exclamation of impatience, " D n that 
wine of those old tabbies ! Day after day have I seen 
those cursed bottles come on to the table 1 Sip, sip, 
sip ! I swear that at this rate the wine will never be 
done I Waiter ! bring me all that wine ! " The waiter 
grinned, and did as he was bid, and Riley deliberately 
finished one bottle after another. The next day at 
dinner, at which of course the actor did not put in 
an appearance, the amazement, mingled with indigna- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 147 

tion, of the plundered ladies may be imagined when, 
in answer to each request, "Waiter, bring me my 
wine," the man, assuming a grave look, replied, with 
a bow, " Mr. Eiley has drunk it, ma'am." 

Samuel Hibbert, as we have before remarked, did 
not in general pay much attention to his dress, except 
on certain interesting occasions. One of these occa- 
sions occurred soon after the young gentleman had 
attained his majority, when his more than ordinary 
scrupulous attention to the outward man did not escape 
his mother's penetrating glance. She perceived that 
Sam was smitten by the charms of a certain young 
lady whom she numbered amongst her own acquaint- 
ance ; so far, the mother's fears lest her son should 
fall in love with an actress were now allayed. But 
before proceeding farther we will try to picture to 
ourselves Sam Hibbert as a beau of the year 1803. 

He was tall, being six feet high, and it may easily 
be imagined that the inelegant costume of the period, 
tight -fitting as it was, would cause him to appear 
literally all legs and wings. A close-fitting coat, 
fashioned with a high collar, remarkably short waist 
and remarkably long swallow tails, reaching almost 
to the calves of the legs, adorned the beau ; the waist- 
coat was also made so ridiculously short that it might 
have been intended for a boy of eight years of age ; 
whilst the short waist of the coat and the tight-fitting 
nether garments, consisting either of knee-breeches or 
pantaloons, gave the wearer all the appearance of a 
long-legged crane. The feet were encased either in 
shoes, if the person wore breeches, or in Hessian boots, 



148 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE S 

with huge black tassels dangling in front, if he wore 
pantaloons. The chin was almost buried in rolls of 
muslin cravats, tied like towels round the neck, a 
fashion introduced by the Prince of Wales to conceal 
the swellings in his glands, and frills adorned the 
shirt breast, whilst the hair, cut short and frizzed, was 
dressed in the Parisian fashion, d la Brutus, according 
to the revived coiffure of Borne, which the French had 
adopted in their admiration of that Republic. 

If our young spark, thus attired, thought himself 
irresistible in the eyes of the fair sex, his thoughts 
differed little from those of most other young sparks ; 
nor did his fate differ from that of many of them. 

Mistaking, as more than he have done, friendship 
and esteem evinced towards him for a more tender 
feeling, he one day made a proffer of his hand and 
heart (for fortune he had none) to the young lady we 
have alluded to a real Lancashire witch a certain 
Miss Harrison. To his astonishment, and doubtless 
to his chagrin also, the lady declined his offer with 
thanks, to use the words of our friends the publishers, 
giving a reason all-powerful with her difference of 
religion, she being of a Catholic family and a Catholic, 
and he a Protestant. 

Many long years afterwards, when both Sam Hib- 
bert and Miss Harrison were in the vale of years, she 
a widow and the mother of a grown-up family, and 
he the father of one, Captain Edward Jones, a friend 
of both the lady and the gentleman, wanted to take 
him to pay a visit to the dulcinea of his youth, but 
the veteran man of science, with some little romantic 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 149 

feeling, declined, saying gallantly, " I do not want 
the impression I still have of her as a beautiful girl to 
be effaced." 

But misplaced affections did not break Samuel's 
heart, who, doubtless thinking that there were as 
good fish in the sea as ever came out of it, quickly 
fell over head and ears in love with a young lady he 
had seen at an assembly at Bury. 

Many a time and oft was Sam, now gaily-attired in 
Brunswick cord breeches and top-boots, seen riding a 
good roadster to the little town of Bury. 

" Bury," says Martin, in his Natural History of 
England, vol. ii. p. 262, published in 1763, "is a 
small town pleasantly situate on the river Irwell, and, 
though small, yet is one of the neatest in the country, 
to which nature and art, industry and trade, have 
admirably contributed." The Bury of 1800 differed 
little from the Bury just described. 

On the 23d of July 1803 Samuel Hibbert was 
married at the parish church of Bury to Miss Sarah 
Crompton, a handsome girl of the age of eighteen. 
The lady was the youngest daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Crompton, of Bridge Hall, Bury, a paper manufacturer. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hibbert would have preferred that 
their son should have waited till he was older, for he 
was not yet two -and -twenty, whilst Miss Sarah 
Crompton was little more than a child ; however, as 
Sam was very deeply in love, they would not withhold 
their consent, and Mr. Hibbert made his son a suitable 
allowance. The young couple first settled in Quay 
Street, removing afterwards to No. 42 Princess Street. 



150 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



Liverpool, sea-bathing at Chorlton Row in 1805 William Hibbert 
and the 40th Regiment Review at Ardwick Green by the Duke 
of Gloucester Arthur Thistlewood. 

As late as the early part of this century Liverpool was 
resorted to sometimes by the inhabitants of Man- 
chester for the benefit of sea-bathing, and two of Mr. 
Hibbert's sons had been sent there to dip in the briny, 
or, we should say, brackish water. 

Young William Hibbert, writing to his mother 
from that place on the 18th of July 1800, says : 

" After bathing we generally take a walk up the sea-shore, 
for the benefit of the sea air. I paid the bathing man one guinea 
for Tommy to bathe the half year ; we could not subscribe for a 
quarter, as it was not mentioned in the rules." 

Thomas was then decidedly consumptive, and 
William had a tendency to that disease, consequently 
the sea air (?) of Liverpool was expected to be of ser- 
vice to them. But even a few years later, Liverpool 
was still a bathing-place, for in the October of 1804 
Mrs. Hibbert wrote to her son William, who had just 
joined the 40th Kegiment : 

" Last Friday your father went down to Liverpool with your 
brother Thomas, who is gone for the benefit of bathing ; and if 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 151 

they can get comfortable lodgings along the shore, I intend going 
for a week or ten days, to brace myself up against the Man- 
chester smoke for the winter, as we have given up all thoughts 
of going to live in the country this year." 

In a few months Thomas Hibbert died. The fol- 
lowing bill for some music lessons will both show the 
charges made at that time for such instruction, and 
that Mr. Hibbert could hardly have asked his medical 
adviser whether such lung exercise as playing on the 
flute were good for consumptive patients : 

"Augt. 7th to 4th Deer. 1804. 

" To instructing Mr. Thos. Hibbert, 1 3 lessons on the flute, 
at 10 lessons for 1 guinea ; 

"March 17th to Augt 25th Instructing Mr. William Hib- 
bert, 7 lessons, 14/6. Settled, W. HUGHES." 

Mrs. Hibbert's health was also at times indifferent, 
for she was much troubled with asthma, and the air of 
Manchester rather disagreed with her. Since the year 
1789 the town had been gradually becoming more 
smoky, for in that year the first steam-engine for spin- 
ning cotton had been erected, and the improvements 
made by Watt, and the various mechanical inventions, 
had contributed to extend manufactures. The smoke 
(though trifling compared with that of to-day) decided 
Mr. Hibbert to move into the country. 

What his wife, in the year 1804, called the country 
will give no little surprise to the inhabitants of Man- 
chester in the year 1882. The country she then spoke 
of is now built over by Clarendon Street. As early as 
1796 Mr. Hibbert had purchased land upon which to 
build a house and lay out a garden. This he did, 
and he removed to it about the year 1805. 



152 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

In 1804 there were in Oxford Koad only two 
houses between St. Peter's Church and the Kochdale 
Canal ; several of the churches were in the midst of 
gardens or waste ground ; see the Chetham Society's 
Manchester Collectanea, vol. ii. p. 156. 

The nearest house to Mr. Hibbert's, which was 
called Clarendon House, was probably that of Mr. 
De Quincey's father. And as late as 1812 Samuel 
Hibbert, when in the militia, writing to his mother 
from Haddington, where his regiment was stationed, 
and wishing to give her some idea of the size of the 
barrack-yard, tells her that it was nearly as big as the 
field before her house ! Adjoining Mr. Hibbert's garden 
there was a large pond filled with little fish, and round 
the pond stood good-sized trees willows and poplars. 
There are those yet living who can remember hay- 
v making in the fields in the vicinity. The antique, 
picturesque, half-timbered Garret Hall stood at the 
time of which we are writing in the midst of green 
meadows. Garret Road was then a rural lane, lined 
on either side with hawthorn hedges. All these plea- 
sant fields are now covered with mills, belching forth 
volumes of black smoke, and cottage property. 

We have intimated that William Hibbert was in 
the 40th Regiment. He was the third brother of Sam 
Hibbert ; but if the latter had given his mother some 
little uneasiness lest he should fall in love with a play- 
actress, William gave her more, but in a different way. 
When the war broke out again in 1803, the volun- 
teering and enlisting had made an impression on his 
youthful soul, for he was then about seventeen ; so a 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 153 

soldier he would be. His father said no ; and at last 
the lad ran off to Liverpool, intending to enlist there, 
when Mr. Hibbert, seeing that it was useless to resist 
any longer the youth's inclination, wrote to his friend 
Dr. Charles Taylor, Chief Secretary of the Society of 
Arts, in London, who had considerable army interest, 
requesting that gentleman to arrange for the purchase 
of a commission. Dr. Taylor soon replied that he had 
settled with General Spencer, that on payment of the 
sum of 400, then the regulation price, William Hib- 
bert should have an ensigncy in the 40th, " a regi- 
ment," observed Dr. Taylor, " which is one of the 
most eligible, both in point of officers and men, of 
any in the English service." So William was thus 
launched in life. 

The end of this young officer was a melancholy 
one ; and as Sam Hibbert at one time meditated step- 
ping into his place in the 40th, we will introduce some 
letters showing the brief career of William Hibbert, 
which also give a little insight into military life at 
that time. 

Those who make the army their profession, wrote 
Thomas Eeide, Esq., in his Treatise on the Duty of 
Infantry Officers, published in 1795, ought, in addition 
to the education commonly given, to understand the 
French, German, Spanish, and Italian languages, with 
such a knowledge of mathematics as is requisite for 
the study of fortification and tactics ; likewise riding, 
fencing, and drawing, the latter being absolutely 
necessary to execute plans, charts, etc. 

William Hibbert had received a liberal education, 



154 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

but doubtless it fell short of the before -mentioned 
requisites ; nevertheless he was fairly "up in " mathe- 
matics, and moreover possessed an accomplishment 
which made him a general favourite with his brother 
officers he was an excellent player on the German 
flute. The late Dr. Hibbert Ware was wont to say, 
that when his brother played a solo at the Gentleman's 
Concert Hall, in Fountain Street, he so riveted the 
attention of the audience that a pin might be heard 
drop in the room. 

The young officer joined the 40th at Hastings, in 
the summer of 1804, under what then appeared to be 
very good auspices ; and Dr. Charles Taylor, when 
writing soon afterwards to Mr. Hibbert, said : 

" I do not think he could have been better placed than in 
his present regiment, which is unusually well spoken of. During 
my residence at Hastings I had the opportunity and introduced 
him to General Spencer and the colonels of his regiment, and to 
friends who will give him the best advice, whenever necessary. 
Colonel Brown has promised to pay particular attention to his 
conduct. General Spencer and Colonel Brown are excellent 
officers, and have seen much service, and keep the regiment in 
excellent discipline." 

Grand military reviews were at this time frequent 
in different parts of the kingdom. At Hastings the 
Duke of York reviewed upwards of 2000 Hanoverian 
troops and two English regiments; whilst at Man- 
chester the Duke of Gloucester and Prince William 
held a review, on a large scale, of the military in that 
neighbourhood. 

Mrs. Hibbert, writing to her son William on the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 155 

8th of October 1804, relates as follows of this re- 
view : 

" Last Friday but one we had a very bustling day here, with 
all the different corps in the town and neighbourhood of Man- 
chester, who were reviewed by the Duke of Gloucester and his 
son Prince William. It was a fine sight to see such a number 
of good-looking men in their different uniforms, with the addition 
of their being particularly neat. It was very fortunately a fine 
day for them. The place of review was on Ardwick Green. All 
the volunteers were drawn up on each side of the Green, and the 
Duke, with his son, rode round on the inside, and then stopped 
at Mr. Gould's gates, while all the men passed them twice, the 
first in slow time, the second in a quick march. I hear he was 
much pleased with them, and thought their commanders merited 
great commendation for their good order and discipline. I hear 
Colonel Ackers' regiment is very much offended with Colonel 
Hanson for taking the right side on the day of the review, and 
on that account have said will give in their resignation." 

In the summer of 1805 Ensign William Hibbert 
was detached to Frome with a recruiting party, and 
when writing from that place to his mother, relating 
to her his duties, he makes allusion to an individual 
with whose wife the family were on intimate terms, 
and who afterwards became so notorious : 

" Your intelligence of poor Mrs. Thistle wood's death," wrote 
William Hibbert, " surprised me very much. I apprehend Mr. 
Thistle wood, who, I suppose, has not played his cards ill during 
her life, will be well provided for. I should think he will go 
again into the army. I always suspected he had a hankering 
after it" 

Arthur Thistlewood had been a lieutenant in the 

army. He married a Miss W , of Manchester, 

whose name we leave in blank, lest any of the lady's 
family may yet be living. She was one of two sisters, 



156 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

both intimate friends of Mrs. Hibbert. They were 
ladies of considerable fortune. There is a letter of 
Lieutenant Thistlewood addressed to Mr. Hibbert; 
but such was the fear, even at so recent a period as 
1819, of domiciliary visits from Government officers 
that the body of the letter was cut away, and only 
the signature of Thistlewood left. 

It is not necessary to make any further mention 
of this individual, as every one knows all about the 
Cato Street plot, and what was the fate of the leader 
of the conspirators Lieutenant Arthur Thistlewood. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 157 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Samuel Hibbert elected a Member of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society, and of the Society of Arts, etc., in London 
The Peninsular War. 

BY a document, dated April 26, 1805, under the seal 
of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 
and signed by the President, Vice -Presidents, and 
Secretaries, Mr. Samuel Hibbert junior was made an 
ordinary member. The signatures written at the foot 
of the document are those of C. White, Thos. Henry, 
J. D. Bardesley, Edward Holme, John Hull, John 
Dalton. 

Our readers will now perceive that Samuel Hibbert 
had entered upon his scientific and literary career; 
nevertheless, he did not renounce his love of the 
drama, for we find him in the same year offering to 
Mr. Broughton, the manager of Drury Lane Theatre, 
a play in three acts, called The Romance of the Apen- 
nines; and his wifes friend Miss Mary Robson of 
Ouseburn, Newcastle- upon -Tyne, the authoress of 
Aunt Mary's Tales and other children's books, wrote 
to her : " We have got Sam's old friend Huddart 
here at present. He seems very well liked. I have 
not seen him yet, for I have not felt much theatrical 



158 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

curiosity this season, though I believe we have a 
pretty good company with our new manager 
M'Cready." 

We may here take the opportunity of saying a few 
words concerning some of the members of the Man- 
chester Literary Society, who were contemporaries of 
Samuel Hibbert. 

Mr. Charles White was a very eminent surgeon in 
Manchester. 

Thomas Henry, F.R.S., was the father of Dr. 
William Henry, a well-known writer on chemistry. 

Dr. Edward Holme was a physician of repute, 
and afterwards the first President of the Chetham 
Society. 

Dr. John Hull was also a physician of extensive 
practice, and the author of a good work on botany. 

John Dalton, one of Manchester's sons of science, 
afterwards earned a world -wide celebrity for his 
chemical and philosophic researches. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends. 

Mr. James Ainsworth was an eminent surgeon in 
Manchester, and the father of the present Dr. Ralph 
Faucitt Ainsworth of Higher Broughton, well known for 
his skill in botany and the culture of hothouse plants. 
The brother of the former gentleman, Mr. Thomas 
Ainsworth, was a solicitor, and the father of the late 
Harrison Ainsworth. Messrs. James and Thomas 
Ainsworth and their brother Captain John Ainsworth, 
of the 1st Lancashires, were the sons of a Mr. Jeremiah 
Ainsworth of Manchester, a very distinguished mathe- 
matician. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 159 

Mr. George Duckworth was one of the leading 
solicitors in Manchester. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson was the Colonel of the 
Manchester Eifles. In May 1807 he contested the 
election of members of Parliament for Preston with 
Mr. Samuel Horrocks. Sam Hibbert junior actively 
assisted the former gentleman, and wrote some 
electioneering squibs on the occasion. Colonel Han- 
son was afterwards fined and imprisoned for using 
what, in those arbitrary times, was considered seditious 
language. He was the son of Mr. William Hanson, a 
leading merchant of Manchester, and grandson of the 
Rev. Mr. Hanson, the Presbyterian minister of Gorton 
Chapel. 

Mr. Benjamin Hey wood the banker was after- 
wards created a baronet. 

Mr. Robert Peel and Mr. Robert Peel junior are 
too well known to require further notice. Peel, Yates, 
and Co. were calico-printers, and had a place in St. 
Ann's Square. 

Mr. George Philips, M.P., was afterwards made a 
baronet. 

Mr. Robert Philips was a member of the great 
mercantile house of Philips of Manchester. 

Peter Clare, a member of the Society of Friends, 
distinguished for his experiments in electricity. 

These and several others were the literary men 
whose friendship and acquaintance Samuel Hibbert 
cultivated. 

In the month following his election as a member 
of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 



160 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Samuel Hibbert received an intimation from Dr. Charles 
Taylor that he had been elected a member of the Society 
for the encouragement of Arts, etc., in London. 

Samuel Hibbert some time afterwards read a long 
and able paper on the " Early Importance and Influ- 
ence of Music and Poetry," the rough draft of which 
now lies before the author of this work. Indeed, he 
was well calculated to write on this subject, for though, 
unlike his brothers, he did not play on any instrument, 
he well understood the notes of music, and was a good 
singer. 

Meanwhile, considering that Ensign William 
Hibbert was serving on detachment, a service so 
injurious to young officers, his career was passably 
satisfactory, if we exclude the infliction by him on 
his father of that bane of all fathers, a son's tailor's 
bills. Mr. Hibbert's suspicions of some such troubles 
had been roused, and intending to ferret out personally 
the amount of his son's debts, he paid the young spark 
an unexpected visit at his quarters, the result of which, 
however, appears not to have been very satisfactory, 
for on the 3d of October the perturbed father writes 
from Plymouth to his wife : 

" MY DEAR I arrived here last night at eight o'clock, and left 
William at Frome. He has debts to pay to an amount I had no 
conception of, considering what he has had sent him. I under- 
stood he was short, but had no idea of the amount, until about 
a quarter of an hour before I set off, though I had asked for an 
account long before. I had no alternative but to give him a bill 
on Jones, Loyd, and Co. for 140, for which he could get cash 
at Frome. It is a pity he was separated from his regiment, so 
inexperienced as he is." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 161 

On the 21st of October 1805 the great victory of 
Trafalgar had inflicted a death blow on the combined 
fleets of France and Spain ; nevertheless the war 
between England and those countries was carried 
vigorously on. Still, the intercourse between Spain 
and England was not altogether intercepted, for we 
find young students coming from the former country 
into Lancashire, to be educated at the College of 
Stonyhurst, which, even at that early date of its 
existence, had acquired celebrity. 

" At the next Midsummer vacation," writes from Bangor, on 
the 5th of April 1806, Mrs. Bickerstaff, the old Preston friend 
of Mrs. Hibbert and her late father, "we expect to see two 
young Spaniards from Stonyhurst College in Lancashire, grand- 
sons of my dear late Mr. Crook's brother, who are sent here 
for the advantage of an English education. Their father we 
were personally acquainted with when at Preston fourteen 
years ago, and we now keep a correspondence with him, but 
owing to the war it hath been much interrupted, as also 
from the sad calamities they have suffered in that ill-fated 
country." 

The father of the two young Spaniards, who was a 
nephew of Mrs. Bickerstaff, had settled in Spain. 
That lady had left Preston to reside near one of her 
daughters, who had married Mr. Warren, the Dean of 
Bangor. 

Though the British Navy had been victorious at 
sea, fortune was unfavourable on land ; and the attack 
made by General Whitelock, in 1806, on Buenos 
Ayres was a failure. He was considered to have 
misconducted the affair, and was cashiered on his 
return home. 

M 



162 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

The first battalion of the 40th had been engaged, 
and had sustained considerable loss. On the 29th of 
April 1807 William Hibbert, then a lieutenant, wrote 
to his mother from Kinsale, to which place he had 
been detached : 

" I should have performed my promise sooner, but I am so 
tormented by a set of vagabond soldiers, to whom I am sent to 
make fine speeches to induce them to volunteer into our regiment, 
that I can scarcely sit down to anything. Colonel Kemmis gave 
me hopes, when he left headquarters, of coming to Manchester, 
and if no fleet should sail to South America soon, I may still be 
with you ; but I think, from what I hear, I shall be sent out 
with the first batch. You must have seen by the papers what a 
great loss our regiment has sustained. The greatest part of my 
brother officers who fell were very fine young men, with whom 
I had always been on habits of intimacy. The officers of the 
second battalion all wore black crape on their arms for their 
loss." 

Alluding to the affair at Monte Video, Mrs. 
Bickerstaff writes to Mrs. Hibbert on the llth of 
May: 

" I am glad to find your son William evinces the spirit of a 
good soldier. I have no doubt but he will soon be promoted 
and join the first battalion who have so distinguished them- 
selves at Monte Video. The death of Major Dalrymple is 
very much regretted. His mother is the widow of Lieut.- 
Colonel Dalrymple, and sister to Mrs. Fletcher of Preston, an 
old acquaintance of mine. She has several children, and lives 
at Bath." 

In the early part of the summer of 1808 the head- 
quarters of the 40th Eegiment were ordered to Dublin, 
a change highly gratifying to the officers after their 
long sojourn in Hastings and the neighbourhood so 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 163 

long indeed, that people began jocularly to call the 
regiment the "Sussex Rangers" and the "Hastings 
Guards." 

Buonaparte had now sent General Junot with an 
army into Portugal, and having compelled the King 
of Spain to abdicate, the Spaniards formed a junta 
and solicited the aid of England, and the British 
Government had decided to send an army into Spain 
under Sir Arthur Wellesley. But so secret were the 
intentions of Government kept that even when the 
following letter was written, the regiment did not 
know where it was going to : 

"We are this day all ordered on board," writes William 
Hibbert to his mother, from the Cove of Cork, on July the 
6th, 1808. "One of the staff officers informed me that the 
General will be in Cove to-night, and that he believes we will 
sail to-morrow evening. I have purchased a cot and bedding, 
complete (for the voyage). I have also added to my stock of 
shirts, by procuring about nine cotton ones, which I got made 
for 10s. each. For night watches, guards, and I suppose very 
often for my bed, I have a very thick large warm cloak, 
which is almost indispensable. Two additional regiments, the 
36th and 45th, have this day embarked, and some dragoons 
are expected. It is rather remarkable that nearly all the regi- 
ments who were in South America are again embarked, and 
that the staff officers appointed were nearly all at Monte 
Video and Buenos Ayres. This looks as if we were going 
there again." 

Lieutenant William Hibbert had been in indif- 
ferent health for the last few months, but this cir- 
cumstance did not prevent him starting on his 
first campaign. He wrote to his father from on 



164 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

board the Thames transport, at sea, on July 15th, 
1808: 

We sailed from Cove on Tuesday last, to me and many 
others very unexpectedly. The number of transports that left 
the harbour was about eighty, under convoy of the Donegal, 
74 guns; Resistance, 38; and Crocodile, 22. The following 
regiments were embarked : the 5th foot, 9th, 36th, 38th, 40th, 
45th, 71st, 91st, and 95th (riflemen), besides two companies of 
artillery, a detachment of the 20th Light Dragoons, horse-ships, 
victuallers, etc. etc. It was very fine to see so large a fleet 
leaving the harbour together. 

18th, Monday. 

Sir Arthur Wellesley parted with the fleet on the 16th, and 
proceeded in the Crocodile to Cadiz, for what purpose we are not 
acquainted. 

Thursday, July 2lst. 

This evening I resume my pen. A few hours ago the signal 
was made by the Commodore, that land was discovered, and we 
now all see it very plain. We shall double Cape Finisterre this 
evening, and in all probability, if the present wind continues, we 
may be off Lisbon to-morrow morning. We were yesterday 
spoke to by the Resistance, who informed us that two strange 
sail, a privateer brig and a schooner, had dodged the fleet 
during the night, and cautioned us to keep close to the 
Commodore. 

Saturday, July 2 3d. 

We have since yesterday morning been constantly keeping 
near the Spanish coast, and are about five miles from the shore. 
I have now better intelligence than I have as yet been able to 
procure. We are at length anchored off a small town on the 
Portuguese coast, near Cape Mondego. Sir Arthur Wellesley 
rejoined the fleet about two days ago, but is now gone on to 
Lisbon, I presume to learn the situation of the country and the 
French army. General Junot, who commands the French, is 
hemmed in in Lisbon, after a severe action with the Portuguese. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 165 

MONDEQO BAY, Sunday, July 31 st. 

We remain still at anchor here. General Wellesley has 
rejoined the fleet. Various reports are circulating, but we do 
not know what to believe. Provisions have been cooked for the 
men and every arrangement has been made for landing, which, 
it was thought, will take place to-day, but as yet I see no signs 
of it. Several of our officers have been on shore, and describe 
the inhabitants as very poor. The French have impoverished 
every part of the country in which they have obtained a footing. 
I have this morning received the agreeable information that the 
Lively is sailing for England this day with despatches, which gives 
me the opportunity of sending this. Our letters are to be on 
board in about an hour's time. Your affectionate son, 

WM. HIBBERT. 
To Mr. Hibbert, 
St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 

The following letter from William Hibbert to his 
father gives some account of Sir Arthur Wellesley's 
two first engagements with the French at Roleia and 

Vimiera : 

CAMP AT VIMEDOS (I believe), 
Monday, August 22rf, 1808. 

DEAR FATHER I embrace with the greatest satisfaction this 
opportunity of assuring you of my perfect safety, after such a 
Sabbath day as I have never yet spent, and perhaps may never 
again. I believe on the 3d instant our first halt was at a village, 
about 1 5 miles from the bay, where we were encamped for a few 
days, and then commencing our march up the country, as 
harassing and fatiguing as perhaps ever troops encountered. 
To give you some idea of campaigning our first day's march was 
begun in the heat of the day and continued till after midnight. 
"We then took a little rest, and before daylight were again on the 
move ; so that out of the twenty-four hours, only three were 
allowed for the troops to procure a little sleep. The country has 
been reduced to a state of the greatest wretchedness, owing to 
the depredations of the French. The greatest scarcity prevails, 



166 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

provisions are hard to be procured, and the most extravagant 
prices paid. The excesses these wretches have committed are 
too shocking to be related here. We continued our march till 
the 16th, the enemy retreating before us, when we were informed 
they intended to make a stand in a very strong position they 
had taken up. On the morning of the 17th we attacked them 
with our light troops, supported by a few battalions, and after a 
very smart action of three hours they were driven from their 
position with considerable loss. I am sorry to add that our loss 
was also great, particularly in officers. After the French had 
retreated, we passed over the field of battle. You can have no 
conception of anything more horrid ; but I shall pass this over, 
and come to the engagement of yesterday, which terminated 
greatly to the honour of the British arms and in a most signal 
defeat of the enemy. The 40th was on a hill on the left, oppo- 
site a French column, which were advancing on us from an 
opposite hill, covered by their riflemen, who were in front in the 
valley engaged with some of our light troops. Before our regi- 
ment commenced firing, I had a narrow escape. The men were 
seated on the ground to rest themselves, and whilst I was 
standing watching the light troops engaged, and conversing 
with another officer, we were marked by the riflemen, on the 
hill opposite, and fired at by several at the same time. One 
bullet unluckily passed through my brother officer's thigh. I 
escaped without injury, though several balls struck the ground 
within a foot of me. The regiment immediately after advanced, 
and after some smart firing, charged the enemy, who did not 
wait to receive it, but chose to trust rather to legs than arms. 
The French were commanded by Junot, who brought into the 
field, I am told, 16,000 men. We had, however, I believe, an 
equal number to oppose them. After the action, it fell to my 
lot to command a party to drag home the waggons taken from 
the French. I did not reach the camp till after dark, and then 
quite exhausted with hunger and fatigue, not having eaten scarcely 
anything for twenty-four hours. I have been a good deal plagued 
with a dysentery since I landed, but it has now nearly left me, 
but very much weakened from its effects. Our regiment has 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 167 

suffered very little considering the fire we were exposed to. My 
best love to my mother and brothers, and remember me kindly 
to the Bentleys, Kirkmans, and all my friends in Manchester. 
Your affectionate son, WILLM. HIBBERT. 

P. S. I hope to be in Lisbon soon. Dick Crompton is here, 
I saw him. Excuse incorrectness. 

We cannot omit inserting here a few verses of the 
well-known poet, Thomas Campbell, which bear re- 
ference to Vimiera : 

" In charges with the bayonet 

We lead our bold compeers ; 
But Frenchmen like to stay not 
For the British Grenadiers. 

" Once boldly at Vimiera, 

They hoped to play their parts, 
And sing fal lira, lira, 

To cheer their drooping hearts. 1 

"But English, Scotch, and Paddy-whacks, 

We gave three hearty cheers, 
And the French soon turn'd their backs 
To the British Grenadiers." 

On the day after the battle of Vimiera, Sir Hew 
Dalrymple arrived and took the command of the 
British army, but instead of following up the suc- 
cesses, he agreed to a convention with Junot, allowing 
the French to evacuate Portugal unmolested. The 
English Government was highly displeased with this 
measure, and the people composed and circulated 
lampoons and squibs, not very complimentary to Sir 

1 At Vimiera, the French ranks advanced singing ; the British 
only cheered with the dreaded British hurrah. 



168 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Hew and Sir Harry Burrard, another General asso- 
ciated with him, such as : 

" Sir Arthur and Sir Harry, 
Sir Harry and Sir Hew, 
Cock-a-doodle, cock-a-doodle, 
Cock-a-doodle, doo! 

" Sir Arthur was a brave man, 

But, as for t'other two, 
Cock-a-doodle, cock-a-doodle, 
Cock-a-doodle, doo!" 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 169 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Samuel Hibbert's pamphlet on Commercial Credit Manchester 
Local Militia. 

FROM a note dated the 19th of September 1806, 
we find that Samuel Hibbert junior had taken 
a house at Ardwick Green, and we find also among 
his papers a receipt for 19s. for half a year's pew- 
rent in the Ardwick Chapel of Ease. Having been 
brought up a Presbyterian, we must suppose that 
he attended the Established Church in complais- 
ance to his wife. 

If young Sam Hibbert did not now practically 
join his father in commerce, in theory at least he 
gave his attention to it, for it was the subject of his 
first attempt at authorship. In 1808 he wrote a small 
octavo pamphlet, of fifty-four pages, entitled "Kemarks 
on the Facility of obtaining Commercial Credit, and 
an Exposure of the various deceptions by which Credit 
is procured." This pamphlet came anonymously before 
the public of Manchester, to whom the author dedi- 
cates it, and was published by W. Cowdroy, Gazette 
Office, and by H. D. Symonds, Paternoster Row, 
London. The author says that the facility with 
which credit then was, and for many years had been 



170 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

obtained was a subject of complaint in the commercial 
world, and tended to the encouragement of every un- 
substantial rash adventurer, and was the cause of the 
most alarming frauds ; from which he maintains that 
the conclusion might be drawn, that nothing in our 
markets can be cheaper than credit. He then pro- 
ceeds to narrate the deceptions practised by men of 
straw. 

Whilst William Hibbert was engaged in the stern 
and earnest duties of a real soldier, his brother 
Samuel was playing the part of one in the volunteer 
corps of his native town. There are two commis- 
sions signed by Lord Derby within a few days' date 
of each other (a circumstance we cannot explain). 
The first is dated the 7th of September 1808, and 
appoints Samuel Hibbert, gentleman, to be a lieu- 
tenant in the second regiment of Manchester and 
Salford Volunteers, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
John Sylvester ; and the second is dated the 24th day 
of the same month, whereby Samuel Hibbert is ap- 
pointed a lieutenant in the first regiment of Man- 
chester Local Militia, whereof John Sylvester is also 
Lieutenant- Colonel Commandant. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 171 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

The sick soldier Dick Crompton and Marshal Mortier Manchester 
gossip Samuel Hibbert thinks of entering the Army The 
Duke of York and scandals on the sale of commissions. 

SINCE receiving his letter after the battle of Vimiera, 
William Hibbert's parents had not heard from him 
for several weeks ; but their anxiety was not so great 
as it otherwise would have been, since they were well 
aware of the difficulty of transmitting any letters from 
the seat of war. But a letter from Mrs. BickerstafF, 
dated Bangor the 16th October, caused both alarm 
and grief. 

" Never till this day," wrote that lady to Mrs. Hibbert, " was 
I to hear one word of your dear son William, Captain Hoyland 
(40th) not having received any letters from his wife since he 
sailed from Cork; but in his last, dated the 12th of Sept, he 
informs her that poor William was left behind, 1 2 miles from 
Lisbon, and had not then arrived. I have never received a line 
from Miss Chadwick, and beg you will let me know where she is 
to be found, that I may write to her. Should she be returned to 
her lodging, pray acquaint her of my surprise at never receiving 
an answer to my letter, addressed to her at Mavysin, Eidware, 
in August." 

Going back to the preceding month, we shall see 
how the fatigue of the campaign, even at its first 
outset, obliged the young soldier, already weakened 



172 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

by illness before he entered on the campaign, to re- 
main behind in Lisbon, in the hope of recruiting his 
health a hope, alas ! not destined to be realised. 
Having with difficulty succeeded in making his way 
to that capital, he wrote to the Quartermaster-General, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Murray, on the 28th of September, 
for a billet for himself and a servant. 

The following letter to his mother will give our 
readers a vivid idea of the hardships and the sort of 
lodging which some British officers had to endure 
when campaigning : 

LISBON, 21 Nov. 1808. 

DEAR MOTHER . . . Many officers have had billets on the 
inhabitants, and received much attention in their houses. From 
my bad state of health I was entitled to one, which, after much 
trouble, I obtained, but found the house so objectionable in every 
respect that I could not for a moment think of residing in it. I 
got another afterwards in a large old house belonging to a Doctor 
of Laws, who fitted up two apartments for me in a sort of lodge 
belonging to the building, which had not been inhabited for 
some tune. In this place I remained in purgatory for two or 
three days, literally swarming with bugs. The bedstead and 
walls behind an old paper, which had apparently been on for ten 
years, were so thickly inhabited by these gentry that I was not 
only bitten till I was half mad, but nearly poisoned with the 
smell. It is no small mortification to me to be left behind the 
regiment ; and, to add to my uneasiness, I am told that unless I 
intend to sacrifice myself, I must not again attempt to engage in 
any active service. I hope Mr. Bentley's family are all well ; 
when you see Mr. Bentley tell him that I find a campaign the 
finest place imaginable for illustrating his doctrine of the nerves. 
My dear mother, your affectionate son, 

WILLIAM HIBBERT. 

The Bentley family alluded to in this letter is 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 173 

that of Michael Bentley, Esq., J.P. He left, among 
other children, two daughters, one of whom married 
the Kev. Thomas Ainsworth of Hartford, Cheshire, a 
cousin of the novelist, and the other resided, in the 
earlier half of this century, at Ardwick Green, and 
died at a ripe age, unmarried. 

The next letter that the sick soldier wrote home 
was to his brother Samuel. It may interest Lanca- 
shire readers from its mention of a well-known 
Lancashire man of that time, Dick Crompton. This 
gentleman had been a captain in the 1st Eoyal Lan- 
cashire Militia, and had afterwards volunteered into 
the 29th of the line. Though of a good family, he 
prided himself on speaking in a broad dialect : 

LISBON, 28th Nov. 1808. 

DEAR SAM . . , You would scarcely believe it, but during 
the whole of the late campaign no persons in the army, except 
those in high command, had the least idea of what was going 
on. As an instance of it, one morning whilst we were on the 
march, and when I believe the greater part of the army thought 
the enemy were not within 30 or 40 miles of them, we were 
suddenly halted and commanded to load. In about half an hour 
afterwards we saw a body of 4 or 5000 French retreating as 
quick as possible ; and they had so little time to get off that they 
were obliged to leave a considerable part of their baggage and 
ammunition behind them. I see Dick Crompton now and then. 
He complains heavily of not hearing from them folks. Yesterday, 
he called upon me, a little to my surprise, in a staff uniform, 
though it had before been intimated to me that he was to 
have the appointment, which is now confirmed, of Town Ad- 
jutant of Lisbon. I tell him they had better have made him 
Town Crier! 

I live a solitary life, and meet with so few persons that I 



174 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

can speak to, that I am almost in danger of forgetting my own 
language, and am quite lost for want of books. By this packet 
I also write to my mother. Till yesterday, have been scarcely 
able to sit up. I am afraid this winter will prove a hard trial 
for me. Believe me your affectionate brother, 

WILLM. HIBBERT. 

We extract the following anecdote, given by the 
late Mr. John Harland in the Chetham Society's Pub- 
lications, vol. Ixxii. p. 239, as it relates to Crompton, 
who is mentioned in the preceding letter, and Marshal 
Mortier, who, it will be remembered, had been a 
student at the New Manchester College when Sam 
Hibbert was there. An English officer named Wild, 
of the 29th Regiment, had been taken prisoner and 
sent up the country ; when he arrived at headquarters 
the Marshal invited the officers of the escort to dinner, 
and told them to bring their English prisoner with 
them. After dinner Marshal Mortier requested the 
officers to leave their prisoner alone with him, when, 
to Wild's surprise, he addressed him in good English : 
" Well, and where do you come from ? " " From 
beyond Rochdale, in Lancashire, sir." " Well, and 
how is Dick Crompton ? " 

Letters from Lisbon had miscarried, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Hibbert were again filled with fresh fears and 
anxiety, not knowing whether their beloved son were 
still living. In this state of painful uncertainty they 
appear to have applied to Messrs. Winter, wine mer- 
chants in Manchester, to ask their Lisbon correspond- 
ents to make inquiries concerning him. Accordingly, 
those gentlemen, after having instituted a careful 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 175 

search in that city, wrote to Messrs. Winter, on the 
10th of January 1809, that they had succeeded in 
finding Lieutenant William Hibbert ; that he had told 
them that he was astonished that his friends had 
never received his letters, which had been regularly 
put in the Army Post Office. 

William Hibbert's state having now become so 
critical as to compel him seriously to think of selling 
his commission, his brother Sam, who had then no 
family, and whose wishes now inclined him strongly 
to a military life, entertained thoughts of taking it, 
as we see by the following letter of Mr. Hibbert, which 
also contains some Manchester gossip : 

MANCHESTER, Jany. 14, 1809. 

DEAR WILLIAM It was only on Tuesday last that your 
mother and I were relieved, in some measure, from that anxious 
and uncomfortable state of suspense we have been in about you 
for a long time, and particularly so since we got the hopeless 
account of you that Captain Hoyland sent, without one word 
from yourself since your account of the battle of Vimiera, and 
one to your mother and one to Samuel. I also wrote to you 
that Samuel would be glad to have your commission, if you wish 
to quit the army ; he has been some time back thinking of going 
into the Lancashire Militia, but is waiting to hear further from 
you before he fixes. The state of the commercial world in this 
country is a very gloomy one ; our intercourse with almost all 
nations cut off, and many poor actually starving. With respect 
to myself, my rents are decreased much, and some places unlet, 
and no trade to signify, as yarn cannot be got j and if it could 
be got there would be no great demand. Now for news. Mr. 
Wilkinson, partner to Mr. Barrett, is going to be married to the 
daughter of the late Dr. Eason, with a fortune, it is said, of 
10,000. They are to live in Barrett House, and he is to take 
country lodgings ; Mrs. B. is gone to live with a relation behind 



176 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

London, and the piano is gone after her. Mr. Eobert Cunliffe 
is also going to be married to Miss Potter, the Widow Potter's 
daughter, and 10,000; he has taken the house in Princess Street, 
late Mrs. Kirkman's, and has taken the house late Miss Worsley's 
for offices, which has been new fronted and enlarged. Last week 
Miss Kirkman was married to Mr. William Loyd, of London, 
who is in trade there, and is brother to the banker. It promises 
to be a very agreeable match, and is with the perfect approbation 
of all parties. They set off for London immediately. Mr. James 
Marsland also is said to be on the point of marriage. His fair 
intended is Miss Bourne from Lincolnshire, related to the family 
of Mathers in this town ; great connections it is said she has, 
and a handsome fortune. The relations on each side are all 
pleased with the match. We hear, too, that they are not for 
setting out in the world too high, but on a prudent and econo- 
mical plan. Your affectionate father, 

SAMUEL HIBBERT. 

The worthy merchant, in alluding to all these 
richly -endowed brides, probably covertly expressed 
his disappointment that his sons had not mated them- 
selves so fortunately ; but Intolerabilius nihil est 
quam fcemina dives, says the satirical Juvenal, and 
perhaps he was not far wrong. 

The late Dr. Eason Wilkinson was a grandson of 
the AVilkinson mentioned in the preceding letter ; and 
the Miss Potter who married Mr. Robert Cunliffe 
was probably of the family of Richard Potter, a 
wealthy check manufacturer, and a resident of Man- 
chester very many years before Sir Thomas Potter, 
its first Mayor, came to it. 

The Kirkmans were a family of good position in 
the town. In the first half of this century Mr. John 
Kirkman, a manufacturer, resided in Mosley Street, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 177 

a little below the well-known Dan Grant's house. 
One of his sons, John Kirkman, practised as a surgeon. 
The latter, when a young man studying at the Edin- 
burgh University, was called the " handsome English- 
man." The second wife of Mr. John Kirkman senior 
was a Miss Fielding, a sister of one of the Old Church 
clergy. 

On a dark and stormy night in the middle of 
January, William Hibbert, as we find from a letter 
written by Mr. Lucas, one of the kind Lisbon mer- 
chants who had interested themselves so warmly about 
him, bade adieu to Portugal and also to his military 
life. It was a trying night for him to be exposed to 
wet and cold in his weak state, and Mr. Lucas con- 
siderately lent him a boat-cloak to save him from 
the inclemencies of the weather. On his arrival at 
Plymouth, the invalid writes to his father from the 
Navy Post Office Inn, on the 26th of January : 

" It gives me great concern to say that the change affects me 
so much, I fear I shall not be able to perform the journey by 
myself, as I am now obliged to have a person sleeping in the 
room with me. I have such a complication of complaints at 
present that I am at times half distracted. I trust my mother 
will not think of exposing herself to the severities of the season ; 
one of my brothers will do everything for me I could wish. 
Captain Ainsworth's son has just called on me." 

But Mr. and Mrs. Hibbert, although it was then 
the depth of winter and she not very strong, went 
themselves to bring to his home their sick son. 

"Your mother and I arrived safe here last night at ten o'clock," 
wrote Mr. Hibbert to his son Samuel, " and found your brother 

N 



178 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

William as comfortable as we could expect. As to his health, 
he is certainly in a very bad way. Your mother bore the 
journey very well, and is much happier that she is here. You 
may let George know the contents of this letter." 

The invalid soldier was taken to Manchester by 
easy stages ; and, there being no hopes of his ever 
serving in the army again, Mr. Hibbert wrote to the 
old friend, Dr. Charles Taylor, who had been so in- 
strumental in procuring the commission for the young 
man, for advice as to the disposal of it. The following 
letter from that gentleman will show the vile jobbery 
that was at that time being practised in high quarters. 
Replying to Mr. Hibbert, Dr. Charles Taylor writes, 
on the 2d of February : 

" I have received the memorial which you sent, and which 
you thought should be laid before the Duke of York I have 
perused it attentively, but am much afraid it will not, in its pre- 
sent state, answer the purpose you wish for, as, if the Duke 
thought your son very dangerously ill, it would be his interest 
not to allow him to sell out at all, but probably occasion his 
refusal, on a supposition that the commission would fall into his 
hands for nothing, and that he could make money by it. I have 
therefore taken the liberty of altering the memorial in such a 
manner as I think would best answer your interest. I think it 
would be best to get permission for your son William to sell 
out before any steps are taken for a commission for your son 
Samuel." 

Not very long after the date of this letter the 
attention of the kingdom was greatly excited by an 
accusation brought against the Duke of York, as 
Commander-in- Chief, for having permitted Mrs. Mary 
Ann Clarke, his mistress, to traffic in commissions, and 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 179 

to receive money for obtaining the promotion of 
officers, and also for having participated in the profits 
of this nefarious trade. A long investigation took 
place, from which the public supposed, that if the 
Duke did not actually share in the profits, he at least 
connived at the practice. However, he was acquitted 
of the charges, but he immediately afterwards resigned 
his command. 

5'r $'? * -5'r * 

Towards the close of the month of February a 
funeral procession left Clarendon House, and proceed- 
ing at a slow pace along the Oxford Eoad, the hearse 
drew up before the old Presbyterian Chapel in Cross 
Street. After awhile the chief mourners were driven 
home again ; but they left all that remained of William 
Hibbert resting, at last, in his lonely grave. The 
gallant 40th were fighting the French in the Penin- 
sula, so the parting volley, so dear to the heart of a 
soldier, was not fired over their dead comrade. But 
he was not forgotten : his former commanding officer, 
then General George Browne, wrote to the afflicted 
father testifying how highly William Hibbert had 
been esteemed by his brother officers, and how deeply 
his loss would be deplored by them : 

EXETER, March 8, 1809. 

SIR I received this morning the very afflicting account of 
my poor young friend's death, your son ; I can most fully enter 
into your feelings on this melancholy event his tranquil, even 
disposition and amiability of manners, first attracted my atten- 
tion, and soon gained him the affection of his brother officers, 
by whom I am persuaded his loss will be deeply deplored. In 



180 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

respect to the disposal of his commission, I conceive there cannot 
be any doubt of its being effected. It is fortunate the resigna- 
tion has been sent into the Commander -in -Chief's office. I 
would recommend you not, at present, to say anything relative 
to his decease, but to let the matter remain quiet until you are 
informed officially of the resignation having had acceptance. 
Should you, however, not soon hear upon that score, you may 
write to the agents, Messrs. Collier, Park Place, St. James's, 
and request to be informed whether the Commander -in -Chief 
means to nominate to the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of Lieutenant Hibbert, or whether you are to search for a 
purchaser yourself. This will produce an answer definitive, and 
should he (the Duke) name, it will be better, the money will at 
once be lodged in the agents' hands, and all further trouble 
cease. It would have been an agreeable circumstance to me to 
have thanked you for the civility of your letter upon any other 
occasion than the present distressing one, and sincerely wishing 
you fortitude, I have to remain, most faithfully, your obedient 
humble servant, GEO. BROWNE. 

To Saml. Hibbert, Esq., 
Manchester. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 181 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Samuel Hibbert in the 1st Royal Lancashire Militia Manchester 
gossip French prison near Bristol The marches in South 
Wales. 

AFTER the death of his brother William, Samuel 
Hibbert applied to the Duke of York for a commission 
in a regiment on foreign service, but while in London 
on this business he heard of an opening in another 
quarter, more eligible, namely, a vacancy in the 1st 
Royal Lancashire Regiment of Militia, whereupon, in 
a letter dated London, 24th April 1809, he wrote to 
his father : 

" Just when I despaired of answering your letter satisfactorily 
with respect to the views on which I came, a circumstance 
occurred which causes me to write with some degree of pleasure. 
When I thought of taking William's commission some objections 
occurred which were not quite grateful to me. Circumstances 
might occur that might render my absence from the kingdom of 
the greatest inconvenience, connected as I am with you. While 
I was plagued with these ideas something turned out more 
congenial to my feelings, nothing more than the vacancy of a 
lieutenancy in the Lancashire Militia. I called this morning 
upon Colonel Stanley, who happened fortunately to be in London. 
He received me with the greatest civility, and I found he had 
not disposed of it. He told me he should require strict recom- 
mendations, and particularly stated his anxiety that no officers 



182 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

admitted into his service should be addicted to inebriety. Upon 
my mentioning that I had served with Colonel Sylvester, he 
informed me that he should esteem a recommendation from that 
gentleman as sufficient. I have written to Colonel Sylvester : 
my letter to him is franked by Colonel Stanley." 

A certificate from Colonel Sylvester of the 1st 
Manchester Local Militia testifying to Samuel Hib- 
bert's " regular and most exemplary conduct during a 
period of five years that he had ever partaken of his 
(the colonel's) confidence and esteem" was deemed 
satisfactory, and on the strength of this certificate 
Samuel Hibbert received a commission from the Earl 
of Derby, dated the 27th of May 1809, to be a 
lieutenant in the first battalion of the Eoyal Lanca- 
shire Militia. 

He joined the regiment in Bristol, where it was 
then quartered, and was put in the grenadier com- 
pany. 

Though now away from Manchester, he did not 
cease to take an interest in the doings of his literary 
and theatrical friends there ; nor did they neglect 
him. 

" DEAR HIBBERT," wrote Jemmy Watson from Manchester on 
October the 10th, " a gentleman who lives about four miles from 
town has commissioned me to procure, if possible, a share in the 
Brown Street Library. Recollecting you to have one, I am 
induced to inquire if you have any inclination to part with it. 

It cannot at present be of the smallest service to your . 

Very little has been going on here of consequence since you left 
us. Tommy Ward, I think, is after the theatre. I am told he 
has made an offer to manage for the proprietors, which is more 
probable than that he should have offered any sum on his own 
account. Bellamy has been singing at a benefit concert here, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 183 

and was received with rapturous applause. Braham has been 
here with Miss Feron at two concerts in the theatre for Hughes. 
The amount of both houses about 550. What d'ye think of 
that ? Bradbury is getting on rapidly at his amphitheatre full 
houses every night. tempora ! mores / Poor Shakespeare ! 
Poor Macready ! Creswell the attorney, I am told, bought a 
share the other day, which, when Madin heard of, he said it was 
a pity, but the proprietors could keep themselves a little more 
. . . Aston has started a new paper, entitled the Exchange 
Herald. He says he has much better prospects than before. I 
wish it may prove so, but I fear four Saturday's papers will not 
answer. I will send you one, if you wish it, as a specimen. 
Write to me again, for I shall be very glad to hear from you. 
Yours sincerely, JAMES WATSON. 

P.S. Cowdroy has been in London since, previously to the 
opening of the house that Jack built, with Mrs. Clarke." 

Another admirer of the drama, and also a friend 
of Cowdroy and Watson, writing from Oxford on the 
28th October, says : 

DEAR HIBBERT I had the pleasure of receiving yours by 
Mr. Pedley. Pray tell Mr. Davies, if you still remain friends, 
that I have missed his journeys through Oxford very much, and 
Dr. Watson, that we wish here he would give us more of his 
puns in Cowdroy, seeing that his friends' dulness now and then 
requires it, and that they serve every purpose of a regular 
bulletin, in proving to his acquaintance abroad that he is quite 
at home yet in all his old habits and qualifications. Compli- 
ments to Mrs. Hibbert. Believe me, yours sincerely, 

JOHN JENKINSON. 

P.S. What will become of the play- mongers, to speak 
Watsonically, in town now ? The fate of the drama has long 
been a burning shame, and accordingly we see it is at last burnt 
out. During a recent rehearsel of the " Arabian Nights Enter- 
tainments," the story of the Sleeper awakened seemed to me full 



184 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of dramatic stuff of most promising texture : look at it, and tell 
me what you think of it when I see you in Manchester. I think 
some improvements of the story for that purpose have occurred 
to me, and if you have a mind to build upon such a foundation, 
you shall be very welcome to them. But I am forgetting you 
have taken to better things things which ages have made 
venerable and moisture made mouldy. 

Samuel Hibbert had now made himself quite at 
home in his regiment, and his wife also found the 
society in it very agreeable. 

As the officers then serving in the 1st Lancashires 
were nearly all from the county, a list of them may 
not be without some interest. These were : 

Colonel Thomas Stanley. 

Lieutenant -Colonels John Plumbe, L. Raws- 
thorne. 

Major Edm. "W. Rigby. 

Captains John Byron, Joseph Bradley, John 
Ainsworth, Tho. Crewe, Edw. Jones, P. Fryer Parke, 
James Hamer, John Stuart, James Hilton, James 
Royds. 

Lieutenants John Lindsay, George Oliver, John 
Taylor, Will. Pollard, Sam. Arrowsmith, William 
Latham, Sam. Hibbert, Simon Farrar, John Gilbert, 
Higginson. 

Ensigns Jos. Jordan, S.M., W. Ford. 

Adj. G. W. Wilkinson, J. Broderick, R. Hawkins. 

Quartermaster J. Nicholson. 

Surgeon T. Stephenson. 

Agents Robinson and Co. 

We will here mention briefly a few of these officers 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 185 

of whom Samuel Hibbert more frequently spoke or 
with whom he was on intimate terms. 

Colonel Thomas Stanley was a relative of the Earl 
of Derby, and being a Member of Parliament, was 
often absent from the regiment. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Plumbe, resided at Tong 
Hall ; he was afterwards Plumbe-Tempest. 

Lieutenant-Colonel L. Eawsthorne, was of Pen- 
wortham Hall, near Preston. 

Major Edm. W. Rigby belonged to an old mercan- 
tile family of Manchester. 

Captain John Byron was a near relation of the 
noble poet. Captain John Ainsworth was the father 
of William Francis Ainsworth, Ph.D., the well-known 
Eastern traveller, and uncle to the late William 
Harrison Ainsworth the novelist. Captain Thomas 
Crewe was a relative of Lord Crewe. Captain Edward 
Jones was a younger son of Charles Jones, Esq. of 
Caton, near Lancaster, of an old Lancashire Catholic 
family, in whom became vested, in 1815, the ancient 
baronies of Scrope of Bolton and Tiptoft (Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Peerage for 1831, p. 493). 
Captain F. Parke was, we believe, a brother of Judge 
Parke. Captain James Hilton was of Pennington. 
Captain James Eoyds was of the banker's family in 
Rochdale, he afterwards lived at Hartford in Cheshire. 
When following the hounds, if perchance they ran 
across Hale Barns, he would rein in at the house of 
Dr. Hibbert Ware, and eat a mouthful of bread and 
cheese and drink a stirrup cup. 

Lieutenant John Taylor was of a Manchester 



186 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

family. Lieut. William Latham, afterwards Captain, 
was of an old Lancashire Catholic family, located near 
Poulton in the Fylde. 

Ensign Joseph Jordan (S.M.), surgeon's mate, a 
gentleman whose family had been long settled in 
Manchester. After retiring from the Militia, he 
established himself in practice as a surgeon in that 
town, where he rose to eminence in his profession. 
Mr. Jordan was the first founder of a school of anatomy 
in Manchester, in which he gave lectures, duly author- 
ised and recognised by the examining authorities of 
the medical profession. 

Surgeon T. Stephenson married a Worcester lady, 
where he settled and practised his profession. 

With Captain Edward Jones, Lieutenant William 
Latham, and the young surgeon Joseph Jordan, the 
friendship contracted by Samuel Hibbert might be 
said to have been lifelong. Captain Jones, though 
not a Manchester man, made that city a place of his 
frequent residence. 

The 1st Lancashires held always a very high 
position in regard to its discipline; and in another 
respect also it stood high, for its Colonel and first 
Lieutenant - Colonel greatly encouraged education 
amongst the men and their children, it having been 
made one of the standing orders of the regiment that 
a school should be established, wherein reading, writ- 
ing, and arithmetic should be taught for four hours 
a day, to those who wished to learn ; but it will be 
observed, that those officers had the good common 
sense not to stray beyond the bounds of the three K's 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 187 

in the education they wished to impart. The weekly 
amount of school-pence was proportioned to the rank 
of the scholar; sergeants paid 6d., corporals, 4d., 
privates, 3d., and children, 2d., each; out of which 
were paid the master, a sergeant, and his assistant, a 
corporal. 

Samuel Hibbert had taken considerable interest 
in this school, for, even after he had left the regiment 
in 1813, we find the adjutant writing to him from 
Dalkeith : 

" I am happy to inform you that the regimental school both 
here and at Pennycuick is going on very well. The master is at 
Dalkeith, and his assistant at Esk Mills, both of whom are 
extremely attentive ; and many of the non-commissioned officers 
and young soldiers regularly attend." 

As many of Samuel Hibbert's letters, written 
while he was in the 1st Lancashire Militia, give some 
insight not only into his own life, but also into life in 
a militia regiment during those stirring times, we may 
not perhaps weary the reader by selecting pretty 
freely from them such as we think the most interest- 
ing, either giving them in their entirety, or culling 
extracts. 

The following descriptions of a French prison will, 
we feel assured, not be unacceptable : 

62 QUEEN SQUARE, BRISTOL, 
Septr. 6, 1809. 

MY DEAR MOTHER I have scarcely a moment idle time. 
Captain and Mrs. Ainsworth behaved to us with particular civility 
and attention. We went to his house a few nights ago, to a 
party at cards, to meet a select party of the officers, consisting 



188 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of Colonel Rawsthorne, Captain and Mrs. Hamer, and two 
surgeons. Very little wine was drunk. I'll assure you this is 
no drinking regiment You would be almost surprised if I were 
to inform you of the many stories I hear of Colonel Stanley's 
aversion to drinking. He himself takes nothing but water. 
From all that I learn of Colonel Stanley, he is a truly exemplary 
and good man. The duty of guards is not generally reckoned a 
very pleasant concern, but as regards that of Stapleton French 
prison I think as most of our officers do. About every ten days 
we take our turns to that place, four miles off. We dine at a 
farm-house, and there get a most excellent dinner and breakfast. 
You have scarcely an idea what a curious place the French prison 
is. You might suppose, for instance, only that you see no females 
about you, and that the high walls, guarded by sentinels, help to 
remove the delusion of this scene, that you were in a town in 
France. None but officers on guard are admitted in the prison. 
Here there are manufactories of different sorts going on : articles 
in straw prepared for hats and bonnets, toys of all descriptions 
making for sale, slippers, laces, etc. etc. As 4000 Frenchmen 
must have many wants, and where industry is so much encouraged, 
many must be richer than others, here are Frenchmen of all 
occupations. In one place is a shoemaker at work, at another 
place a tailor ; and the people are crying, in their own language, 
fruit, vegetables, and milk to sell, at all hours of the day. There 
are plenty of amusements. The prisoners can boast of billiard- 
tables they have made themselves. They have many good bands 
of music, with which they parade in procession night and 
morning. They are, to be sure, most sadly addicted to gambling, 
and they have many resources to encourage them in it games 
that I never before saw in England riding on wooden horses, 
for instance, on a large merry-go-round, as in Salford fair, and 
shooting at a mark as they go swiftly round. Your affect, son, 

SAMUEL HIBBERT. 

BRISTOL, Oct. 21, 1809. 

MY DEAR MOTHER About a fortnight ago, I spent a little 
time at the French prison at Stapleton. The day I happened to 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 189 

be on guard I was with no less a personage than the Governor 
of Vigo. He is a French general who has been frequently 
mentioned in the public papers,* charged, I apprehend falsely, 
with great cruelties towards the Spaniards, and who was obliged 
to capitulate to the English, when they approached that city. 
For some slight irregularity in this country, he was charged with 
breaking his parole, in consequence of which he was sent to this 
prison. About two hundred men from the French regiments 
under his command had just preceded him to Stapleton prison, 
under escort. Upon the governor's arrival at the place, and upon 
his being introduced to the prisoners, he met with a reception 
he did not expect. Some hundreds, I may almost say thousands, 
of prisoners surrounded him with evident marks of exasperation. 
They charged him with traitorously delivering up his men at the 
surrender of Vigo. The general took refuge in one of the public 
coffee-houses or huts, and it was with difficulty he was rescued. 
He was immediately separated from the prisoners, and he lost no 
time in convincing them that their suspicions were ill founded, 
and that he had behaved towards his countrymen with perfect 
honour. Having thus paved his way for a more favourable 
reception, he again ventured in the public prison among many of 
the soldiers who had fought under him. I was so fortunate as 
to be there at the time. The fullest band of music the French 
prisoners could furnish escorted him to one of the huts, where 
all the French officers assembled to receive him. I was just 
coming past the hut at the time, not knowing the cause of such 
a crowd as I saw. Upon learning it was the governor, I immedi- 
ately set off, not wishing to insult such a man by staring at him, 
like a show in a Jolm Bull like manner. But just as I was turn- 
ing my back on the hut, out comes the general, dressed in the 
most rich and splendid uniform I ever saw, and in the most polite 
manner addressed me in French, and begged I would honour 
them with my company in the coffee-room, or rather hut. Many 
of the French officers who were there were dressed in their 
uniforms. None of them could speak English, and I thanked my 
memory that I was able to converse with them. You must have 
often heard of the elegance of the French manners, and you 



190 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

really, had you been present, would have been gratified with an 
instance of them. 

My ready consent in sitting down in their company, the 
respect which I made it my study to show towards these unfortu- 
nate officers, and when they invited me to partake of the ^only 
liquor the prison rules afforded them namely, small beer the 
readiness with which, I freely own, I drank their healths, and 
the wishes I expressed that they might obtain their liberty, were 
far from being lost upon them, in their demeanour, and the 
thanks which they gave me during my short continuance in their 
company. The governor having stayed about an hour at the 
hut, walked round the prison, preceded by the band of music and 
his aide-de-camp, in his suite, and, as I suppose is the manner of 
his country, with his hat under his arm. Even in a French 
prison such parades and such forms seemed indispensable. 

There will be a captain's commission vacant in the regiment 
very soon ; I am at present at a loss whether or not to apply for 
it, for I should not like to be refused on my application. Colonel 
Stanley is, however, coming in the course of a few days, and I 
shall then better know the ground on which I tread. It is not 
much a matter of ambition to me, as there are several lieutenants 
in the regiment of both consequence and property, but they 
cannot have companies from not belonging to the county of 
Lancaster. 

I have always forgot to mention a circumstance that will 
no doubt amuse you. Would you imagine that there are some 
of our officers, and particularly two of the captains, as mad after 
old castles, old abbeys, and old crosses, as myself ? There is 
scarcely a morning that there is not some party made to visit 
something that is curious in the neighbourhood, but I do think 
that at this time I have explored all the country round about. 
Your affectionate son, SAMUEL HIBBERT. 

The reader will perceive from the close of the 
above letter that Samuel Hibbert's love of archaeology 
had already developed itself. Among the officers to 
whom he refers were Lieutenant Latham and Cap- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 191 

tain Jones, both accomplished draughtsmen, and with 
the latter of whom his wanderings in search of anti- 
quarian remains were continued until within the last 
few years of his life. 

In the following month of November Lieutenant 
Hibbert was detached from headquarters and ordered 
into Wales, where he found full scope for his favourite 
pursuit. The detachment, under the command of 
Captain Crewe, marched 145 miles, from Bristol. 
Writing to his mother from Milford Haven, on the 
25th of the same month, he gives her an account of 
prices in the market at that time, and of a singular 
sort of fuel then burnt in South Wales. 

" I arrived here yesterday," he says, " after a inarch of ten 
days from the time I set out from Bristol. The day after I last 
wrote to you I arrived at Haverfordwest, which was a very 
short distance from Milford Haven. Upon our arrival here we 
found there was an assembly that night. There was a very 
full room, with most fashionable company, with many of whom 
I soon got acquainted. I had not been long in the room before 
Lady Kensington, mother of Lord Kensington, the member of 
Parliament for the county of Carmarthen, came up to me, and 
she very politely offered to introduce me to a partner to dance 
with me. Having on a full regimental dress, and not a proper 
dress for a dance, as far as pumps and silk stockings went, I was 
obliged to decline. Captain Crewe went with me to the ball, and 
we spent a very pleasant evening. The day following we went 
to Milford Haven, and I had just dined when who should appear 
by the coach but my wife ! She had sailed from Bristol with a 
fair wind, when unfortunately it changed, and drove them, after 
much beating about, into the bay of Cardiff. Captain Jones, 
who was much indisposed, then preferring to take the coach to 
Milford rather than be detained for probably some days further, 
persuaded Mrs. Hibbert to take the same step, which has proved 



192 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

most preferable, the winds having been contrary ever since. 
To-day was the market at Milford, for provisions. We bought 
a leg of mutton at 5d. a pound, and our beef we are to have 
at the same price. We bought a goose and giblets for 3/, and 
to-day we dine off a rabbit for which we gave only 6d., and most 
excellent it was. Capital oysters are only I/ a hundred. Malt 
liquor is about twice as dear as in Bristol, where it was remark- 
ably cheap, that is 4d. a quart ; here it is the same price as in 
Manchester. English coals are also very dear, and are esteemed 
as a luxury; Welsh coals are cheap. I can scarcely describe what 
curious fires we have in South Wales ; the coal is a sort of slack, 
but much smaller than what is called slack in Lancashire ; it is 
called culm. This culm, in order to make a fire, is mixed and 
well kneaded with a sort of wet clay. After lighting a few 
sticks, the composition of coal and clay is formed by the servant 
into small round balls and placed at the top of the faggots. 
When these balls become ignited they yield a strong and steady 
heat, until they are burnt nearly out ; no more sticks are needed 
to be put on the fire, but more clay and coal, in this form, are 
repeated. You must think it curious to see a woman come with 
a coal-box full of this black paste into a room, and roll it with 
her hands in this manner before she lays it on the fire. They 
appear like so many potatoes roasting, and I heard some of our 
soldiers laughing at one of them burning his fingers by taking a 
roll from the fire." 

In another letter to his father, on the 15th of 
December, on much the same subject, he says : 

" I like this place very well. Fish is so plentiful that I have 
often wished you were here. Salmon is- to be had at 5d. a pound, 
and other sorts, such as flat fish, in the same proportion. I have 
often wished I could send you some oysters, which are the most 
delicious I ever tasted, at I/ per hundred. There is a sort rather 
smaller, but not smaller than the generality of London oysters, 
from 4d. to 6d. per hundred. They use them in large quantities 
to pickle, and very good they are. If they will not be unaccept- 
able, I will contrive to send a few jars of them, the first oppor- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 193 

tunity, by some vessel that sails to Liverpool. You may tell my 
mother they are pickled here in salt water, in which they are 
boiled, and to this a quantity of spice is added ; to this, of course, 
vinegar when you eat them. We have scarcely anything to do 
in the regiment ; and as it is one of the finest sporting countries 
to be found, and as I have all my books here, I can employ my 
time very well with my gun and with reading. Tell my mother 
I wish I was nearer Manchester, I would have sent for a minced 
pie for Christmas Day ; I must, however, get one made, but you 
may depend upon it I shall long to have a cut into one of my 
mother's making." 

At this time Samuel Hibbert was constantly 
making pedestrian tours with one or other of his 
brother officers. He writes to his mother, in January 
1810: 

" I have just now returned from a journey I took on foot to 
Fishguard, where the French landed a few years ago. I had 
then an introduction from Lord Dynevor to a Mr. Fenton, a 
counsellor in that neighbourhood, and a gentleman of great liter- 
ary abilities, who is now employed in writing a history of Pem- 
broke. To my great regret, he had just gone to England. From 
thence I went to Newport and Cardigan, and I had a fine rum- 
mage amongst the old castles and abbeys with which the country 
abounds. I am going in a few days on a visit to St. David's. 
On this expedition Captain Jones of our regiment will be with 
me, whose great amusement is sketching anything relating to an- 
tiquities, such as old abbeys, monuments, etc. etc." 

It was whilst making this tour that the gentlemen 
experienced an example of the characteristic inquisi- 
tiveness of the lower class of the Welsh. 

The two officers were deeply interested in the 
contemplation of the grand old crumbling pile of 
Carnarvon Castle, when they were accosted by a 
respectably-dressed man, evidently not a gentleman, 

o 



194 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

however. " Where have you come from ? Where 
are you going to ? What have you come here for ? 
Why are you looking at the castle?" inquired the 
man, with the greatest volubility, whilst the jeering 
replies of Captain Jones incited him to put still more 
impertinent questions; as, for instance, What were 
their occupations ? Were they married ? Were they 
brothers ? etc. The captain then began sketching 
arches and doorways and buttresses, whilst his friend 
took various minute measurements with his tape, and 
groped his way into some dark subterranean recess or 
aperture, or clambered up a flight of steep, narrow, 
winding stone stairs. The Welshman was thoroughly 
mystified, and now, go where they would, the steps 
of the two officers were dogged by the inquisitive 
fellow. There was no shaking the man off, he would 
not take the broadest hints, and his looks began to 
express not merely curiosity but a certain degree of 
suspicion. The two gentlemen felt irritated. Samuel 
Hibbert seemed specially the object of the Welsh- 
man's attention, possibly because his apparel for 
neither he nor Captain Jones wore their regimentals 
did not, in Taffy's eyes, vouch for his respectability. 
The two officers now adjourned to an inn to take 
some refreshment. Here, of course, they expected to 
escape further persecution ; but what was their indig- 
nation when, before they were fairly seated in the 
parlour, the inquisitive Welshman once more made his 
appearance, and coolly sat down beside them ! Cap- 
tain Jones was about to address this pertinacious tor- 
mentor in no very measured terms, but Lieutenant 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 195 

Hibbert stopped him, whispering, " I'll get rid of 
him ; " and then forthwith assuming a mysterious 
and cunning look, he bent his face towards the Welsh- 
man, and shading his mouth with his hand, as if to 
prevent the sound of his words reaching any other 
ear, said, in a low, deliberate whisper, "Would you 
like to buy a few silk handkerchiefs or a keg of 
brandy \ " With a look of virtuous indignation, Taffy 
started to his feet, and hurriedly left the room, ex- 
claiming, "I thought you were a couple of d d 

rascally smugglers ! " 



196 SAMUEL HIBBKRT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Worcester Captain Byron and the Hottentot Venus- Nottingham 
York Races Sam Hibbert charged with poisoning a racer. 

IN the autumn of 1810, the regiment being then 
quartered at Worcester, Samuel Hibbert's first child, 
a son, was born a happy event to both parents, who 
having been childless for some years, had almost given 
up the hope of offspring. 

The boy was named after his great grandfather, 
the genial old merchant who had first fixed his abode 
in Manchester. 

The following Christmas Lieutenant Hibbert ob- 
tained leave of absence, and travelled with his wife 
and child to London, where they were joined by 
the senior Mrs. Hibbert, her youngest son George, 
and their friend Miss Ainsworth, aunt of the late 
novelist. 

Time passed pleasantly in London, and Lieutenant 
Hibbert was in hopes of getting his leave extended 
when, unexpectedly, he received, by the command 
of Colonel Plumbe, a notification from Lieutenant 
Latham, the acting Adjutant, that it could not be 
extended beyond the 24th of March. Along with 
this official communication came a private epistle from 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 197 

Latham respecting a remarkably, fat, sable beauty, 
who at that time excited much attention : 

WORCESTER, March 3, 1811. 

DEAR HIBBERT I hope you will not forget to enquire the 
price of a grenadier's cap. I understand from Byron, you and 
he went to see the Hottentot Venus. Byron told me that she 
was remarkably flexible. Grimshaw, Farrar, and Jackson are 
made Lieutenants. Everything nearly as when you left. We 
have had some very pleasant private dances, and numbers of 4d. 
per head parties. Remember me to Mrs. Hibbert. Yours most 
truly, WILL LATHAM. 

Mrs. Hibbert senior was probably not disap- 
pointed that her son's leave of absence from the 
regiment could not be extended, for the air of London 
had begun to disagree with her. But the purity of 
the air of that now densely populated and smoky 
district, Clarendon Street, is a phenomenon that a 
resident of the Manchester of to-day can hardly 
realise. Nevertheless, Mr. Hibbert writes to his wife 
in March 1811, and speaks of the air about his house 
as pure compared with that of London. 

MY DEAR I received yours of the 14th to-day. As you 
have fixed to come in the mail on Wednesday, I shall take care 
to send Charles with a coach on Thursday night. I suppose you 
know the mail gets here about midnight generally, or perhaps 
later. I was afraid the city air would not agree with you, and 
am not displeased that you look forward, with pleasure, to 
breathing the air of Clarendon again. My foot has been better 
and worse since I wrote, but never very bad. This morning I 
walked to town, and it's one of my better days. Your affect, 
husband, SAML. HIBBERT. 

Mrs. Hibbert, 
Dr. Taylor, 1 9 John Street, Adolphi, London. 



198 . SAMCTEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

In a postscript to a preceding letter, Mr. Hibbert 
had informed his wife that the ducks were making 
fresh nests at the pond near the house ! Ponds, 
ducks, and green fields in the year 1811, where now 
is Clarendon Street ! 

In the spring of this year the 1st Lancashires, 
having marched from Worcester, were quartered at 
Nottingham, which was then disturbed by riots. 

After remaining in that town for a few weeks, the 
regiment was moved to Hull. Soon after its arrival, 
Samuel Hibbert was sent with a detachment under 
liis command to York. 

The following letter shows how he could accom- 
modate himself to all sorts of company, as we have 
before remarked : 

YORK, May 12th, 1811. 

MY DEAR MOTHER You will perhaps be surprised to hear 
that, instead of being at Hull, I am stationed at York for the 
summer. I had not been in Hull a week when I was ordered 
to this city, so suddenly that I had not even time to write you a 
few lines to let you know. It fell to my turn for a detachment, 
and here I am sent, without any other officers accompanying 
me, to command a party of thirty for the purpose of escorting 
deserters through the county. I forgot to tell you that at 
Bulwell, near Nottingham, where I was stationed, I had com- 
pany at my house, introduced to me by a magistrate, Mr. Elliot, 
that you could little expect. These were no others than Messrs. 
Revetts and Atkins, two of the most celebrated of the Bow 
Street officers ! I'll assure you I found them very pleasant com- 
pany. They were three days at my lodgings, and I had occasion 
to assist them with the soldiers under my command. Mr. 
Elliot afterwards invited me to one of the most elegant dinners 
I ever sat down to. We had the most expensive French wines, 
besides foreign wines, that you can think of. Champagne and 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 199 

old hock flew about the table like small beer. Late in the 
evening I was fixed to a most gambling round-table with some 
ladies. I began to be rather alarmed for my money ; however, 
I came off, to my unlooked-for satisfaction, with winning about 
a guinea. There were none of our officers present at the party 
but Colonel Plumbe. My wife and child would have been here 
before now, only for the request of Mr. Jordan, our surgeon, who 
wished them to stay that he might more satisfactorily say how 
the child received the inoculation. Give my love to all at home. 
Your affect, son, SAML. HIBBERT. 

We have alluded on more than one occasion to 
the carelessness which the nascent antiquarian showed 
as to dress. His mother writes him a lecture on that 

failing as follows : 

CLARENDON, June 26, 1811. 

MY DEAREST SAMUEL I think you are much better off at 
York than being at Hull. The child will have better air, and 
you more time to read, or amuse yourself in your own way. To- 
morrow I shall send a parcel to you by the York coach, to be 
left at the office till called for. Enclosed are two coats, three 
pair of small clothes, and one waistcoat, for your servant man ; 
and likewise for yourself, a full suit of clothes, unmade. It is 
my present to you, with your father's approbation. I hope the 
colours will please you. There is a beautiful blue coat, gray 
pantaloons, with two buff waistcoats. I beg you will get them 
made well and soon, as I have heard you do not dress quite so 
well as. your situation requires as a military man. I hope you 
will buy a new hat to wear with them, and that my dear son 
will pay a little more attention to his appearance in dress ; for 
taking care, and having them well brushed, and keeping yourself 
clean and neat, will not make the difference of 5 to you at the 
year's end. Robert is gone to the Isle of Man with Mr. James 
Ainsworth for a sail. We have little or no news here, but trade 
very bad and nothing to be done with any one at present. Mr. 
and Mrs. Thompson have been here from Nottingham, along 
with their daughter, a very fine sensible girl. They slept at the 



200 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

Star Inn, and dined with us twice. They have gone to Harro- 
gate in a very handsome carriage they bought here. Your ever 
affectionate mother, SARAH HIBBERT. 

The Mrs. Thompson alluded to in the preceding 
letter had been a Miss Worsley of Manchester, a rich 
heiress. She was married to a Mr. Thompson, who 
resided near Nottingham. 

The carelessness which young Sam Hibbert had 
ever evinced in dress also drew upon him somewhat 
caustic remarks from his brother Robert, then a young 
Cambridge student, from whom he had asked for any 
cast-off clothes for his man. The letter of Robert 
Hibbert also illustrates the spirit of many young 
men of the period, who, like the French, admired 
the Roman Republic, and adopted such words of 
fraternity as thou, thee, and so forth, in their con- 
versation. 

" MY BROTHER," writes Eobert, on the 22d of July, 1811, 
" It will he Wednesday when you shall receive a good bundle of 
old clothes, etc. I have got an old hat or two, if your servant is 
in want of one. I should think they were better than the one thou 
wert accustomed to wear. In Liverpool I saw Kemble play 
Richard and Penruddock. The latter was a fine piece of acting, 
but he is no more worthy of being compared to Cooke in Richard 
than I to Hercules. I suppose by this time thou art profoundly 
in the classics. What art thou reading particularly 1 I have 
not lately dipped into them. I find much wholesome food in 
French literature. Remember me very affectionately to thy 
wife, not forgetting Nip. Thy undutiful brother, 

ROBERT HIBBERT. 

Immediately after receiving his mother's letter 
Sam Hibbert wrote : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 201 

' I have bought, as you requested, a new hat ; indeed, I wanted 
one. Our regiment is dispersed with the exception of the party 
under my command all along the sea-coast. We have two 
parties for the purpose of protecting the coast from smugglers." 

On the 27th of July Lieutenant Hibbert wrote to 
his mother with an account of an elegant dinner he 
had been invited to at the Archbishop's palace, which 
was somewhat singular, from the fact of the clergy- 
men present dining in their gowns : 

"I sent you a letter mentioning my having received the 
parcel, etc. If I had known you were so anxious about my 
appearing so very smart, I would have contrived to have gratified 
you. I like York very much. The men under my command 
have set off this morning for Easingwold, to remain there, 
according to the custom of the army, during the Assizes, which 
commence next week. On Thursday I went with two of the 
recruiting officers quartered here to a splendid dinner given by 
the Archbishop of York, in his palace at Bishopthorpe, a few 
miles off. He notices the military very much. We dined a very 
large party, consisting chiefly of the clergy, all dressed out in 
their robes and gowns on the occasion ; with these there were 
also a number of ladies of the first fashion about York. The 
Archbishop behaved to us with remarkable attention, and I 
received much civility from his sons ; indeed, I do not recollect 
for some time spending a pleasanter day. The dinner was served 
up in most excellent style j and I have not before seen a greater 
profusion of silver plate, which almost weighed down the table. 
I particularly noticed the wine-coolers, which were very massy 
and numerous ; indeed, there was not during the dinner any 
bottle of wine without a cooler. We sat down about forty or 
fifty. In the middle of the table range, from top to bottom, 
appeared a sort of framewood, raised a little higher than the 
table, ornamented and painted with various devices, on which 
were a very great number of flowers beautifully arranged in jajs. 
I suspected the design might have been taken from the Prince of 



202 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Wales's table. This was never removed ; but when the table- 
cloths were taken away, which were made to fit each side of this 
sort of platform, there appeared beneath other white table-cloths, 
so that it almost seemed, when the dessert dishes came on, as if 
the dinner was not removed. I cannot tell you the particulars 
of the dinner, which was most elegantly and richly set out. The 
varieties of wine were great; and before the first cloth was 
drawn we were liberally served with Champagne, Burgundy, and 
Cape wines. So much for Episcopal splendour!" 

The York races were now soon to come on, and 
some of the 1st Lancashire officers were meditating a 
descent upon the old city. Lieutenant Hibbert had 
been commissioned to send to headquarters, at Hull, 
Pick's Racing Calendar, and to inquire for the third 
volume of the Turf Register for his friend Captain 
Wilkinson. A few days afterwards that gentleman, 
when again writing to the Lieutenant, alludes to an 
incident which happened to the latter when he was 
sent with his men away from York during the Assize 
week, and which, as it afforded considerable amuse- 
ment to the officers of the 1st Lancashires, we will 
here narrate : 

" I am sorry to hear of your late confinement," wrote Captain 
Wilkinson ; " but I have not as yet heard if the reward adver- 
tised namely, 500 guineas has been paid for your being taken 
up for poisoning the horse ! ! ! ! ! Compliments to Mrs. Hibbert." 

The episode of the horse-poisoning was as follows. 
When Lieutenant Hibbert was stationed at Easing- 
wold during the Assizes, he left his men under the 
command of a sergeant ; and donning his old velveteen 
shooting jacket, corduroy breeches, leather gaiters, 
and battered hat, set off on an antiquarian and geo- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 203 

logical ramble through Yorkshire. In course of time 
he found himself at Doncaster, where there were some 
celebrated racers that were to run at the York races. 
Ever desirous of acquiring information upon any 
subject, he loitered about the stables and made vari- 
ous inquiries respecting the horses that were to run. 
The next morning the favourite that had been backed 
to a very large amount, was found to have been 
poisoned ! Who could have perpetrated this villanous 
act ? Who but the shabbily dressed vagabond stranger 
who had been loitering about the stables the previous 
night ; and besides, he was found to be lodging in a 
very second-rate inn. Circumstances thus all pointed 
towards him as the guilty party who had contrived to 
" get at," to use a stable phrase, the great favourite 
and poison him, for which deed he was doubtless to 
be well paid by some rascally blacklegs. The sup- 
posed culprit was accordingly arrested and taken 
before the nearest magistrate ; and, his protestations 
of innocence and that he was an officer in the 1st 
Lancashires being laughed at, he was sent to prison. 
He was, however, permitted to send to the head- 
quarters of his regiment at Hull for some officer to 
come and identify him. As this could not be done in 
less time than a couple of days, the unfortunate 
Lieutenant had to remain in durance until the arrival 
of the officer sent for, when he was discharged with- 
out a stain upon his character ! as the saying is 



204 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



CHAPTER- XXX. 

Benvick-upon-Tweed Complaint of dirt of the town A martinet 
general The route to Haddington is sent. 

EARLY in the month of November 1811 the 1st 
Lancashires received orders to march from Hull into 
Scotland, but, owing to some oversight, the route had 
not been sent to Lieutenant Hibbert ; so that, instead 
of marching along with the regiment, he and his men 
were obliged to follow alone. His wife and child 
proceeded in a chaise, and he directed her to halt at 
Durham and there remain for a week to rest them- 
selves. The weather was very rough and stormy, and 
the journey disagreeable and fatiguing. 

After a weary, toilsome march of several days, he 
arrived at Berwick with his men on the 21st of 
November. To his great satisfaction, he learnt that 
General Lord Cathcart had intimated to the regiment 
that, in consequence of its long march, it should 
remain in Berwick for the winter ; whereupon the 
Lieutenant and his wife took lodgings in one of the 
best parts of the town, near the fortifications. Here 
they expected to be comfortably settled. We shall see, 
from the letter he wrote home, what opinion a few 
days' experience caused him to form of the accommo- 
dations and people of the Border town : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 205 



BERWICK-ON-TWEED, Deer, IQth, 1811. 

MY DEAR MOTHER Since I have been here I have been very 
much plagued with lodgings, owing to the filthiness of these 
Scotch Borderers, as the natives here call themselves. All the 
ideas that you might have had of the dirtiness of the Scotch, I 
do believe, must come far short of the reality of it. I left my 
lodgings only this day, to avoid the horrors of a Scotch kitchen. 
The accounts I could give you would make you surprised, and 
wonder that we could even eat, though our existence depends on 
eating. Leave a joint of meat in the larder after it has been 
roasted : it will, the next day, come up gnawed by the pilfering 
teeth of these rascally servants of the North, or torn by their 
dirty fingers, enough to make you sick at the very heart. The 
servants in this place uniformly live on much worse fare than 
their masters and mistresses, and as they often dine on a scanty 
portion of bread, carefully weighed out to them, and a dried 
herring, or some thin broth, you need not marvel that these 
hungry wretches should ravenously attack such a dainty as a 
plain joint must be to them. I have often thought how indig- 
nant a Manchester housekeeper must be to see the vile treat- 
ment these servants meet with he who thinks it necessary for 
the happiness of his domestic dependants that they should in 
every respect live as well as himself ! Yet it must appear to an 
attentive observer that the treatment of Manchester servants and 
that of Scotch servants is alike equally productive of bad moral 
consequences. While one species of treatment induces the half- 
starved wretches to the temptation of stealing and habitual deceit 
to gratify their appetite, the other makes the servant saucy, 
imperious, and dissipated, disposed even to change situations with 
their masters ; and when they leave their places, and undertake 
housekeeping for themselves, unable to conform to more limited 
means of gratifying their appetites, which eventually leads them 
to beggary and ruin. I have never seen servants more injured 
than in Scotland and Manchester ; elsewhere they are taught to 
live as becomes their situation, with sparing moderation, and Un- 
moral effect of this treatment must be good. 



206 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Never again do I intend to mingle with a Scotch family, at 
least to partake with it in the use of a kitchen. I do not know 
how I can decently resume my description of it, which, as far as 
I have seen in this town, in my search after lodgings, may be 
briefly said to display a settled gloom of undisturbed filth and 
smoke. I lodged in the best-looking house in Berwick, and 
really, not to disguise the fact, the family used the very kitchen 
for loots commodii, as a magnum dolium that my servant found 
witnessed ; nay, so enraged was the person with whom I lodged, 
at my leaving her house, that she told me I was a disgrace to 
my regiment for going to a forica that I found by chance in the 
garden. Such strangers are they to common decency ! I have 
now found one of the most comfortable dwelling-houses I ever 
was in, that I have engaged to myself, ready furnished for only 
1 6s. per week, which is almost as cheap to me as barracks would 
be, and far more convenient. My house consists of a complete 
kitchen and back kitchen, two parlours, and two bedrooms. It 
is also well situated, being close to the river, where there is an 
excellent circulation of fresh air. I have never known the child 
to look better than he does now this intensely cold climate is of 
service to him ; and indeed I inure him to it, for he is out of 
doors almost the whole day. 

The climate of this place is, indeed, rigorous in the extreme ; 
so exposed is the situation of Berwick and unsheltered by any 
plantations. Short as our morning parades are, they are most 
severely felt ; the muskets have occasionally dropped from some 
of the soldiers' hands, so benumbed were they with cold. The 
freezing of a single night will make the ice fit for skating. The 
Earl of Rosslyn lately reviewed the regiment, and so well did 
we happen to perform that day, that he told us we should not 
be long before we were honoured with being near the head 
general of the North, Lord Cathcart, who is in Edinburgh. Your 
affectionate son, SAMUEL HIBBERT. 

About this time George, a youth of nineteen, the 
youngest brother of Lieutenant Hibbert, had shown 
an inclination for the army, which had annoyed his 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 207 

father considerably, for the latter writes to his son 
Samuel : 

" I trust I shall hear no more of George's predilection for the 
army. He has been at the Misses Hollands about ten days, 
who are now removed to near Liverpool." 

But little wonder if Mr. Hibbert's sons showed a 
predilection for the army ; the times were warlike, 
and they had inherited from their mother Hibernian 
blood! ' 

At this period of his life Samuel Hibbert was 
imbued with all the " John Bull " prejudices against 
the Scotch prejudices which had been intensified 
ever since the peace of 1763, when, during the 
ministry of Lord Bute, a heavy duty had been laid 
upon cider. The exasperation of the English, parti- 
cularly in the western and southern counties, was at 
that time so great that riots and riotous processions 
were of frequent occurrence. Effigies of Lord Bute, 
dressed in a Scotch plaid and bonnet, and jack-boots, 
and adorned with a star, were paraded about, whilst 
apples draped in crape were exhibited or hung in 
strings round the necks of asses ; see the Lancashire 
Magazine for 1763. 

Imbued, as we have said, with anti-Scotch senti- 
ments, we shall find Lieutenant Hibbert now making 
bitter reflections on a martinet general, whose rough- 
ness and severity he attributes to the fact of his being 
a Scotchman, as if there were no such individuals as 
martinets south of the Tweed ! 

But the prejudiced English lieutenant afterwards 
changed his opinion most thoroughly of the Scotch, 



208 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

when his residence amongst them made him personally 
and intimately acquainted with the people. 

The following letter describing the martinet 
general to his friend Will Latham, who was on 

o 

leave of absence, is copied from a rough draft of it ; 
and it may be here observed, that Sam Hibbert, like 
his father, was very methodical, and frequently made 
drafts of his letters, even of those written to friends. 
The letters written by him to his parents fell into his 
possession after their deaths, and were preserved 
by him : 

BERWICK, Feby. '3d, 1812. 

MY DEAR LATHAM This is the first opportunity I have had 
of answering your last letter ; when it arrived I happened to be 
exploring the county for a few days with Jones, and since then 
we have been very much engaged in the preparation for General 
Durham's inspection, which, as far as relates to the clothing of 
the regiment, has just taken place. No part of the officer's duty 
is now dispensed with : every one has now to be present at morning 
and evening parades. On Tuesday last General Durham visited 
us. I can scarcely inform you how his first appearance surprised 
us, and particularly myself, so little were we prepared to meet a 
general so opposite, in his expectations of a regiment, from the 
generals of the southern districts. I have had the command of 
the grenadiers for a fortnight, since Parke left us, and you may, 
if you please, fancy me prepared to meet this general. In he 
bolts whilst we were formed in the barrack -yard. With a scowl- 
ing look, as if he would eat us up without salt, he bids me call 
out the names of the front rank. This I did, as well as my sur- 
prise would allow me, till I came to two recruits, whose names 
I did not know. Upon which, he flew into a rage, told me I 
ought to be ashamed of myself, etc. etc. It was in vain that 
Major Rigby assured him, as well as myself, that I had not been 
in the grenadiers above a month, for nearly a year and a half. 
The answer was, that he, the general, could get off the names 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 209 

and individually know a company before the next day. He 
then took a man out of the company, and asked me how much 
he owed. This I knew nothing of, and for this, he again blew 
me up. I was then questioned if I personally paid my company, 
which fortunately, the last 24th, I did what the men's shoes 
cost, and a multitude of other minute questions. The sergeants 
were next examined about points of duty, and equally with me 
got a large measure of goose. He then went to the other com- 
panies ; Ralph got ill off, being the next to be examined ; the 
afternoon was confounded cold, and starved out the general's 
patience, so that he dismissed the others with much fewer inter- 
rogatories, and with abusing the men's clothing, etc. Now that 
you may not be equally surprised with myself at the general's 
manner, when next he visits us, which will be in April as sup- 
posed, I shall inform you what we ought to be prepared for. 
The general remains about three days with the regiment before 
he makes up his confidential report to the commander-m-chief. 
He enquires minutely whether every captain or commander of a 
company knows the interior economy of it ; his enquiries will 
extend to the price of every article sold to the men, the provi- 
sions for messing, etc. etc. He will personally see if the 
lieutenant of two years' standing is capable of commanding a 
company, and if the captain of two years' standing can command 
a regiment, by ordering him to take the command of it, and 
putting it through certain manoeuvres. Yours truly, 

SAML. HIBBERT. 
Lieut. Latham, 

Poulton, Lancashire. 

Samuel Hibbert stated bare matter of fact when, 
writing to his friend Will Latham about General 
Durham's visit, he said, as we have just read, " His 
appearance surprised us, and particularly myself." 
The martinet, eyeing Lieutenant Hibbert sternly, as 
if he would intimate to him, " Mind what you are 
about now," ordered him to take the command of the 

p 



210 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

regiment, and put it through certain manoeuvres 
which he specified. For awhile all went well, and 
Sam Hibbert got the men very creditably through 
various movements, but at last, whether from nervous- 
ness or forgetfulness, or from both causes combined, 
he called out a word of command which got the men 
into two lines confronting each other. In this position, 
they stood staring and expecting the next word of 
command, and here Sam Hibbert was compelled to 
leave them, being now utterly at fault. As for 
General Durham, he became purple in the face, and 
the excited manner in which he addressed Lieutenant 
Hibbert was certainly not calculated to relieve that 
unlucky officer's confusion : " Hell and the devil ! 
What's he giving us now ? Blood and wounds ! It's 
a country dance ! By Heaven ! he's going to give us 
a country dance ! " 

This episode tended to increase the lieutenant's 
prejudices against Scotland, for on the 15th of Feb- 
ruary he writes to his mother : 

"I am particularly engaged, having the command of the 
grenadier company without any assistance. Scotland is not 
much relished by us, and we give many anxious looks towards 
the south. Scotland as a country has been much overrated, 
and from the following circumstances, in which a Scotchman has 
a partial advantage over a South Briton : the knowledge of 
reading and writing is more generally diffused among the lower 
classes, but to this national distinction of the people may be 
added so wretched a want of common cleanliness, of common 
decency, such vile servility, meanness, and such low tricks, as to 
render this cried -up country a century behind the English in 
national consequence. The Scotch regiments are so low in regard 
to officers and men, that the generals who visit us treat us with 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 211 

the same roughness as they do their own countrymen. I must 
now remove my dwelling-place in consequence of a notice having 
arrived to prepare the regiment for a march to Haddington. We 
expect to leave Berwick the latter end of this week or the be- 
ginning of next. At present we have a deal of travelling ; how 
far this will suit me when I have an addition to my family will 
be a future question. I shall always think with pleasure of the 
day I entered this regiment, whether I shall be, at a future 
period, obliged to quit it or not in consequence of the increase 
of my family. I am sorry I cannot gratify your wish of having 
my little boy with you, and sending him to a school in the neigh- 
bourhood. To this I have only one and rather a strong objection. 
Since your time and my father's I mean when your thoughts 
were employed in bringing us up the system of education is 
much changed, having, in fact, to keep pace with the gradual 
improvements of the age we live in. The true system of educa- 
tion is, in fact, only beginning to be known. Your next letter 
had better be directed to me at Haddington." 



212 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Haddington Sain Hibbert adopts the Spartan bringing-up of children 
Shabby inns A duel stopped Sam Hibbert's youngest 
brother George enters the 1st Lancashires Dick Crompton 
again Vaccination Tour in the Highlands. 

AT the close of February 1812 the 1st Lancashires 
was settled in its new quarters at Haddington, and 
Lieutenant Hibbert had taken lodgings in the town. 
These, however, he soon quitted, and in a letter to his 
mother, dated 6th March, after commenting at length 
on the dirt of the apartments, which had caused him 
to remove into barracks, he goes on to say: 

" If barracks are not altogether so convenient as lodgings, 
they have, at least, the recommendation of cleanliness. Nothing 
can certainly be more pleasant than the situation of the barracks 
here. They are upon the brow of a hill, with an excellent pros- 
pect before them of the Scotch mountains ; they are neither 
more nor less than wooden huts, and each hut consists of two 
roomy and airy apartments, with a good kitchen ; there is also 
a porch at the outside, which same deserves the name of a lobby ! 
One of these huts we have got to ourselves. The other induce- 
ment for my coming into barracks was on account of the health 
of the child, there being such a deal of ground for him to play 
or walk in, The barrack-yard may be said to enclose a piece of 
ground about as large as the field opposite your house at Claren- 
don. Berwick agreed with the boy well, although there was at 
that time a great fatality amongst the children, owing to the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 213 

severity of the climate, which I am assured is the coldest in 
Scotland. Major Rigby's children have suffered very much, and 
one of them now lies dangerously ill in that town, and is not 
expected to recover. Our boy, indeed, did not entirely escape, 
though I guarded against the effects of sudden extremes of heat 
and cold by very early muring him to the weather, and taking 
every occasion to keep him out of doors, let the day be ever so 
cold. However, two or three days before we left he was seized 
with an inflammation of the lungs, and the moment I saw it, by 
his difficulty of breathing, I lost no time in getting to him the 
first surgeon of the regiment I happened to see, which was young 
Jordan, whom you saw in London, and to his promptness our 
child is indebted, I may truly say, for his life. I contemplate 
this spring a long ramble I intend to make in the Highlands. I 
expect you and my father to pay me a visit in the course of the 
summer. In a few days we are dining with General Lord Oath- 
cart, and very probably I shall attend one of the assemblies at 
Edinburgh." 

It would be hard to say what Lieutenant Hibbert 
really meant, when he wrote to his mother, that his 
strongest reason for not letting her have his little boy 
was that the system of education was only beginning 
to be known ; but it would seem as if the Lieutenant's 
mode had been within an ace of making an end of the 
child, to judge from the foregoing letter. 

The study of the ancient classics, which Samuel 
Hibbert assiduously kept up, even while with the 
regiment, had instilled into him great admiration of 
the Spartan hardening process, so, almost before his 
little boy was one year old, he put that system in 
practice. We have seen by his letter what the conse- 
quences were at Berwick of sending his child out in 
all weathers, but he does not seem to have taken 
warning, for while at Haddington he let him run 



214 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

about the barrack-yard bareheaded till his hair was 
bleached ; barelegged and barefoot, till even his 
bachelor friends, Jones and Latham, remonstrated, 
but in vain. Fortunately in this case there were no 
evil results. But in after years Lieutenant Hibbert 
changed his opinions entirely as to this system of 
training, at which he himself then laughed, and would 
tell how Dr. Barclay of Edinburgh replied to an 
advocate of the hardening system, who had been 
instancing in support of his argument the sturdy 
Highlanders : " Very true ; but you forget how 
many of them die under the process ; it is only the 
very strong who survive it." 

Not long after having been settled at Haddington, 
Lieutenant Hibbert wrote to his father for his plate. 
The old gentleman, bearing in mind his son's severe 
reflections on the Scotch, replied by a letter, which 
reads very like a satirical rebuke : 

"I remember a time," writes Mr. Hibbert, "in the more 
early part of this reign, when the English people were not so 
Scotch-ridden as you now think them to be the great parti- 
alities shown to Scotchmen at the English court on political 
accounts rendered them generally unpopular and very obnoxious 
to many in England. I observe you wish you had your plate 
with you only to make a show ! can this be your real motive 1 
for I never supposed you were much fond of show, except a little 
in books. Now I mention books ; pray have you read a new 
book called Bibliomania ? if you have not, it's worth your notice. 
But to return to the plate, can you want it to gratify a little 
vanity in making a show among a people you seem so much to 
despise ? or will a show of this sort command greater respect 
from your brother officers ? However this be, your plate is all 
safe at Clarendon, and will be forthcoming at any proper oppor- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 215 

tunity that you may wish for it ; but I think there might be 
some risk in sending it to Scotland, and, perhaps, even after it 
got there, if I may infer that from what you say of the manners 
of the people." 

But notwithstanding his father's sarcastic letter, 
Lieutenant Hibbert continues his invectives against 
Scotland, his animadversions being directed even at 
Auld Eeekie itself, a city which he soon afterwards 
began to like so well that he fixed his residence in it 
for many years ! But we give the following extract 
from a letter written to his father on the 8th of April, 
relative to Scotch inns, as it leads us to narrate an 
episode arising out of another peculiar failing of his 
a love of shabby inns : 

" Let me here remind you," he writes, " of the extortion 
practised upon strangers at the inns, which our officers have felt 
the effects of to their cost ; a guinea for one dinner, consisting of 
a very moderate fare and a small quantity of wine, has been 
paid. When I was at Edinburgh I found out a tavern, unfre- 
quented by strangers, and here the charges were extremely 
moderate, for Scotsmen will not spend their own money idly." 

We do not suppose that the Lieutenant ever 
related to his father the episode to which we have 
alluded, and which we give on the authority of the 
late Mr. Joseph Jordan, then an officer in the regi- 
ment. We shall probably not be far wrong in pre- 
suming that the inn in question was by no means a 
first-class establishment. 

It happened, however, that Major Rigby saw the 
Lieutenant come out of it, and the latter, conscience 
stricken, was not over well pleased at having been 
caught. At first the Major bantered him, and made 



216 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

some sarcastic jests, which the Lieutenant laughed at, 
but, on the wrong side of his mouth, if we may use a 
vulgar saying. Jesting words, however, led to more 
serious words, and more serious words led to high 
words, for the Lieutenant felt nettled, and, at last, 
high words led to a challenge. The seconds, to whom 
the parties had confided their honour ! tried to patch 
up the affair, but in vain, for the principals were too 
exasperated, and roundly refused to listen to any 
proposals of explaining or apologising ; so a meeting 
was arranged for the next morning. When on the 
ground, the seconds, sensibly thinking it very silly 
that two men should try to blow each other's brains 
out, only on account of a paltry inn, again interposed 
to mediate, this time with success, for probably the 
two bellicose officers had cooled with the morning 
air, and had begun to take the same rational view of 
the affair as their seconds. Accordingly they were 
reconciled, but as they shook hands, Major Rigby, 
laughing outright, could not refrain from saying, 
" Well, but Hibbert, you can't deny, after all, that it 

was a d d shabby inn." 

On April 15th, 1812, Lieutenant Samuel Hibbert's 
second son, William, was born in the barracks at 
Haddington, and Mr. Hibbert, in writing his con- 
gratulations, takes the opportunity of referring again 
to his son George's military bias : 

" I cannot get over the strong objections I have to George's 
going into the regular army, but if he could get into your regi- 
ment, he would be very glad of it, and I would not object, as 
judging it, considering all circumstances, for the best." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 217 

George Hibbert being determined to embrace a 
military life, and his brother Samuel seeing that 
opposition would be fruitless, relates his own experi- 
ence of a regiment, as a school for young men, in a 
letter to his father : 

" If George is in any way inclined to habits of extravagance, 
it is only proper that he should know that they will be of not 
the least service to him in a regiment, were he possessed of the 
most ample means to gratify them. Before entering he must 
make up his mind to reduce his wants and inclinations to a 
much smaller compass than is allowed in any other station of 
life ; and, with this view, a military life has frequently afforded 
the best school for a young man, and has shown him the absurd- 
ity of thinking that the comforts of life cannot be obtained 
without paying excessively for them. I have often remarked 
that military characters retire into private stations rather addicted 
to parsimony than otherwise." 

We have a vague notion, however, that Sam 
Hibbert strongly suspected that his young brother 
George was absurd enough to think that the comforts 
of life could not be obtained without paying exces- 
sively for them ; but we would ask, how many older 
heads have thought the same, from the time that 
Juvenal wrote magis illajuvant qua pluris emuntur? 
George's father had often had to groan over a long 
bill from Scarr and Co., the fashionable tailors in St. 
Ann's Square, and so too had many other fathers, 
and among them the punning Parson Ethelstone. 
Scarr and Co. had sent the reverend gentleman a bill 
incurred by his son, of which the provoked father 
complained bitterly to an old friend. The latter being 
a bachelor (not a very discreet choice on the part of 



218 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

the parson), only laughed, saying at the same time, 
"Young men will be young men." The parson 
looked very grave, as in solemn tones he exclaimed 
" He jests at scars that never felt a wound." 

"Writing to his mother, who had at last overcome 
her opposition to her youngest son's inclinations for 
the army, Sam Hibbert consoles her, saying : 

" The army is not the bad school for youth that it has been 
represented, though there are, certainly, many temptations to be 
found in it, but perhaps not more than in civil life. When 
George has set off I will contrive to meet him in Edinburgh, 
where he will get better equipped in regimentals, etc., than else- 
where. He must be sure to bring some music with him, as 
some of our officers are possessed with a musical mania, and they 
are anticipating some fiddling when he comes ; and as a young 
lad must amuse himself, he may indulge this musical taste of his, 
although I do not myself like to spend my time amidst crotchets 
and semiquavers. Tell George to look if my father has such a 
set of books as Withering's Botany, which I beg he will bring 
with him for me if they can be spared. Ask my father if he 
can spare his microscope, and if he can, to lend it me, and get it 
well packed. On Monday next I set out for the Western Isles 
with Captain Jones, and purpose returning, at the latest, on the 
10th of June." 

It appears from the following letter of George 
Hibbert to his brother Sam, that Dick Crompton, the 
friend of Marshal Mortier, the whilom student of the 
Manchester New College whom we have before spoken 
of, had got a good military appointment : 

MANCHESTER, June 12 to, 1812. 

DEAR SAM I suppose you know that I have had another 
certificate of qualification sent me by Captain Wilkinson. Captain 
Crompton, who is just returned from Lisbon, directed me how 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 219 

to fill it up, he should know how, as he was in the 1st Lanca- 
shires. Captain Crompton is going to the Isle of France as 

aide-de-camp to General , I forget his name. He says he 

shall get near 1000 a year by it. I shall write to you again 
before I join." 

George Hibbert joined the 1st Lancashires in the 
month of July, and was placed in Captain Jones's 
company. 

When writing to his father, on the 9th of Septem- 
ber, that he thought George would make a very good 
officer, Samuel Hibbert takes occasion to give his 
opinion on vaccination, which was then in its infancy, 
and had just been applied to his youngest little 
boy: 

"William has just been vaccinated, and he has done very 
well, although not a few have tried to persuade me against this 
modern practice and to induce me to adopt the old plan. I am 
myself fully persuaded of the efficiency of vaccination, and no 
prejudice of mine shall, by the adoption of the old inoculation, 
contribute to protract the existence of such a curse on mankind 
as the smallpox." 

Lieutenant Hibbert had now obtained another 
leave of absence for a few weeks, and he writes to 
his father : 

"I set off for the Highlands on foot ; if possible I shall get 
to the Orkneys, at any rate, as far north as I can. It is a most 
dreary country to go through, with most miserable accommoda- 
tion for travellers ; but I have wrought up my mind to meet 
the difficulties that may occur. By the time this letter reaches 
you I shall be at or near Inverness and the field of Culloden. I 
intend returning by way of Aberdeen." 

One or two entries in his Diary remind us of the 



220 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

bargain of the Vicar of Wakefield's son Moses. We 
here give the extracts : 

" Edinburgh. Arrived at 10 minutes past 9 on 10th Septr. 
1812. 

" Crossgates. Met with a man of the name of Sinclair 
went to his house bargained for a miserable pony miserable 
accommodation paid 2 : 15s. for it. 

"Kinross, llth Septr. Pony old and done, could scarce 
move a step offered it for sale nobody would bid anything but 
a butcher, who offered 1 7s. 6d. for it took it to a village two 
miles hence sold him to a dealer for 20s., saddle, bridle, whip 
included, even as I had my bargain. 

" Overtook a sailor on the way and walked with him to 
Perth. 

" Kirk of Auchtergaven. Obliged to rest in a miserable 
house, and had as miserable a bed for the sum of 3d." 

On his arrival again at Haddington, on the 8th of 
October, Sam Hibbert wrote to his mother : 

" I had a very pleasant excursion of no less than 800 miles, 
upwards of 700 of which I walked. The accommodations were 
worse than anything you could imagine ; but such was the force 
of habit that I believe that I began at last to be almost insen- 
sible to Scotch dirt and wretchedness." 

He still persevered in the Spartan training of his 
children, for he writes : 

" The boys show the very picture of health, they are playing 
on the green in the barrack-yard all day long, and I can send 
them out in the open air every hour without dressing them as 
in a town. I am beginning to inure Titus very early to the 
hardships of life. He romps about, very seldom with either hat 
on his head or shoes to his feet, and he is very glad at night to 
come, ill tired, and sleep upon a straw mattress. I have him fed 
on water-porridge and potatoes." 

The sight of these two little semi-savages must 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 221 

certainly have astonished Lieutenant Hibbert's brother 
officers, at least the wives of such of them as were 
married ; but another idea of the Lieutenant must 
have surprised them just as much. Most military 
men would think a wife and two children and their 
nurse " heavy baggage " enough to move about with ; 
but not so Sam Hibbert, if we may judge from the 
following extract from one of his letters : 

" I am now employed in packing up a large box of books 
which I mean sending to Manchester, as I have more than I can 
conveniently carry about. Having, since I came into the regi- 
ment, had occasion to purchase many books, my library that I 
travel with becomes too bulky." 

But, with all his odd ways, he was ever a special 
favourite with his brother officers ; he was a good com- 
panion, and his fund of anecdote (partly, perhaps, 
acquired from the old poacher at Slack Hall) was 
inexhaustible. The late Mr. Jordan was wont to say, 
that whenever it was understood that Hibbert would 
dine at mess, the table was sure to be crowded and 
the room became one continued scene of merriment. 

In November the 1st Lancashires received orders 
to march to Dalkeith to guard the French prisoners 
in that town. 

Lieutenant Hibbert had spent the Christmas and 
New Year of 1812-13 with his parents at Clarendon 
House, and though his mother had been ailing, still 
her state was not such as to cause alarm, as for 
some years she had been troubled with asthma so 
soon as winter set in. Thus no shadow of apprehen- 
sion crossed the mind of her son when bidding her 



222 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

farewell that this would be their last parting on 
earth. Such, however, it was, and he had scarce 
arrived in Dalkeith when he received the afflicting 
intelligence of the death of one who had ever been an 
affectionate and devoted mother. She had succumbed 
to an attack of inflammation of the chest, on Sunday, 
the 24th of January. 

This sad event caused a change in all his plans. 
He at once decided upon soon leaving the Militia, and 
as the regiment was then on the point of moving to 
Dalkeith, he lost no time in sending for his wife and 
family from Scotland, it being the wish of Mr. Hibbert 
that his daughter-in-law should keep house for him. 

Lieutenant Hibbert had not been long at home 
before he perceived that his father's declining health 
had rendered him totally unfit to attend to business ; 
and moreover he had received hints from one or two 
friends, that it would be well if he were to look a little 
closely into the mercantile transactions of the house. 
This was enough to rouse him to bestir himself, for 
he had already some uneasiness at seeing how un- 
bounded and uncontrolled was the confidence which 
his father placed in his head clerk. So, without cere- 
mony, he installed himself in the counting-house, in- 
vestigated all the books and correspondence with as 
much skill and acuteness as if he had been brought 
up to a mercantile life. It was not long before he 
discovered that the confidential clerk had been giving 
credit for goods to a very ruinous amount to friends 
of his own men of straw ; and that if that system 
were carried on his father's name would eventually 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 223 

appear in the Gazette. He laid all that he had dis- 
covered before his father, and having induced him to 
retire altogether from business, wound up the affairs 
of the house of " Titus Hibbert and Son." 

The investigation and management of this most 
complicated and troublesome piece of business showed 
clearly, that had Lieutenant Hibbert entered upon a 
mercantile life, he would have succeeded as well in 
that state as he afterwards did in the pursuit of 
science. 

About this time his brother George resigned his 
commission in the 1st Lancashires, in order to enter 
the regulars. His inclination had always been for a 
military life ; but he was his mother's favourite son, 
and she having been strongly averse to his entering 
the army, he had yielded to her wishes. He was 
gazetted to the 40th on the 25th of February 1813. 

Thus George Hibbert was now entering on the 
stern realities of a soldier's life, whilst the military 
career of his brother Samuel was about to close. 

" The death of your mother gave us" great con- 
cern," writes Dr. Charles Taylor, the old friend of the 
family, from London, on the 3d of April, " and I 
suppose you have now given up all thoughts of mili- 
tary matters. I know you cannot be idle, and am 
therefore a little puzzled to know what objects occupy 
your attention." 

We shall soon see what the objects were which 
were to occupy the attention of Samuel Hibbert 
junior. 



224 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Mr. Joseph Jordan, surgeon Samuel Hibbert studies medicine in 
Edinburgh George Hibbert at Toulouse at Ghent The Duke 
of Wellington and the 40th Regiment Waterloo Death of Mr. 
Samuel Hibbert senior. 

DEAR HIBBERT Don't be astonished [writes Lieutenant Hib- 
bert's intimate friend, Captain Edward Jones, from Lancaster, 
on the 20th of May 1813] 

" Some say the devil's dead ! the devil's dead ! 
Some say the devil's dead ! and buried on a Sunday ! 
Some say he's rose again ! rose again ! 
Some say he's rose again, and 'peared to Mrs. Grundy ! 
Some say the Pope is " 

but there has been such a deal said of him lately that I shall 
say nothing about him, or any of them for the present ; therefore, 
leaving the devil (seniores priores), the Pope, and Mrs. Grundy to 
a future discussion what do you say to our proposed pedestrian 
tour in Cambria? If you are in the same mind and sound in body 
as when we last met and parted, I suppose you will agree with 
me that the sooner we set off the better. Suppose we meet on 
the 28th of this month at Chester. Unless I hear from you to 
the contrary, I shall take it for granted this plan is agreed upon. 
My best wishes to Jordan ; that is to say, May pestilence, 
plague, and rich pockets, along with lingering long diarrhoeas, 
and every other profitable disease, afflict the patients of Man- 
chester ! How can he have my best wishes without my wishing 
all this 1 I have been staying a week with Colonel Rawsthorne, 
but I defer saying what I have been doing until we meet 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 225 

If I can find Paddy O'Donnell's letter to the Huddersfield 
petitioners, I will send it it will amuse you. He writes in 
passion. 

Eemember me to Mr. Hibbert and your better half, and 
believe me your most Catholic EDWD. JONES. 

ON PARTICULAR SERVICE, 
To Lieutenant Hibbert, 

1st Regiment Royal Lancashire Militia, 
Manchester. 

Mr. Joseph Jordan, who is alluded to in the fore- 
going jocular letter, had just begun in Manchester 
that career of a medical practitioner which continued 
for many long years, as we have before said, and ter- 
minated with his death, at the ripe age of eighty-six. 

Lieutenant Hibbert had not yet sent in the formal 
resignation of his commission in the 1st Lancashires, 
but he still resided with his father, having obtained a 
long leave of absence from the regiment. 

Dr. Charles Taylor was right when, in his letter of 
the 3d of April, he wrote, " I know you cannot be 
idle." We shall now see what objects were to occupy 
his attention. Feeling that, with an increasing family, 
he ought not to lean on his father for their support, 
he determined to prepare himself for the practice of 
medicine, and most probably his native town would 
have been the scene of his labours. With this object 
in view, Samuel Hibbert matriculated at the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, on the 13th of October 1813, 
where, as soon as the winter session had commenced, 
lie began to attend the lectures of several eminent 
professors, as those of Dr. Alexander Monro, for 
anatomy ; Dr. Rutherford, for botany ; Professor 

Q 



226 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Jameson, for natural history ; Dr. James Gregory, 
for practice of medicine ; Dr. Hope, for chemistry ; 
Dr. John Barclay, for comparative anatomy ; Dr. 
Thomas Brown, for moral philosophy ; Drs. Home, 
Duncan, Henry Dewar, and others. 

Although Samuel Hibbert had now commenced 
taking this decisive step towards a change of life, he 
could not cease to feel the greatest interest in his old 
regiment, and his brother officers, especially such as 
were his companions when making antiquarian tours, 
kept him aufait of what was going on in it. 

" I am fully persuaded," writes Will Latham, from Penny- 
cuick, on the 5th of November 1813, " you will learn with regret 
when I state the thorn, the very thorn, under which old Thomas 
the Rymer issued forth his predictions was, the last winter, blown 
up by a severe gale of wind. I was informed of the circumstance 
in marching from Melrose to Lauder. Report says, in the regi- 
ment, that we are not to see you again ; however, I hope it is not 
true, as I can really say I shall feel sorry should you leave us, as I 
have flattered myself we should have some few more pedestrian 
expeditions together. I told Byron some time ago I intended 
writing to you, and he begged me to remind you of your promise 
of the ballad. Old Byron is red-hot for castle hunting in the 
Peninsula, and wishes to get old Cockey Hamer [Captain Hamer] 
to accompany him. What will the Duchess say ? We have at 
length commenced wearing the greys [pantaloons, with Hessian 
boots, as in the line], and we find them much more agreeable 
than the whites, though we dress in whites for dinner. Colonel 
Plumbe is in command here at present. We are to be reviewed 
on Monday morning by M. -General Sir J. Dalrymple. The 
Hants and Carnarvon are at Haddington, the South Hants at 
Dunbar, and the Lincoln at Berwick." 

About the end of January 1814 the 1st Lanca- 
shires received orders to embark for Ireland, and all 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 227 

absentees having been commanded to appear at head- 
quarters, Lieutenant Hibbert sent in his resignation, 
and on taking leave of this fine regiment, in which he 
contracted so many friendships and passed so many 
happy years, we will here record a song which had 
long been traditionary with the men, and which they 
were in the habit of singing, especially when they 
came into any town or place to which it might be 
applicable. Perhaps this song may now have passed 
out of memory, but Dr. Hibbert Ware had made a 
note of it, and when in a merry mood would himself 
sometimes sing it. We here give it in his own words 
and with his remarks : 

" There's Manchester for pedlars all on a market day, 
And Liverpool for jolly tars, and so they sail away. 

Then hey ! for little Lancaster for taking in free strangers, 
When they get within the castle walls, adieu to all free rangers. 

Then hey ! for little Pilling, it stands upon a moss ; 
And Goosnar and Garstang do honour to -the cross." 

The Doctor would comment upon this last stanza, 
saying that these two localities were even more 
staunchly Catholic than any other parts of Lanca- 
shire, which had ever been noted for its adherence to 
the old religion. 

But to proceed with the song : 

" Here's hey ! for little Preston, it stands so very fair, 
It's ordered by the sheriff and govern'd by the mayor. 

And hey ! for little Clifton, there's ne'er such another, 
It's houses all on one side and barns on the other. 

Then hey ! for little Poulton, Poulton in the Fylde, 
There's ne'er a lad in Poultou . . ." 



228 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

We stop short here to give the comment on this 
last stanza, which Dr. Hibbert Ware was wont to 
make, and which was to the following effect : That 
the Fylde was so ill drained, and malaria and other 
febrile diseases so prevalent, that its population was 
thin in the extreme. But he also laughingly observed 
that the verse was so obnoxious to men from that 
part of the country, that when singing it they changed 
the word lad into lass. 

Though he had now retired from the 1st Lanca- 
shires, the ex -lieutenant did not yet hang up his 
sword, for there is among his papers a commission 
from Lord Derby, dated the 15th of March 1814, 
addressed to Samuel Hibbert of Manchester, Esquire, 
appointing him to be a captain in the Manchester 
regiment of Local Militia. 

It would appear, from the certificate filled by him, 
that the same property qualification to hold a captain's 
commission in the Manchester Local Militia was re- 
quired, either in the officer himself or in his father, as 
in the county militia. 

His time was now divided between study and 
regimental duties. 

The war in the Peninsula had been carried on 
briskly since 1808, and by the spring of 1814 Lord 
Wellington had driven the French before him out of 
Spain. Reinforcements, however, were from time to 
time sent out to supply the places of the killed and 
wounded, and it now came to be the turn of Ensign 
George Hibbert to go. Like any other officer, George 
wanted money, and on this occasion he wrote to his 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 229 

brother Sam a letter, which, probably, he deemed 
irresistible, and doubtless it did work on the paternal 
heart, as the writer had meant it to do : 

" DEAR SAM," wrote the young ensign from Dublin on the 
17th of January 1814, "I have received the order to march on 
Tuesday the 25th to Cork, there to embark for the first battalion 
in France. My dear Sam, I must beg that you will do the best 
you can for me with my father. What I should wish for is, one 
year's allowance in advance, as it would be a difficult thing to 
get money out in France. Perhaps it may be the last sum of 
money I shall ever require, therefore I hope he will not refuse it." 

The next letter written by George Hibbert was 
after the battle of Toulouse, from the camp at 
Bordeaux, on the 13th of June, complaining of not 
having heard from his friends : 

" The last letter I received from home," he says, " was the 
one to Cork, in which you enclosed me the note. I wrote to my 
father a few days after the battle of Toulouse, where I joined 
the battalion, after a long march from the north of Spain. I 
should not have written now, only that we are ordered to hold 
ourselves in readiness to march to Poliac (?), about three leagues 
from here, for embarkation. The order is for Cork, but it is 
said we are merely going there to equip for America." 

Lord Wellington had shortly before this battle 
beaten Marshal Soult at Tarbes, and the Marshal, 
after a rapid forced march, gained Toulouse, a country 
familiar to him, from his being a native of the place, 
and where he could consequently select his ground 
for a battle. 

In the hard-fought engagement which ensued, the 
victorious English lost four generals and more than 
four thousand men and officers a useless shedding 



230 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of blood after all, observes Sir William Napier, in his 
History of the Peninsular War, for before the fight had 
even begun, the Emperor Napoleon had abdicated the 
throne of France, which Louis XVIIL, who had been 
residing in England, forthwith took possession of. 

The great Napoleon departed, as every one knows, 
to Elba, the island intended by the Allied Powers of 
Europe to be the place of his perpetual banishment ; 
and the long war with France was now over. But 
England did not yet enjoy the blessing of peace, for 
she was still at war with the United States of 
America. 

In the month of October 1814 the 40th was sent 
out to America to join the army under Sir E. Paken- 
ham, but they arrived just after that general had 
attacked New Orleans, and had been repulsed with 
considerable loss. 

It would appear that the 40th were ignorant of 
what had happened at New Orleans, for George 
Hibbert, writing to his brother Samuel from the Ajax 
transport, off that place, on the 17th of January 1815, 



" We arrived here, after a good voyage from Jamaica of about 
a fortnight, on Monday last. Our regiment was put on board 
the boats which were to take us to the army, and had got near 
to the landing-place, which is about sixty miles from here, when 
we were ordered back, and to get to our respective transports as 
fast as possible. The long boats of the fleet were ordered up to 
the army this morning, to bring them down to their ships. We 
do not know where we are to be sent to. Provisions are very 
scarce ; we have little more than the King's Own, to eat. A little 
fresh meat would be a very great treat" 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 231 

Samuel Hibbert had now fairly entered the field 
of literature, and amongst his first attempts was a 
little volume relating to the Knights of the Round 
Table, Tarquin and Manchester. Upon this subject 
the following letters passed between himself and Mr. 
Goldsmide, to whom he had written as follows : 

" SIR The enclosed little volume is one of the very few 
copies that I published a few years ago, to illustrate a part of 
the history of the most renowned of the Knights of the Round 
Table, Sir Lancelot du Lac. It was with a view to rescue from 
entire forgetfulness the local interest which the real or imaginary 
contest of this personage with Tarquin had long afforded the 
town of Manchester. Should it prove of the least aid in eluci- 
dating any part of the chivalry of the Round Table, the object 
of my thus offering it to your notice will be fully answered." 

To the above communication Mr. Goldsmide re- 
plied : 

UPPER MONTAGUE STREET, PORTMAN SQUARE, 
LONDON, 23 October 1814. 

SIR Allow me to offer you my best acknowledgments for 
the copy you were kind enough to send me of the ancient ballad 
of Tarquin. Everything illustrative of the deeds of Sir Lancelot 
du Lac cannot fail to be both useful and interesting to me, as 
the editor of the Morte d' Arthur. I have the honour to remain 
your much obliged and obedient servant, 

JOHN Louis GOLDSMIDE. 
Saml. Hibbert junr., Esqre., Clarendon, 
Manchester. 

In addition to his other occupations, Samuel 
Hibbert attended assiduously the meetings of the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. By 
a printed notice, issued by its secretaries, Messrs. J. 
A. Ransome and William Johns, on the 9th of 



232 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

January 1815, it was announced to the members 
" that the next meeting of the Society would be held 
on Friday evening, the 13th instant, when a paper by 
Samuel Hibbert, Esq., will be read 'The Manorial 
Antiquities of Ashton-under-Line, as collected from an 
ancient MS.'" This paper was the predecessor of one 
afterwards read before and published in the Trans- 
actions of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, under 
the title of " The History and Customs of a Manor in 
the North of England." It was also printed in Edin- 
burgh for private circulation, and was his first topo- 
graphical and archaeological publication; and, as we 
shall hereafter see, was considered by Sir Walter Scott 
to be of great interest. 

We may here notice that the Mr. J. A. Kansome, 
one of the secretaries of the Manchester Literary 
Society, just mentioned, was a leading surgeon in that 
town, and one of the medical officers of its Infirmary. 
He was the grandfather of the present Dr. Ransome 
of Bowden. 

All Europe was now suddenly and rudely awakened 
out of its shortlived repose and respite from war by 
alarming rumours and vague fears. 

Mistaque cum veris, passim commenta vagantur 
MUlia rumorum : confusaqw verba volutant. 

OVID, B. 12, v. 53. 

AMBLESIDE, March 28th, 1815. 

DEAR HIBBERT "Wonders never cease ! I suppose Eichard 
is himself again now he is once more on the throne of France. 
We must hang up our banners on the outer wall the cry is 
still they come and again rub up our rusty armour and repair 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 233 

to the field. May Providence forbid I should any longer rusti- 
cate in this useless manner ; any regiment for me. I should 
certainly be more happy if I were once more in the service of 
my country. Pollard, myself, and some more gentlemen walked 
over to Hawkshead on Monday last, which is Bigby's place of 
residence. We saw the gallant major. I don't doubt but he is 
very sorry, like myself, at having left the Lancashires, now these 
new and astonishing events have again taken place. I under- 
stand the militia is to be immediately called out. Messrs. Will 
Crompton, Healis, and other volunteer heroes will be requested 
to join their respective regiments immediately. Tell Jordan I 
have not forgot our many rambles. Dear Hibbert, yours faith- 
fully, J. TAYLOR. 

This letter was from Captain John Taylor, late of 
the 1st Lancashires. 

" Wonders never cease," as Captain Taylor wrote, 
and similar utterances were on every lip at that time ; 
for suddenly, like the echo of a thunder-clap, the 
exclamation, Napoleon has invaded France, rever- 
berated throughout Europe. The banished Emperor 
had landed at Cannes with about 600 men, and as he 
advanced towards the capital soldiers nocked to him 
from all quarters. On the 20th of March he entered 
Paris, from which Louis XVIII. had shortly before 
fled. 

The Allied Powers of Europe collected an army 
and directed their movements towards Belgium. 
Napoleon also, having rapidly assembled his forces, 
advanced towards the same quarter. 

These momentous events frustrated the plan which 
Samuel Hibbert had formed of spending the summer 
on the Continent. His brother George meanwhile 
had just returned from the Havannah, the transport 



234 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

which had brought the 40th, lying then at anchor off 
Portsmouth waiting for orders whither to sail. 

Samuel Hibbert himself, disappointed of his visit 
to the Continent, had repaired to Edinburgh, to con- 
tinue his medical studies. 

The following letter, written from Flanders, gives 
some details of what was then taking place : 

GHENT, FLANDERS, June 1st, 1815. 

MY DEAR FATHER I wrote to you from Portsmouth Har- 
bour, which letter I presume you have received. We did not 
disembark there, but proceeded the day after to Ostend, where 
we arrived after a voyage of about thirty-six hours. We disem- 
barked the day after, and the whole of the regiment was imme- 
diately put into large boats and conveyed up the canal to this 
place. We were landed and sent about six miles off to a small 
village, on the road to Brussels, called Zeerberghem (?), but, owing 
to the regiment wanting refitting with clothing, etc., we were 
marched back to this place, where we are likely to remain a fort- 
night. I never saw a more delightful country. This town is one of 
the best I ever saw ; and the country is now like a large garden. 
I never in all my life met with so much hospitality as from the 
inhabitants. On Sunday last I witnessed as grand a sight as 
possibly there can be a procession of the Host. It was owing 
to some great holiday amongst the Catholics which had been 
suppressed by Buonaparte, and was revived, for the first time, 
that day. I afterwards went to the Mass, and was within a foot 
of Louis the 18th and the Duchesse d'Angouleme. He is quite 
an old, worn-out man ; she is very interesting. As you or my 
brother Sam often have some little excursion in the summer, I 
think one of you could not have a pleasanter than to cross over 
from Dover to Ostend, and come and see me here ; if not here, 
we shall not be far off either at Brussels or the neighbourhood. 
Lord Wellington's army itself will be worth coming to see. 

Since writing this letter I have been induced to unseal it, to 
inform you of the arrival of the Duke of Wellington in this town, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 235 

and of the flattering observation he made of our regiment. He 
spoke to the officer of the guard of the king's palace (Lieutenant 
Anthony) in a familiar manner, saying, " I am very happy to 
have the old 40th with me again ;" and turning about to the 
Duke de Grammont, observed to him that the 40th was one of 
his favourite regiments. I hope all my old friends the Kirkmans 
and Bentleys are well ; remember me to them, and to the Mars- 
lands. I suppose the garden begins to look very well. Let me 
know whether you received any letters of mine whilst in America. 
I never wish to go again to the part of America we left ; we 
were most miserably off. The country is one complete swamp. 
When we first landed we had nothing but what we could carry 
on our backs, and neither tents or horses. We, however, secured 
ourselves against the weather by building little huts with the 
branches of trees, or rearing up a blanket and sleeping under, 
like so many gipsies. The latter part of the time our provisions 
fell very short, being entirely supplied by the ships, and we were 
put on half allowance of rations. Fortunately I brought out a 
quantity of tea and sugar from Ireland. There were no inha- 
bitants except a few Indians in that part, therefore there was 
nothing to be bought. What the island chiefly abounded in 
were enormous large alligators ; a great number of them were 
caught. One I saw shot measured seven feet in length. There 
is no news here ; all is as yet quiet. They say Buonaparte is 
making great preparations at Paris by fortifying the town. Let 
me know what my little niece is called. There are packets from 
Dover to Ostend three or four times a week Your affectionate 
son, GEORGE HIBBERT. 

Ere many days had elapsed, George Hibbert 
experienced that all was not quiet. 

"DEAR SAM," writes Mrs. Hibbert to her husband, then in 
Edinburgh, " The late news, I suppose, you must know, which 
I think is most dreadful so many officers cut up in the 42d and 
79th; I really tremble for George, as I suppose the 40th will 
soon be called for. Poor Jordan was, and still is, seriously ill. 
I cannot learn his disease ; I send every day. He has been now 



236 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

confined to his bed three weeks. Brigham attends him. Your 
affectionate wife, SARAH HIBBERT." 

Mr. William Brigham, mentioned in this letter, 
was a well-known surgeon in Manchester. His widow, 
who resided at Lymm, in Cheshire, after his death, 
was shot (accidentally, it was then thought) by her 
son-in-law, a French adventurer. 

CAMP BEFORE PARIS, July 2d, 1815. 

DEAR BROTHER I have written to you so often without 
receiving a letter from you that I am now tired of writing. I 
am now quite well, and not a bit the worse for the fatigues we 
have gone through. We had a great many of the regiment 
killed and wounded on the 1 8th ; but the newspapers will give 
you a better account than I can. I can only say it was as bloody 
a scene as ever I wish to see again. I crossed the field two days 
after the action ; you could not walk three yards without crossing 
over a body, even though the country people had been employed 
to bury them the intervening time. We have had incessant and 
very long marches since the battle. My love to all at home. I 
am one of the unfortunates that lost their baggage. Your affect, 
brother, GEORGE HIBBERT. 

P.S. We have just had the intelligence that Paris has 
surrendered. Repeated huzzas in the camp seem to confirm the 
news. The firing in front also has ceased, which was very heavy, 
which seems to confirm the report. 

The 40th, in their haste to be on the field, had to 
leave all their baggage. 

On the evening of the 18th of June the sun of 
Napoleon set, never to rise again. Nearly 20,000 
Frenchmen lay dead on the blood-stained plains of 
Waterloo ; but the victory was dearly purchased by 
the British, for 13,000 of their brave troops, including 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 237 

eleven generals and 600 officers, wounded or killed, 
were lying alongside their gallant foes. 

MANCHESTER, July 4th, 1815. 

DEAR SAM Don't delay a moment ; I fear your poor father 
is gone. Your affectionate wife, SARAH HIBBERT. 

Saml. Hibbert, Esq., 

College, Edinburgh. 

There may be read in the obituary for 1815 in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 85, part 1: 

" At Manchester, aged 67, Samuel Hibbert, Esq." 



PART II. 

EDINBUEGH. 
CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Samuel Hibbert removes to Edinburgh Graduates Goes to Shetland 
Discovers chromate of iron Professor Jameson considers the 
discovery important. 

IN October 1815 Samuel Hibbert quitted Manchester 
with his wife and their three young children, and 
repaired to Edinburgh, where he took up his residence, 
and where he remained, as we shall see, for many 
years. A great change indeed must his sentiments 
have undergone since those days when he wrote to 
his mother lengthy diatribes against the Scotch ; but 
his John Bull prejudices had melted away, he had 
begun to like the land of cakes, and soon he formed 
many friendships amongst the inhabitants of Auld 
Reekie. 

The first house he took was in Merchant Street, 
not far from the University, where he was still attend- 
ing lectures, in order to qualify him to take a doctor's 
degree. 

Ever since the days of Allan Ramsay, poet, periwig- 
maker, and bookseller, the bookseller's shop had been 



240 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

the rendezvous, the gossiping- place, and the lounge 
of the literati of Edinburgh ; accordingly Samuel 
Hibbert was a frequent visitor at that storehouse of 
rare and valuable books, Mr. Laing's shop on the 
South Bridge. He was also often to be found 
at Maclachlan and Stewart's, opposite the College. 
Then he would look in at Constable's in the High 
Street, where generally some of the fraternity of 
feelosofairs were gossiping. 

In the Caledonian Mercury of the 2d of August 
1817 appeared a list of the names of several gentle- 
men on whom the degree of Doctor of Medicine had 
been conferred by the University of Edinburgh. 
Among them was " Samuel Hibbert, Dissertation, De 
Vita humana." 

Dr. Hibbert had dedicated his Thesis to his 
late father's old friend, Dr. John Mitchell, who 
had been for upwards of thirty years a resident of 
Manchester. This gentleman in acknowledging the 
Thesis, writes to the newly-capped doctor : 

" I received your favour and Thesis De humana Vita, for which 
I return you my thanks. Some more worthy character might 
have occupied your dedication, but since you have made choice 
of me, I cannot complain my complaint must be against myself, 
when I compare myself with your eulogium. I have read the 
Thesis with much pleasure, and can join with Dr. Home in con- 
sidering it predarum induslrice et acuminis exemplum, and far 
surpassing any expectation that I could have indulged from the 
short space which has intervened from the commencement of 
your medical studies ; but labor omnia vinrit. I think it is a 
presage of your future advancement in the study of physiology 
and pathology." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 241 

We will here take the opportunity of saying a few 
words about Dr. John Mitchell. 

In 1788 he lived in Lever Street in Manchester, 
afterwards at Mile End, near Stockport. He was a 
very learned man, a Greek and Hebrew scholar. He 
wrote a small octavo pamphlet of 211 pages, entitled 
" The First Part of the New Exposition of the Revela- 
tion of the Apostle John, containing the Sealed-book 
Prophecy, or the eleven first chapters, by J. M., M.D." 
It was printed at Stockport by J. Clark, Little Under- 
bank, and published by Longman and Ree, Paternoster 
Row, London, 1800. 

In this pamphlet, a copy of which is possessed by 
J. E. Bailey, Esq., F.S.A., the learned editor of the 
Palatine Notes, Dr. Mitchell professes to show that 
all the stirring events that have happened from the 
decadence of the Roman Empire to the French 
Revolution, in his own day, are specially foretold in 
the Apocalypse. The work, ingenious as it is, proves 
that a learned man can write strange rhapsodies. 

Dr. Mitchell was an advanced advocate of the 
freedom of the press, and he was one of those who 
signed a circular address, issued about the year 1795, 
entitled "Appeal to the Inhabitants of Manchester and 
its Neighbourhood/' The intention of the appeal was 
to arouse opposition to two " Convention Bills " for 
limiting the liberty of the press, and depriving the 
people of the right to meet for discussion. The Liberal 
party who entertained these views, as to the rights of 
the press, were then styled " Jacobins." 

Amongst other signatures occur those of many 

R 



242 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

men of influence in Manchester, as George Lloyd, 
George Philips, William Rigby, Joseph Hanson, 
Robert Norris, Robert Philips, Samuel Greg, Samuel 
Marsland, George Duckworth. 

Dr. John Mitchell was a firm believer in the near 
approach of the millennium, and had written on the 
subject. Dr. Hibbert, when residing at Clarendon 
House, was influenced so far by his old friend, that 
he too became convinced that the latter days were 
near. His faith was, however, put to a crucial test 
by Mr. Joseph Jordan : 

" You believe that the millennium is within two or 
three years ? Tell me candidly." 

" Certainly I do." 

" And then will come the thousand years' reign of 
the saints upon earth ?" 

" Certainly." 

" All things will be held in common by all men 
there will be no such word as property and that 
within the next two years ?" 

" Most certainly." 

" Then, Hibbert, I will give you, at this moment, 
five years' purchase for all your property." 

The offer was not accepted, it is needless to 



Soon after Dr. Hibbert had taken his degree, 
he was invited to a dinner party at Dr. Barclay's, 
in Argyle Square, one of the professors at the 
University. Several other young medical gentlemen 
were present, and after dinner a discussion arose on 
the principle of Life and its nature, to which, perhaps, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 243 

his Latin theme De Vita humana may have given 
rise. The talk had proceeded for a considerable time, 
and doubtless a deal of learned nonsense had been 
spoken by each and every of the young sons of JEscu- 
lapius, when at last, Dr. Barclay's patience becoming 
exhausted, he put an end to the discussion in a 
summary but unexpected way. When all was noise 
and talk and clamour, a loud howl was suddenly 
heard to proceed from under the table. Every one 
became silent on the instant. Dr. Barclay looked 
down at his limping dog, which continued to howl, 
and waving his hand towards the animal said, " Hold 
thy noise, hold thy noise, thou knowest as much about 
it as they do." 

The Doctor had trod on the toes of his spaniel, as 
it lay under the table at his feet. 

" Sick of grinding," to use his own words, and as 
a relief from the hard studies he had gone through, in 
order to qualify him to graduate, Dr. Hibbert set out 
for the Shetland Islands as soon as he had been 
"capped." When in the militia, he had paid con- 
siderable attention not only to botany, but to 
mineralogy and geology, and in these remote islands 
he thought to find fresh fields wherein to prosecute 
the study of this latter science, and also to enjoy a 
wild and strange scenery, and indulge in pedestrian 
rambles as of yore. 

Travelling to these remote isles, the Ultima Thule, 
perhaps, of the Romans, was not the easy matter in 
the early part of this century that now it is. The 
voyage, made in a sailing vessel, was long and tedious, 



244 SAMUEL KEBBERT WAKE'S 

and even in the summer time accompanied with some 
risk. The violence of the tides and the tempestuous 
seas deprived the inhabitants of Shetland, in the last 
and early part of this century, of all foreign corre- 
spondence, from the month of October until April or 
sometimes May. 

Eagles and falcons inhabited the hills and bold 
sea precipices, while razor-bills, shear -waters, and 
large brown skua-gulls, with hooked talons, like the 
talons of an eagle, kept the stormy seas. 

Scarcely a tree was to be seen in these dreary 
islands at that period ; the cottages or hovels of the 
peasantry were thinly scattered over the country, but 
sometimes the wanderer might be surprised to find a 
modern house, with a small garden laid out with 
gravel walks. 

Eggs and milk were occasionally to be got, and 
tea rarely, which was boiled in an earthen tea-pot 
over a peat fire. 

It was in the autumn of 1817 that Dr. Hibbert 
first visited these wild islands, sailing in a smack from 
Leith to Lerwick. His sole companion was a favour- 
ite little white terrier bitch, rejoicing in the pastoral 
name of " Silvia," which, as familiarity often breeds 
contempt, had in her case been degraded into the 
name of "Silly." The dog had belonged to Dr. 
Hibbert's mother. She was a useful and a faithful 
little dog, for her master would often leave her for 
hours together, to guard his geologising coat and his 
collections of minerals, while he made distant excur- 
sions; and woe betide the inquisitive islander who 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 245 

would seek to investigate the garment on which she 
lay. 

In this, his first visit to the Shetland Islands, he 
made a discovery, the importance of which he did not 
fully realise till he had consulted Professor Jameson ; 
but with respect to this discovery we will copy, 
verbatim, a memorandum in Dr. Hibbert's hand- 
writing found amongst his papers : 

" In my voyage to the distant extremity of the British 
Isles, in the autumn of 1817, I first, to my astonishment, met 
with this substance (chromate of iron) in large scattered masses 
in the vicinity of Belta Sound Although the day on which I 
met with it was exceedingly stormy, yet, as a vessel was in the 
harbour waiting for the weather to clear in which I was to return 
to Leith, I spared no pains in endeavouring, during the incle- 
mency of the weather, to prosecute the search. The vessel sailed 
the next morning, and as the season was late, and being in the 
isles stormy, I was obliged, reluctantly, to quit my search. On 
arriving in Edinburgh, the specimens were shown to Professor 
Jameson, with the mistrust, however, that the substance might 
have been seen before by naturalists, or, if seen, that its com- 
mercial quality might not have recommended it to use. This 
gentleman, however, undeceived me in both respects, for though 
he stated that he was aware of its presence in the serpentine of 
Unst, and that he had seen it in the form of small grains dis- 
persed throughout the rock, and even in small veins, he gave 
to the result of my labour all the importance of a discovery. 
Through the medium of this gentleman it was first announced to 
the public, immediately afterwards, in Monson's Journal. In 
the next place, Professor Jameson showed me specimens of the 
chromate of iron from North America, which that of Shetland 
appeared even to surpass." 

In the year 1813 Robert Jameson, Professor of 
Natural History and Lecturer on Mineralogy in the 



246 

University of Edinburgh, had published a work in two 
volumes, small quarto, entitled, Mineralogical Travels 
through the Hebrides, Orkney, and Shetland, etc. 
The Professor had visited Unst and other islands of 
Shetland where the chromate abounded, but did not 
allude to it in this work. 

We will here relate a little anecdote to illustrate 
the simplicity of the Shetlanders in the early part of 
this century. The summer of the year in which 
Dr. Hibbert visited these islands had been very 
wet and gloomy, as had also been the preceding one, 
and the Doctor, remarking upon it, and regretting the 
injury to the crops, the Shetlanders apologised for 
the unseasonable weather, saying, " The puir sun has 
had nae rest for these twa years, for those gentlemen 
frae the south hae been pointing at her wi' their lang 
sticks every day, and hoo culd she be expected to 
come oot and shine ? " The fact was, that some 
scientific gentlemen had been engaged looking at the 
spots on the face of the sun through their telescopes, 
which operation the simple Shetlanders considered 
to be wantonly and mischievously tormenting that 
beneficent luminary ! 

During this short visit to Shetland Dr. Hibbert 
had made the acquaintance of the family of the 
Edmondstons, from whom he then received many 
civilities. Immediately on his return home to Edin- 
burgh, he had a letter from Dr. Arthur Edmondston, 
who appears to have estimated highly his geological 
information. Writing from Lerwick on the 20th of 
October 1817, that gentleman says : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 247 

" I rejoice to think that your excursion here is likely to give 
you so much satisfaction. By-the-by, if I have the pleasure of 
seeing you here again, I hope, by your information, to render my 
topographical and geological chapters more accurate and recon- 
dite." 

Dr. Arthur Edmondston was the author of a work 
in two volumes, octavo, entitled, A View of the 
Zetland Islands, published in 1809 by Hurst and Co., 
London, and by John Ballantine, Edinburgh. In 
this work he devotes about fifteen pages to the 
geology of those islands, but makes no mention of the 
chromate of iron. 

Dr. Hibbert now became associated with the 
literati of Edinburgh, and, possessing an independent 
fortune, he gave up any intentions he may have 
formed of practising his profession, in order to devote 
himself entirely to science and literature. 

On the 20th of December 181*7 he received a 
notice from the secretary of the Wernerian Natural 
History Society, informing him that he had been 
elected a resident member. 

This society had been formed in 1808, and took 
its name from the distinguished mineralogist Werner, 
of Freyberg, in Germany, and its objects were to 
promote the study of Natural History. Professor 
Jameson was its president, and Mr. Patrick Neill, an 
eminent printer and distinguished naturalist in Edin- 
burgh, its secretary. 

So important was the discovery of chromate of 
iron considered that Professor Jameson inserted the 
following notice in the Annals of Philosophy, vol. ii. 



248 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

p. 71, for January 1818: "Dr. Hibbert, who 
lately visited the Shetland Islands with a view of 
determining their geognostic structure and relations, 
found, in the island of Unst, considerable masses of 
that valuable substance, the chromate of iron." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 249 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

The Shetland chromate of iron and London manufacturers Dr. 
Hibbert makes a second journey to Shetland His rambles The 
appearance of the country. 

CHROMATE of iron was extensively used in various 
manufactures, and had been imported from America 
at considerable expense, consequently the discovery of 
its existence in the British Isles excited no little 
interest in all parts of the kingdom. 

Professor Jameson received the following letter on 
the subject from Dr. Bollmann of London, which he 
handed to Dr. Hibbert to reply to : 

LONDON, Jany. 6th, 1818. 

SIR I perceive in the last number of Dr. Thompson's 
Magazine that Dr. Hibbert has lately discovered chromate of 
iron in considerable masses in the island of Unst, and Mr. A. 
Aikin informs me that the intelligence had been received from you. 

Having begun some time ago to set on foot the manufacture 
in a large way (from chromate of iron imported from abroad) of 
several articles, such as the chromate of lead, the oxide of chrome, 
etc. etc., I feel desirous to ascertain whether I could, in future, 
obtain a supply of that mineral from the place mentioned, how 
I ought to proceed for that purpose, and what would probably 
be the terms ? I am, with great respect, sir, your obedient 
servant, E. BOLLMANN. 

Please to direct to Dr. Bollmann, 

16 Buckingham Street, Adelphi. 



250 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKE'S 

To this letter it appears, from a note of Dr. 
Hibbert's, that he replied to the following effect : 
That he could not add anything more to the com- 
munication Dr. Bollmann had referred to, until he 
had made a second voyage to the islands, for the 
purpose of completing a mineralogical survey that had 
only been interrupted last autumn by the lateness of 
the season, and that he purposed returning to Shet- 
land as soon as the weather would permit, and that 
the result of his observations would then be laid 
before the public. 

The discovery was afterwards mentioned in Black- 
wood's Magazine for July 1818. 

Dr. Hibbert, partly at the persuasion of Pro- 
fessor Jameson, having made up his mind to under- 
take a second journey to Shetland, broke up his house 
in Merchant Street. Mrs. Hibbert and the three 
children travelled to Bury to reside with her mother, 
whilst her husband prosecuted his researches. On 
Monday the 6th of April he sailed from Leith for 
Lerwick in the packet Coldstream. 

On his arrival at Lerwick he received a sincere 
welcome from the Shetland heritors or proprietors, 
and Sir Arthur Nicholson ordered his steward to 
furnish the Doctor with a boat, or guide, or whatever 
might help to facilitate his investigations. 

So soon as ever he set foot in Lerwick he began 
his rambles rambles so extended and to such lonely 
and unfrequented spots, that his Shetland friends were 
often in utter ignorance as to his whereabouts, at 
times, when they wanted to communicate with him. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 251 

Wild indeed was the country which he traversed, 
and rough, if hospitable, his fare and his accommoda- 
tion. Sometimes he would be quite alone, and at 
another time following a Shetland lad who acted as 
his guide when scrambling over a blighted wilderness 
of mountain-bog, knee- deep almost in slush and wet 
moss, whilst a cold north-east wind, sweeping from 
the low black-looking hills, mourned dolefully over 
the moor, and dark lowering clouds threatened to 
deluge them with water. 

His mode of locomotion was either on foot or by 
boat. Like other travellers, he might have availed 
himself of the wild pony, or sheltie, as this little 
animal was called, but for the following reason he 
did not. These ponies ran wild, and whoever could 
catch one might mount and ride if he had a rope with 
him to serve for a rein. The rough, shaggy little 
animals were not more than thirty- two or thirty- 
three inches high, yet they were powerful and able 
to carry a full-grown man easily; but Dr. Hibbert 
could not avail himself of this mode of travelling, for, 
his legs being long, his feet would scrape the ground, 
and the fatigue of holding them up would have been 
greater than the fatigue of walking. 

It may here be observed that when he visited 
the Shetland Islands they were totally destitute of 
roads, and all inland travelling was either on foot or 
on the shelties. His excursions extended over bleak 
and uninhabited hills where he would often have to 
struggle forwards under a deluge of rain such rain 
and wind as is only to be encountered in Shetland 



252 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

not encountered, for the traveller feels more inclined 
to lie flat on the ground, and let wind and rain pelt 
and blow their worst on his devoted back. 

At other times his walk would extend along a 
dreary, solitary line of coast, broken only here and 
there by grotesque and fantastic forms of immense 
granite rocks, or by the appearance of some ancient 
and now deserted burg ; no sound in this trackless 
waste striking the ear of the lonely traveller, as, like 
the priest Chryses in the Iliad, he walks silently 
along the shore of the far-sounding sea, save the shrill 
triumphant cry of the gull, which, in its hovering 
flight, darts suddenly down upon the surface of the 
water and captures a sillock, and no living creatures 
meeting his eye save seals basking in the sun, or lazy 
black cormorants dozing on some low rock. But the 
vicinity of a human habitation would at length be 
indicated by the appearance of the dwarfish wild 
sheep of the country rambling on an adjacent hill 
curious little animals were these sheep, not much 
bigger than full-grown hares; in colour, some gray, 
others black, dun -brown, white, or streaked and 
speckled with a combination of various tints and 
shades. In spring and summer these tiny animals 
feed on cotton grass and other plants, but in winter 
they instinctively descend to the sea-coast, there to 
get a meal of the marine plants left by the ebbing of 
the tide. 

The traveller's excursions by water were not more 
pleasant than those by land, and were often perilous. 
In crossing the voes narrow islets of the sea he 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 253 

encountered great risks, for in the confined openings 
between high rocks the current of the tide ran so 
strong as to cause the billows to foam and boil with 
uncommon impetuosity, through which the reeling 
boat had to be guided with infinite skill by the hardy 
boatmen. Picturesque -looking fellows were these 
boatmen, dressed in long pointed caps of bright 
variegated colours, their sheepskin coats, which 
descended to their knees, overlapped their woollen 
breeches like a kilt, and were met by wide boots of 
neat-skin. 

But let us see what would be Dr. Hibbert's accom- 
modation and fare when, hungry, tired, and often wet 
to the skin, he sought shelter for the night in some 
Shetlander's cottage. Picking his way carefully in 
the dusk, lest he should tumble into a peat-hole, he 
would open the crazy door of the tenement and enter 
a large room filled with a dense smoke, where at first 
he could see nothing, but he would hear a confused 
babel of hens clucking, ducks cackling, pigs grunting, 
and children squalling. The stranger would, how- 
ever, be made welcome by the hospitable inmates, and 
the best of what they had set before him sillocks 
and codfish, not oversweet, for the Shetlanders prefer 
eating it when in a putrefying state, bread made of 
oats and bear, and a coarse sort of cheese, and a drink 
called bland, made from buttermilk over which hot 
water had been poured, and which had been allowed 
to ferment. Having partaken of his host's hospitality, 
the traveller would retire to rest, lying down in his 
clothes, dry or wet, on a bed of heather or straw, but 



254 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

not always sleeping, for swarms of fleas might lay an 
interdict upon sleep. 

Dr. Hibbert was a strong powerful man, but hard- 
ships such as these, to which, in the pursuit of science, 
he had frequently exposed himself, not in Shetland 
only but in other parts, during his youth and mature 
manhood, added to his long and fatiguing walks, 
loaded as he was with the weight of the minerals 
which he carried in the capacious leather pockets of 
his coat, told on his constitution, so that he felt their 
bad effects in the evening of his life. 

" I thank you very much for your kind attention 
in sending me my dog and my shirt," wrote Dr. 
Hibbert to Dr. Arthur Edmondston, with whom he 
had been staying. The former, in an absent mood, to 
which he was subject, had set off on his rambles for- 
getting that useful article of dress and his faithful 
little terrier dog, and the latter gentleman could, as 
he said, " find no trace of his wanderings " for several 
days, " and was at a loss to think upon what parallel " 
his property would find him. 

The shirt was, doubtless, useful, for we suspect 
that the only other one he had was on his back ; but 
the greeting between the master and the little dog 
was very affectionate and most demonstrative on the 
part of the latter. 

The following letter from Mr. Thomas Edmondston 
shows the light in which that gentleman then viewed 
the benefit conferred on the Shetland proprietors by 
Dr. Hibbert's discovery of the chromate of iron. 
The italics which the reader will notice in this letter, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 255 

except the word " chromate" italicised by Mr. Thomas 
Edmondston himself, are those of the compiler of this 
memoir, made in consequence of a singular and aston- 
ishing assertion and claim of that gentleman at a 
later period. For the same reason parts of other 
letters written by him have also been printed in 
italics : 

BUNESS, June 24th, 1818. 

DEAR SIR I received your kind note, and was glad to 
know you had got so well on. Your investigation of the rocks 
in this quarter having turned so much to your satisfaction, and, 
from your information, so much to my own, I have since your de- 
parture been surveying all the rocks in my neighbourhood, and have 
discovered, directly below my own house, on my private property, an 
immense quantity of loose stones exactly similar to those at Hagdale, 
and, on more minute examination, two veins running about 
southward and north-west, and in the same place a perfect quarry 
of the chromate. It is principally situated under the banks, and 
surrounded with serpentine. The description is as near to the 
truth as I can make it, but I am writing with the certainty of a 
mineralogist, you gave me the conceit as far as the chromate is con- 
cerned. But a variety of specimens are herewith sent, and you 
will judge for yourself and, at the same time, have the goodness 
to give me your opinion, to which I will adhere. If I am correct in 
the quality of the mineral, would you think it proper to mention 
to the professor (Jameson) that this private property was the prin- 
cipal place where the chromate was to be found? As far as my 
judgment goes, it is certainly the most promising, at least the 
greatest quantity is in one place. I hope you will excuse me 
for this suggestion, which you will adopt or not as you think 
proper. How vexed I have been that this discovery was not made 
when you were here or in the island. I would certainly have 
taken the liberty of requesting you to have returned here in that 
case. 

I am so anxious to make this known to you that I have sent 



256 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

my servant, Peter, to you with different specimens. These few 
crude ideas, hurriedly written, must be seen by no eye but your 
own, and as no person knows the object of his (Peter's) journey 
but yourself and me, the matter will be perfectly secret. I trust 
you will find it convenient to write me your sentiments fully by 
the bearer. I think I have now sufficiently troubled you, and 
if any queries strike you hereafter, I shall endeavour to answer 
them, and, with sincere esteem, I subscribe myself, my dear sir, 
yours very truly, THOS. EDMONDSTON. 

To Dr. Hibbert. 

P.S. I have made considerable collections from the moun- 
tains, but will suspend my operations till I hear from you. 

Dr. Hibbert had sent several specimens of the 
chromate of iron to Professor Jameson, who pro- 
nounced the ore to be as good as that of America, 
and replying to his letter informed him that his dis- 
covery should be made public, the Professor wrote as 
follows : 

DEAR SIR I have just received your specimen, and am 
happy to find the appearance so very favourable. The ore is 
excellent, fully as good as that from North America, which 
supplies the European market. I shall see that your important 
discovery is made known to the world. It gives me much 
pleasure to find you have prolonged your stay in Shetland, as 
the arrangement will enable you to acquire a distinct conception 
of the mineralogy of that interesting country. I leave Edinburgh 
the 1st August, but shall hope to have the pleasure of meeting 
with you, as you say it is your intention to reach there by the 
end of July. With best wishes to my Shetland friends, I remain, 
my dear sir, yours very faithfully, K. JAMESON. 

Care of Mr. Robt. Handyside, Leith, 
Dr. Hibbert, care of Dr. A Edmondston, Lerwick. 

In the following letter from Mr. Thomas Edmond- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 257 

ston, it will be seen how highly that gentleman esti- 
mated the discovery, and with what anxiety he looked 
forward to the pecuniary consequences of it : ; ; - 

BUNESS, August 6th, 1818. 

MY DEAR SIR I with much pleasure received your kind and 
esteemed favour of the 29th ult., communicating to me Professor 
Jameson's opinion of the specimens of chromate of iron sent by 
you to him. It is certainly as flattering as can be wished for, 
and promises fair to be a beneficial concern. Whatever the result 
may be, we are all particularly indebted to you, not only for the dis- 
covery of the mineral, for my own part, I consider myself bound in 
gratitude for tJie friendship and zeal you have shown for my interest. 
At same time, be assured I required no interested motive to 
heighten the esteem and regard I felt for you, and which, I trust, 
is mutual and will be lasting. The discovery will, I hope, do credit 
to your mineralogical talents. Many professing that science had trod 
the same ground long before you had the opportunity of doing so, but 
ivithout the same knowledge of the subject. This, to an ardent mind 
like yours, must be highly gratifying. 

I feel extremely happy at the prospect of seeing you here 
before you leave the country. I have not made any communi- 
cation on the subject of the chromate to the other proprietors ; 
it will do better when you come, particularly as I have at your 
friendly suggestion been making small collections as specimens 
of this mineral, besides, I consider it would be fully as well that 
some applications from the other side of the water would first 
make their appearance ; but we will arrange matters when you 
come. Believe me always, my dear sir, very truly yours, 

THOS. EDMONDSTON. 

P.S. I am imposing much on your kindness, but should 
like to know whether the Professor says anything regarding the 
value of the chromate of iron. 

To Dr. Hibbert, 

Care of Dr. A. Edmondston, Lerwick. 

3 



258 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Whilst Dr. Hibbert was prosecuting with such 
ardour and indomitable perseverance his researches in 
Shetland, his wife was each day becoming more un- 
easy at his prolonged absence and her own enforced 
sojourn at Bury. Her visit to her mother was to 
have lasted two months, but these two months had 
already swelled into nearly four, yet there were no 
signs of her husband's return, and Mrs. Crompton 
being both old and infirm, Mrs. Hibbert felt that her 
young children were necessarily a source of incon- 
venience, though she strove to lessen the annoyance 
by sending them to a day school. Early in July, 
however, Mrs. Crompton died, a circumstance which 
increased her daughter's desire to leave the house. 
Her idea seems to have been, that whilst her husband 
was benefiting others by his laborious researches, his 
own family was neglected. 

" MY DEAR SAM," she wrote, towards tlje end of July, after 
complaining of his prolonged absence, " I have been thinking 
that your modesty being so very great, you would consider your- 
self sufficiently repaid for this business, if they only complimented 
you with a medal. But mind this, I shall not be so easily satisfied. 
Tell Professor Jameson that I should be apt to melt it down. 
I beg you will not bring here your mineralogical dress and the 
trunk, for fear of lively company. Well, well, I will be quite 
content if Government will settle 100 a year on you." 

The stormy season in Shetland being now close at 
hand Dr. Hibbert, having tarried nearly six months 
in the islands, became anxious to return to Leith, and 
on the 25th of September he received a note from his 
friend Mr. W. Spence, then at Lerwick, as follows : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 259 

" There is a man-of-war brig at present in the harbour, and 
which I understand is bound for Leith. If you are very anxious 
to be off, it is a most eligible opportunity, as our traders are 
generally loaded with fish and oil at this season, and therefore 
by no means comfortable passage vessels." 

Accordingly, in this ship, the Nimrod, he received 
by the courtesy of the captain a passage to Leith, to 
which port he had previously shipped from Lerwick 
about sixty packages of minerals, which, to his great 
annoyance, were, on their arrival at their destination, 
all unpacked, and the minerals tumbled about by the 
custom-house officers, in order to put on them an ad 
valorem duty ! thus almost destroying the labour 01 
six months spent in Shetland. 

On the 16th of October he set out for Bury, to 
bring back his wife and family to Edinburgh, where 
he had taken a house in St. John Street. 

His arduous labours having been finished, one of 
his hospitable Shetland friends, Mr. Arthur Cheyne of 
Hillswick, writing on the 12th November 1818 to 
congratulate him, says : 

" I am happy to find that you have terminated your labours in 
this country. I suspect you have had many a tired day and many 
a scanty meal during your peregrinations, but these privations 
will give a high relish to plenty. I am sorry to hear that the 
officers at Leith stopped some of your minerals ; it would be vexing 
if they should overturn them. My father unites with John and 
me in presenting our best wishes for your health and happiness." 

Many were the letters Dr. Hibbert now received 
from the heritors of Shetland, inquiring if specimens 
of minerals, which they at the same time forwarded 
to him, were the much-prized chromate of iron. 



260 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

The 1st Lancashires again Captains Jones and Marryat and Squire 
Waterton at Rome Captain Scoresby and young surgeons Dr. 
Hibbert contributes to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal The 
Hermit of Roeness Hill. 

IF, whilst absorbed in the pursuit of science, Dr. 
Hibbert had apparently forgotten his old friends of 
the 1st Lancashires, they had not forgotten him. In 
the winter of 1819 he received a letter from Will 
Latham, telling him of the doings of his late brother 
officers after the regiment had been disbanded : 

POULTON LE FYLDE, Feby. 24th, 1819. 

DEAR HIBBERT I take leave, in the first place, to preface 
my letter with congratulating you on your promotion to Doctor 
of Medicine, etc. I can assure you I have for a considerable 
time been desirous of writing to my old friend and brother of 
the Grenade, but hitherto, from the circumstance of not being in 
possession of your address, I have been prevented. In the course 
of the last year I observed in some of the public papers you had 
been engaged in a mineralogical survey of the Shetland Isles ; 
from this I conclude you yet pursue your excellent taste for that 
most pleasing and interesting study. I should have felt great 
pleasure in accompanying you to the Shetlands. Being in 
Wigan about three weeks ago, I dined with a gentleman, who 
had just returned from Rome, and who, by-the-by, had lodged 
under the same roof with our old friend Jones, who is reaping a 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 261 

rich harvest amongst the paintings. You would, no doubt, hear 
of the death of poor Rigby ; he died at Lancaster ; he left his 
house at Keanground, near Hawkshead, to be nearer medical 
advice. In 1816 the Old Lancashires embarked at Dublin for 
Liverpool, and thence marched to Lancaster, where we were 
finally disembodied on the 9th March following. We concluded 
our military services with much jollification. On the 1st of June 
next I break ground again in Wales. A friend of mine accom- 
panies me on foot, and should you be in the neighbourhood, it 
would afford me great pleasure to enlist you. I understand 
Taylor is hanging out in Manchester ; his uncle is dead, and he 
is possessed of what he had been anxiously looking for. Stewart 
I saw a short time ago, and old Hamer lives in Liverpool, and 
is generally to be found at the Athenaeum perusing the news. 
Loftus is also in Liverpool, cb la dandy ; I generally see him when 
I go there. Oliver is in Paris ; I do not think he is turned 
dandy. Will Pollard has quitted his abode at Ambleside, and 
has returned to the Isle of Man ; he lives in the neighbourhood 
of Kirk Bride. Old Byron is at Nottingham, much as usual, 
reading papers all day long. Smith is turned farmer ; he has 
taken Cragg Hall from Mr. Warswick (?) of Lancaster, he pays 
400 per annum. Poor old Nicholson is in Lancaster, much as 
usual Colonel Plumbe has left Tong, and his family have been 
living at Sidmouth a considerable time. And now, dear Hibbert, 
if you come into this neighbourhood, you shall be most heartily 
welcome. Dr. Winstanley has been here for a considerable time, 
and has had some practice during the Blackpool season. I 
hope Mrs. Hibbert and your young family are all well, and 
believe me, dear Hibbert, yours most truly, 

WILL LATHAM. 

P.S. I hear Parke has been purchasing an estate. Jordan 
is doing very well in Manchester. I saw Stephenson and his 
wife when passing through Worcester. I made more than 
seventy sketches while I was in the Isle of Man. 

As Captain Edward Jones was a most intimate 
friend of Dr. Hibbert, we will here narrate an amusing 



262 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

episode or two which occurred during the visit to 
Rome referred to in the preceding letter. 

Captain Jones was a remarkably skilful draughts- 
man. He and Captain Marryat, the novelist, and 
Linton, the celebrated landscape painter, with one or 
two other gentlemen, were supping together. Captain 
Marryat had obtained, or was endeavouring to obtain, 
a ship that was to cruise off the coast of Africa, and 
the gentlemen were joking with him as to the prefer- 
ment he might win by visiting the king of Timbuctoo. 
" Come, Marryat," said Captain Jones, " stand up, 
and let me take your head off. Now, put on your 
most winning smile whilst his sable Majesty offers 
you one of his daughters !" 

Captain Marryat rose from his seat and put him- 
self in position, whilst Captain Jones sketched him 
in full naval uniform, cocked hat in one hand, the 
other hand placed over his heart, as he bows and 
smiles admiringly to the sable beauties, all but naked, 
one of whom his Majesty, seated on a large stone, 
appears to be specially recommending to the novelist 
on account of her superior plumpness. In the back- 
ground are officers of marines and sailors ogling at 
and admiring the sable princesses, who are guarded 
by a line of naked savages, armed with spears sur- 
mounted by human heads. The caricature is entitled 
" Puzzled which to choose," and was published in 
London ; and it may be averred that for the skill with 
which it is designed, it might well pass for one of the 
celebrated H. B.'s. The likeness of Captain Marryat, 
which is in profile, is considered by some very good. 



LTFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 263 

During this same visit to Home Captain Jones 
met his old friend and fellow-collegian at Stonyhurst, 
the well-known naturalist and author, Charles Water- 
ton, the squire of Walton Hall, in Yorkshire. In the 
third edition of his Essays (1839), which is illustrated 
by a sketch of Walton Hall from the pencil of Captain 
Jones, the squire writes as follows at p. 71 : 

"In the winter of 1817-18 I was in Italy with my friend 
Captain Alexander of the Navy. During our stay in the Eternal 
City I fell in with my old friend and school-fellow, Captain Jones. 
Many a tree we had climbed together in the last century ; and as 
our nerves were in excellent trim, we mounted to the top of St. 
Peter's, ascended the cross, and then climbed thirteen feet higher, 
when we reached the point of the conductor, and left our gloves 
on it. After this we visited the castle of St. Angelo, and con- 
trived to get on to the head of the guardian angel, where we 
stood on one leg." 

In after years Captain Edward Jones was a 
frequent visitor at Walton Hall, where he employed 
his leisure time in painting in oils the squire's stuffed 
animals. The portrait of the " Nondescript," which 
embellishes one of the volumes of Waterton's Essays 
on Natural History, is from the Captain's pencil, who 
also painted the squire himself sitting astride an 
alligator. 

Walton Hall, the ancestral seat of the Watertons 
for many centuries, embosomed in wood and sur- 
rounded by water, once the peaceful retreat of all 
kinds of wild -fowl, has now passed away to a 
stranger. The views of the old hall which illustrate 
two of the volumes of the Essays were also sketched 
by Captain Jones. 



264 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" DEAR SIR," wrote Professor Jameson to Dr. Hibbert, dating 
his letter only "Wednesday," "Mr. Scoresby has promised to 
dine with me to-morrow. If you are not otherwise engaged, I 
beg you will meet us at five o'clock" 

Scoresby, commonly styled Captain Scoresby, was 
a character in his way rather a rough one, certainly. 
He was the captain of a North Sea whaler ; and when- 
ever he proceeded on an expedition the Professor 
commissioned him to bring home specimens of natural 
history. Being an intelligent man, spite of his 
roughness, he always willingly complied with these 
requests. But -the captain being in want of young 
surgeons to attend to cases of sickness when making 
his voyages, Professor Jameson usually procured one 
from among those young students to whom the pay was 
an object. Every season did the captain regularly apply 
for a son of ./Esculapius, till the Professor, wondering 
why not one of these gentlemen would ever make 
a second voyage, asked the reason : " Confound 
him !" replied a young surgeon, "he makes us shave 
him." 

Dr. Hibbert was now a frequent contributor to 
the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, conducted by 
Dr. (afterwards Sir David) Brewster and Professor 
Jameson. In volume I. of that periodical, for the 
year 1819, at p. 171, there is a notice from his pen 
concerning one David Gilbert Tate, a lad born deaf 
and blind, whom the Doctor had seen in 1818 in 
the island of Fetlar, in Shetland ; the lad was 
then twenty-five years of age, and his case excited 
much interest with scientific men in Edinburgh. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 265 

And at p. 296 of the same volume there is another 
paper, a Sketch of the Distribution of Rocks in 
Shetland, and a minute description of the geology of 
the Fitful Head. 

In reference to this last paper, Professor Jameson 
writes : " The benefit you will confer on mineralogy, 
and the reputation you must acquire, will fully 
recompense you for all that you call loss of time." 

During his last visit to Shetland Dr. Hibbert 
made his first acquaintance with a gentleman with 
whom he soon afterwards contracted a lasting and 
firm friendship ; but we will give his account in his 
own words of their first meeting : 

" Setting out from Busta on the morning of a fine day in 
July, accompanied by a boy as a guide, and a horse to carry 
specimens of fossils, I coast along the west side of Salon Voe (T) 
till about seven o'clock in the evening, when I was compelled, by 
a very heavy shower of rain, to seek shelter in a neighbouring 
house. I found that the owner of it, having been caught in the 
same shower as I was, had gone to bed indisposed, but his sister 
offered to accommodate me with such lodging as the dwelling 
afforded for the night, which I found it convenient to accept. 
In the morning the master of the house appeared, but from the 
contemptuous terms in which he mentioned the Wernerian 
system, and his sarcastic remarks on German philosophy, and 
geology in particular, I had no reason to expect much from his 
hospitality. Nevertheless I accepted his offer of a passage in his 
boat to a gentleman's residence some miles farther north, where 
I intended to go, as it gave me an opportunity of observing the 
strata and taking specimens of the rocks along which we rowed. 
He was going a fishing expedition on the lochs on Roeness-hill ; 
and, on seeing the wild barren aspect of the place where he 
intended to land, I determined to accompany him. After land- 
ing and advancing something more than two miles into the 



266 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

interior, we reached the loch where he intended to fish. He 
now informed me that, by proceeding N.W. two or three miles 
farther, I would reach the western ocean; and, as by doing 
so I would in one day obtain a geological section of the main- 
land of Shetland from east to west, I determined to do it. As 
this wild, barren, and trackless wilderness is subject to be sud- 
denly enveloped in the densest fogs, my companion, whose name 
I did not at that time know, but whom I shall henceforth desig- 
nate as the Hermit of Roeness-hill, advised me to set my course 
by the compass, and, in the event of fog coming on, with the 
assistance of that instrument I might find the boat where I left 
him, and where he would wait for me till late in the evening. 
After partaking with the Hermit of a sort of ddjeuner a la four- 
chette, washed down by some Cape Madeira, I set off with my 
compass in one hand and a hammer in the other over a surface 
the most uneven, irregular, and difficult to travel on that can be 
conceived, consisting of gneiss, granite, schistus, . . . hornblende, 
and dwilblende, all in a state tending to decomposition, and 
slightly covered with moss and alpine plants, which, concealing 
the fissures and crevices, rendered the passage dangerous to the 
legs and limbs of the traveller. When I lost sight of the loch 
and the Hermit, I found myself in the midst of a barren track- 
less desert, surrounded by a vast extent of rocks, or rather moss 
and rocks, lochs, rocks, and the sky completing the objects of the 
scene. Light wreaths of mist, moving gently over this waste 
and intercepting the rays of the sun, gave a little variety of light 
and shade to this picture of sterility. The deepest silence pre- 
vailed, except when interrupted by the plaintive note of the 
golden plover or the shrill cry of the curlew, whose haunts I had 
invaded. At last the hollow sound of the waves breaking on the 
banks of Roeness-hill struck on my ear, and soon after I found 
myself on the top of the banks, where a scene grandly sublime, 
beyond description, broke on my sight. The coast on each side 
extended from Slenness (?), Uyez (?), a distance of ten or twelve 
miles of stupendous rocks, worn into a thousand different fan- 
tastic forms by the action of the restless sea, insulated rocks 
appeared, covered with innumerable flocks of sea-fowls, who breed 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 267 

and reside there part of the year on them, and at their base were 
hollow caverns, worn by the waves, inhabited by seals and otters. 
In front a semicircle of the horizon presented that most sublime 
object the Atlantic Ocean rolling its majestic billows, uninter- 
rupted by any land, from the American continent, till they broke 
with tremendous roar some hundred feet below me, shaking by 
their force the solid rock on the top of which I stood. After 
enjoying this scene for some time, and making some geological 
remarks and taking specimens, I retraced my steps to the loch of 
Roer Water and the Hermit, whom I found waiting for me. 
Seated at a granite table on the banks of the loch I partook of 
his simple repast, which we finished with punch made with the 
limpid water of the lake, boiled by means of spirits of wine in 
an apparatus which he had brought from Vienna, and used when 
travelling in Germany and Italy. Roer Water is a lake of singular 
form, something more than two miles in circumference, studded 
with holms or islets, and well stocked with trout. On one of 
the holms the osprey or sea-eagle has long had her nest. The 
Hermit procured one of its young eaglets some years ago, and 
sent it to a gentleman at York. On the other islets gulls and 
ducks breed. The loch is contained in a basin of red granite, 
which reflects the rays of the sun through its pellucid water. 
The sun shone bright, the weather was fine, and the smooth 
surface of the loch reflected every object near it. Sky, rocks, 
and heath limited the horizon ; no marks of the operations of 
tyrant man appeared. Peace, freedom, and tranquillity seemed 
to pervade the scene. The Hermit and I became gradually better 
pleased with each other, and spent a very agreeable hour or two 
in this lone and tranquil retreat. It seemed extraordinary that 
I should find here any rational human being ; and I certainly did 
not expect to meet on such a desolate situation, remote from all 
cultivated and elegant social life, a man who had visited the 
tropical climates, and had not only mixed in the polished societies 
of Great Britain, but had spent some years in travelling on the 
Continent, and had enjoyed the elegant pleasures of most of the 
principal capitals of Europe. That such a man, who had spent 
great part of his time in the finest climates and most delightful 



268 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

and interesting countries in the world, should be driven by dire 
necessity to terminate his days in the vile climate of Thule, is 
matter of regret to his friends, and, as he says, is sufficient pun- 
ishment for all his moral peccadilloes. When I asked the reason 
of his sarcastic remarks in the morning, he said that having just 
returned, after some years' absence, to his native country, he had 
heard nothing of me or my pursuits, but supposed I was some 
conceited coxcomb from the College of Edinburgh, who, having 
relinquished the plough and the flail for some time to attend the 
sessions of the College, and having been dubbed a doctor, had 
come abroad as he had seen many others do with a very slight 
smattering of languages and science, and an immense stock of 
impudence and self-conceit, completely ignorant of the world and 
the manners and sentiments of a gentleman, never having been 
admitted into such society except at the classes; and thus 
qualified, and on the ground of his M.D., assuming superiority 
and presuming to dictate to his superiors in knowledge and real 
gentlemen. I returned with the Hermit to his boat, and he 
landed me at the gentleman's house, where I wished to go 
parting, I believe, mutually pleased with each other." 

BAKDISTER (SHETLAND), September 10 th, 1819. 

MY DEAR SIR Upwards of a month has elapsed since I 
sent by the Lerwick packet a parcel to you, containing Gifford's 
History of Zetland, three pamphlets, and a poem in one volume, 
and two memorials. Of Gifford's History I have to observe that, 
being published from a copy surreptitiously obtained, and made 
by an illiterate person, it is full of grammatical errors and false 
spellings, particularly the names of places. Those publications 
being out of print, I shall be glad to have them after you have 
used them ; but I do not wish them to be sent till I point out the 
mode of conveyance, as I shall consider myself extremely unfortu- 
nate if obliged to remain long in my present exile from society. 
I delivered your letter and the account of Tate (the deaf and blind 
Shetland lad), to Dr. Edmondston, who did not seem well 
pleased at their contents. Mr. A. Cheyne was present, and can 
tell you what he said, which, I think, will make you smile. I 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 269 

have received and perused the book which you sent me, for 
which accept my best thanks. Walton's mode of fishing is little 
applicable to this country, there being in it only one or two of 
the species of fish he describes. But of the truth of his moral 
reflections on fishing I am well convinced, having many years 
ago experienced the tranquillising effects of that peaceful and 
innocent amusement among the wild and bleak mountains of 
my native country. Since my last arrival here I have been 
daily either riding, sailing, fishing with hand line, or angling 
and lunched one day on the banks of Roer Water, off the same 
granite table which you and I sat at the day that you made the 
geological section of Shetland, not without agreeable recollection 
of the circumstance. It is a curious fact that, in the course of 
many years spent in multifarious pursuits in the West Indies, 
and in almost every country in Europe, the most agreeable and 
interesting acquaintances I have made, and the most beneficial 
connections I have formed have been purely accidental. 

I beg you will present my best compliments to Mrs. Hibbert, 
sincerely wishing the complete restoration of her health ; and 
with kind compliments to your little ones, I am, with great re- 
gard and respect, my dear sir, your affectionate and obliged 
servant, WILL HENDERSON. 

If you have Laing's copy of the Orcades of Torffceus I shall 
purchase it from you when you have done with it, at the price 
marked in the catalogue. 

William Henderson, Esq., of Bardister, or the 
Hermit of Roeness, as Dr. Hibbert styled him, spoke 
truly when he said, in the preceding letter, that the 
most agreeable and interesting acquaintances he had 
formed throughout his life had been purely accidental. 
This was the case in his meeting with Dr. Hibbert, 
and their friendship was of no common kind. When- 
ever Mr. Henderson visited Edinburgh, which was 
not unfrequently the case, he never failed to call on 



270 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

his friend the Doctor once every week, and even 
oftener, sure of a hearty welcome and a kindly recep- 
tion, not only from the latter but from Mrs. Hibbert 
also, though that lady in truth looked with some little 
distrust only a little, certainly upon him ; and 
when speaking of him generally styled him " the old 
sinner." 

As a reason for her seeming severity we must 
inform the reader that Mr. Henderson had, in his 
younger days, kept a diary of his travels, and, mingling 
with the copious and interesting information which it 
contained as to distant countries, there were in this 
diary certain paragraphs alluding to his gaieties. This 
little volume he had lent to Dr. Hibbert, and it had 
fallen into the hands of his wife, who, not altogether 
approving of it, dubbed, as we have said, the writer 
" the old sinner." Nevertheless, she always received 
him kindly ; indeed, he was a general favourite in the 
house, particularly with the children, though the boys 
did not altogether approve of one lesson he tried to 
inculcate upon them, namely, that they should always 
give place to their sister and comply with her wishes, 
and that her sex demanded this sacrifice on their part. 
" Place aux Dames " was his motto, for he was a most 
polite and polished gentleman. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 271 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Phrenology The High School Dr. Hibbert receives a gold medal 
from the Society of Arts for his discovery of the chromate of 
iron in Shetland The native hydrate of magnesia discovered 
by him in Shetland Sir Walter Scott elected President of the 
Royal Society. 

PHRENOLOGY was about this time attracting great 
notice in Edinburgh, and indeed all over the country. 
Dr. Hibbert was no believer in the system, and had 
read a paper expressing his opinions before the Medical 
Society, which elicited from that eminent supporter 
of that science, George Combe, the following letter : 

EDINBURGH, 5th Feby. 1820. 

DEAR SIR As I left the Medical Society last night before 
the termination of the debate, and had not an opportunity of 
seeing you after it, I beg leave now to express to you the plea- 
sure I derived from your essay, and the gratification and instruc- 
tion afforded me by the whole proceedings of the evening. 

The candid and liberal terms in which you spoke of the 
supporters of the system, from whom you were obliged to differ 
in opinion, were such as to be above my praise ; and I only 
regretted that you had not had the advantage of personal ex- 
perience on the subject, for then you and I would have differed 
less in our conclusions. But the opposition of such persons as 
you, who to so much application unite so much acuteness and 
right feeling, will probably do the doctrines more good in the 



272 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

end, by leading to a rigid investigation of their merits, than the 
too ready acquiescence of less philosophical disciples. 

Allow me to express also my sense of the handsome terms 
in which you alluded to my publication, for which I am deeply 
indebted to your goodness. 

There is one fact which I could have wished stated to the 
Society, but it was too personal to allow me to do it myself, and 
I mention it here solely for your information. Bidder, the 
Devonshire boy, was brought to me, along with two others of the 
same age, and I was desired to pick out the great calculator, if I 
could, by his head. I said at once that one had very little of 
that organ of numbers, another a considerable portion, and a 
third a great deal pointing to the individuals at the same time. 
The gentleman who introduced the three immediately said that 
the last was Bidder, the second a boy whom he had picked out 
of a writing school, as eminent for arithmetic, and the first was 
his own son, who had shown no particular talent for numbers. 
I had never seen any of them before. The gentleman who 
brought them was Mr. Moir, surgeon, of this city, and there were 
three other gentlemen present. Bidder lives in my neighbour- 
hood, and you may see him any day. His development is a 
strong confirmation of phrenology. I am, dear sir, yours, with 
sincere esteem, GEORGE COMBE. 

To Dr. Hibbert, Hill Place. 

In May 1820 Dr. Hibbert had removed from Hill 
Place to Argyle Square, in order to be nearer the 
High School, where he had placed his eldest boy. 
The younger one was sent there the next year. 

The number of the scholars at the High School 
was about 800, and each of the five classes, which 
were in separate rooms, numbered about 150 boys. 

As might be expected, where the fees were so low 
as 10s. a quarter, with Is. for the janitor, or keeper 
of the gates who, by the way, on receiving his fee 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 273 

presented each boy with two Parliament cakes there 
was a great mixture of ranks among the scholars. 
The sons of men with titles and large estates, of 
gentlemen and of professional men, might be seen 
sitting alongside the sons of little shopkeepers from 
the low precincts of the Cowgate. Unlike the present 
system of education, in England, at least where in 
some schools the classics are all but ignored, and the 
pupils are crammed with a smattering of a score of 
'ologies the ancient classics only were taught at the 
High School ; for the Scottish merchant and even the 
small shopkeeper then wished his son to have a liberal 
education, knowing, possibly, that Latin and Greek 
were the best foundations on which to build the 
structure of future acquirements, whatever might be 
the boy's position in the world. 

The holidays at the Edinburgh High School were 
not then so unreasonably long as they now are, at least 
in England; probably the canny Scot would not quietly 
submit, not only to the mortification of seeing his 
sons idling for many weeks together, two or three 
times in the year, and forgetting all that they had 
learnt, but also to be mulcted, to use the mildest 
term, by schoolmasters. The High School vacation 
began on the 1st of August and lasted one month. 
At Christmas there was about a week's vacation, and 
another during the week, called "the Preachings," 
which occurred about the same time of the year as 
our Whitsuntide. Such was formerly the Old High 
School in Infirmary Street. 

Although much of Dr. Hibbert's time was now 

T 



274 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

occupied with his literary pursuits in Edinburgh, and 
with the literati of the Modern Athens, yet he still 
kept up his correspondence with his old scientific 
Mends in Manchester, and the interest he had ever 
felt in the Literary and Philosophical Society of his 
native town never waned : 

a DEAR SIR," wrote Dr. William Henry from Manchester on 
the 20th of March 1820, "the box of minerals you were kind 
enough to send me arrived safely. Our Society has gone on 
rather languidly this winter. Mr. Dalton proceeds slowly in 
printing another volume of his system, having, as he goes on, to 
work out the facts which are to support his general reasonings. 
His last subject of experiments was that of metallic alloys, 
respecting which he has deduced from his own analysis, and those 
recorded by others, some valuable confirmations of his atomic 
theory, for all those alloys which are marked with peculiar 
properties, sufficiently distinctly to be considered as chemical 
compounds, turn out to have their components either (illegible) in 
atomic proportion, or so nearly so, that a small allowance for 
inaccuracies in the experiments would bring them within the 
general law." 

In April 1820 Dr. Hibbert received from Arthur 
Aikin, Esq., secretary to the Society of Arts in 
London, a letter dated the 20th of that month, inform- 
ing him that the Society had voted him the gold 
Iris medal in testimony of the importance, both in a 
scientific and a commercial point of view, which they 
attached to his discovery of chromate of iron in 
Shetland, and that he would have due notice to 
attend and receive the reward from the hands of the 
President, His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. 

Having received notice, he sailed from Leith to 
London in the smack Superb, taking with him his 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 275 

eldest little boy. On the appointed day father and 
son repaired to the Argyle Booms, where the ceremony 
of the presentation of the rewards to the different 
persons entitled to them, was carried ont before a 
large assembly of ladies and gentlemen. If the boy 
was filled with admiration at the royal duke and this 
concourse of fine ladies and gentlemen, he admired no 
less his father, whom, for once, at all events, he saw 
handsomely dressed in knee-breeches, silk stockings, 
and so forth. 

On his way home the Doctor visited Manchester, 
where he spent a few days, as his brother, Lieutenant 
George EBbbert, was there with the 40th regiment, 
after which he set out for Liverpool, where he took 
his passage by the James Watt steamboat, plying 
between that port and Greenock. Sailing by a 
steamer was then a novelty to many, and the weather 
being very fine, an awning was spread over the deck, 
and the passengers sat down to a good dinner, a band 
of music playing during the time of the repast. 

On his return -to Edinburgh he found a letter from 
his old friend Will Latham, dated from Westwood 
House, near Wigan, June the 2d. 

" Whenever you have any duplicate specimens of minerals or 
pebbles," wrote Latham, "that you do not know what to do 
with, I hope yon will remember your old friend and brother 
grenadier, TjifJ5tin They are establishing a very good museum 
at Stonyhurst, and I wish to obtain some to present them with. 
I shall return from here to Ponlton in the course of next week. 
If all be well, I think my friend Walmesley and I shall make 
another trip into Wales after we are dismissed from drill at 
Lancaster. I heard from one of the Miss Burys that Jordan 



276 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKE'S 

was in Paris, and the report is, that he is to be spliced on his 
return. Believe me ever, my dear Hibbert, yours most truly, 

' "WILL LATHAM." 

Westwood House, from which Captain Latham 
dates his letter, and where he was then visiting, was 
the seat of the old Lancashire Catholic family of the 
Walmesleys ; and Stonyhurst College, for whose 
museum that gentleman asks contributions of min- 
erals, was the successor in England of the Jesuit 
College of St. Omer, founded by Father Robert 
Persons in 1592, but migrating from town to town, 
in France and the Low Countries, as persecution or 
war compelled it, until at last, in 1794, the French 
Revolution drove it to seek shelter in England, when 
Mr. Weld, a former pupil, presented it with the old 
mansion of the Shireburns at Stonyhurst, in Lanca- 
shire. The Order of Jesus, for centuries occupied in 
the education of youth, have raised this college from 
small beginnings, until it is now pre-eminent among 
the Catholic colleges, not only for the superior educa- 
tion it affords, but for the magnificence of its buildings 
and the number of its students. 

Besides the chromate of iron, Dr. Hibbert had also 
discovered in Shetland another valuable mineral, which 
he believed to be the native hydrate of magnesia, but 
in order that he might feel quite assured of this fact 
he laid a specimen before his friend Dr. Brewster, 
who favoured him with the following opinion : 

COATES CRESCENT, Nov. 24, 1820. 
MY DEAR SIR I have been engaged two hours in the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 277 

examination of the substance from Unst, and I have much 
pleasure in informing you that it is the native hydrate of 
magnesia. I have examined it also chemically, and the result 
completely confirms the preceding opinion. It dissolves entirely 
in muriatic acid, etc. I am, my dear sir, ever most truly yours, 

D. BREWSTER. 
Dr. Hibbert, Argyle Square. 

Immediately after this communication there ap- 
peared two notices in the Edinburgh Weekly Journal 
of the 29th of November 1820 : the first of these 
notices related to the " Great Unknown," and the one 
following it to the native hydrate of magnesia. 

" Our illustrious countryman, Sir Walter Scott, Bart., was, 
upon the resignation of Sir James Hall, unanimously elected 
President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh at the fullest 
meeting of that learned body that ever assembled." 

" It is understood that Dr. Hibbert has discovered in Shet- 
land that rare and interesting mineral, the native hydrate of 
magnesia, which had been found only at Hoboken, in New 
Jersey. The specimens brought to Edinburgh were, by several 
mineralogists, mistaken for white talc, but Dr. Hibbert, being 
persuaded that it differed materially in the nature of its ingredi- 
ents from common talc, submitted it to Dr. Brewster, who 
ascertained, by an optical analysis, that it was the native hydrate 
of magnesia, and confirmed this result by a chemical examination 
of it." 



278 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKENS 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Dr. Hibbert made a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and of the Scottish Antiquarian Society Sir Walter Scott's 
Pirate and Shetland Mr. Thomas Edmondston and the dis- 
covery of chromate of iron Dr. Hibbert's account of the dis- 
covery His work on Shetland is published Professor Jameson's 
opinion of it. 

TOWARDS the latter end of the preceding year, Dr. 
Hibbert, as we infer from the following invitation, 
issued by the President, had been elected a member 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh : 

The President of the Koyal Society of Edinburgh requests 
the honour of Dr. Hibbert's company, from eight o'clock to 
eleven, on Monday the 13th January. 

NORTH CASTLE STREET, 
1st January 1821. 

On the 8th of that month Dr. Brewster read be- 
fore the Royal Society a paper entitled " An Account 
of the Native Hydrate of Magnesia, discovered by 
Dr. Hibbert in Shetland," which the latter had the 
gratification to hear. 

The Native Hydrate of Magnesia, said Dr. 
Brewster, was first discovered and ranked as a 
separate mineral by the late Dr. Bruce of New York. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 279 

It was found only at Hoboken, in New Jersey. The 
Doctor then proceeded to say : 

" In this state of our information respecting native magnesia, 
Dr. Hibbert, who has distinguished himself by his excellent 
mineralogical survey of Shetland, and augmented our national 
resources by the discovery of chromate of iron in large quantities, 
put into my hands a mineral from Shetland, which had been 
considered by mineralogists as White Talc, but which, he was 
persuaded, differed materially in the nature of its ingredients 
from that substance. In consequence of being familiar with the 
Hoboken magnesia, I considered the Shetland specimen as the 
same mineral, and I put this opinion beyond a doubt, by 
establishing the identity of their optical qualities, and also by a 
chemical examination of the two substances. 

" Dr. Hibbert found this substance in 1817, at Swina Ness in 
Unst, one of the Shetland Isles." 

On the 26th of January, Mr. Smellie, the secretary 
of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, notified to Dr. 
Hibbert that at a meeting, held on the 27th ultimo, 
he had been unanimously elected a member of the 
Society. 

This election brought him into closer correspondence 
with the Scottish Antiquaries of that time ; and as 
his friendship, which had already commenced, with 
Mr., afterwards Dr. David, Laing, became very intimate 
in after years, and their zeal for antiquarian researches 
was equally ardent, while the former gentleman 
distinguished himself especially by the able manner 
in which he edited Ancient Scottish Poetry, we do 
not hesitate to insert one of the first letters which 
passed between them on this subject. 

DEAR SIR If you observe Honymoon in the index to Brand's 
Popular Antiquities, might I request the favour of a sight of the 



280 SAMUEL HIBBEET WARE'S 

volume for an hour ? I wish only to ascertain how long it has 
been used, as it has been given, I think improperly, as the title 
of a poem of the sixteenth century. Your obliged servant, 

DAVID LAING. 
Dr. Hibbert 

In addition to antiquarian pursuits, Dr. Hibbert 
appears to have been occupied either as a contributor 
to, or otherwise connected with, Constable's Scottish 
Gazetteer, for Mr. Patrick Neill, the printer, wrote as 
follows : 

" DEAR SIR Mr. Constable has asked me to glance over the 
enclosed, but as you are in the midst of the subject, I will be 
glad if you will also do so, and introduce the chromate of iron as 
valuable, if not also the hydrate of magnesia as rare. Your 
doing so will greatly oblige Messrs. Constable and Co., who did 
not apply at once for fear of appearing too troublesome to you. 
It is for the Scottish Gazetteer" 

' But the almost all-engrossing work in which he 
was now engaged was his book on the Shetland 
Islands. His Shetland friend, Mr. William Henderson 
of Bardister, had now come to Scotland and had taken 
lodgings at Leith, which he always preferred to 
Edinburgh, and feeling a very great interest in the 
forthcoming work, he was almost a daily visitor at 
the house of the doctor, whom he furnished with much 
valuable information. Mr. Henderson's letters show 
how anxious he was for its appearance : 

49 CONSTITUTION STREET, LEITH, 
16th April 1821. 

MY DEAR SIR Ever since I saw you last, I have been con- 
fined to my bed by a severe cold. What part of Shetland 
have you got to ? I am afraid the Hermit of Roeness-hill 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 281 

(observe my spelling) will be dead before his memoirs are written, 
as I always thought would be the case. I remain, my dear sir, 
yours sincerely, WILLIAM HENDERSON. 

Dr. Hibbert, Argyle Square. 

P.S. The Hermit of Koeness-hill has been confined to his 
bed these ten days past ; when found by you, he may be truly 
described as one, qui mores hominum multorum vidit d urbes, and 
who, having indulged the delusive blandishments of hope and 
felt the bitter pangs of disappointment, after enjoying all the 
delights of refined and elegant society, is destined to close his 
eventful life in solitude, wretchedness, and misery, on the bleak 
and barren rock, where he first breathed vital air, exclaiming 
with the Wise Man, that all is vanity and vexation of spirit. 

This will be delivered to you by my nephew. He says Thos. 
Edmondston has got fifty merks of land out of Andrew Scott in 
the quarter where the chromate of iron is found, for 200 less 
than he was offered by Mr. Mouat. 

Whilst the book on the Shetland Isles was> in 
preparation for publication, Dr. Hibbert received a 
confidential intimation from his printer, that a new 
novel by the " Great Unknown," the scenery of which 
was in Shetland, was then passing through the press. 
This novel was the Pirate. 

The printer's letter is as follows : 

EDINBURGH, June 2d, 1821. 

SIR The proofs came safe to hand, and herewith you will 
receive other two sheets. We have had all our types blocked 
up in the Philosophical Journal for the last ten days, but have 
now got them relieved, and will be able to get all your MS. set 
up immediately. 

I have accidentally had a sight of the three first sheets, being 
all that is yet printed of the Pirate, a new novel by the author 
of Waverley. The country presented to view is Shetland, and 



282 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

the places first mentioned are Sumburgh Head and the Roost of 

S . The hero is an unknown stranger landed at Lerwick 

from a Dutch vessel, nobody knows from whence, but dreaded 
by the natives " lest he should turn out another Pate Stewart " 
and take up his abode in the Castle of Sumburgh. 

As it may be supposed from these making mention of "Scathold, 
Lispunds, Wattle, Hawhen, and Hagalef," that the author intends 
to give a description of the country, the manners of its inhabitants, 
it may, perhaps, be of advantage to you to know that such a 
work is going on, before entirely finishing your own, and it is 
with that view I have taken the liberty to trouble you with this 
hasty note. 

I have only to request that you will not hint to Mr. Constable, 
or any person, that you have got such information, as it is a rule 
to keep these novels, while in the press, as secret as possible, 
owing to certain circumstances that occurred previous to the 
publication of Rob Roy. Yours truly, W. FRAZER. 

Dr. Hibbert received this letter when in Man- 
chester, whither he had been called on important 
business relating to his property ; but soon afterwards 
he received another lengthy and very characteristic 
epistle from his friend, the old " Hermit of Koeness," 
giving him a foretaste of what might be the sensa- 
tions of an unseasoned author under the infliction of 
criticism. Books are usually cut up after they have 
come into the world ; our author's was cut up before 
that event, and by his friends too. With reason 
might he have exclaimed, " Heaven save me from 
my friends !" The letter runs as follows : 

49 CONSTITUTION STREET, LEITH. 
16th July 1821. 

MY DEAR SIR Rochefoucault has perhaps too truly attri- 
buted all our actions to the principle of self-interest; and, in 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 283 

the liberties I have taken in requesting you to write some account 
of Shetland, I plead guilty to that motive, as I naturally wish to 
see in print some rational description of the barren rock on which 
I had the misfortune to be born; and of all the strangers who have 
visited it with that view, I know none so well qualified to do it 
as yourself, not merely by your scientific acquirements, but by 
your extensive observation and experience of the manners, customs, 
and general habits of the different classes of society in Great 
Britain, operating on a liberal and discriminating mind, imbued 
by nature with the finest feelings of humanity and general 
philanthropy. 

My friends are urging me to send them copies of your book, 
and Mrs. Hibbert not being able to tell me when it would appear, 
she advised me to apply to Mr. P. Neill for information. I 
accordingly called on Mr. Neill, and, as an acquaintance of yours, 
requested to know when I could have a copy of it. To this he 
replied, that he did not think it would be published before 
November, as it was to be abridged, the prints new engraved, 
and a new arrangement made with the bookseller, and also that 
you must inevitably be in this country. I expressed a wish to 
know what part of it was to be abridged, and a supposition that 
it must be the geological, adding that geology was nothing but 
a German humbug, although mineralogy is a most useful science. 
He seemed hurt at this remark, and said that the geological was 
the only part worth printing. I did not know till afterwards, 
when Mrs. Hibbert informed me, that he is a geologist, had 
studied in Germany, and written a book on the subject, so I 
suppose I must not show my face again at his office. 

It gives me pleasure to inform you that Mrs. Hibbert seems 
to be in better health than when you left her. I generally pay 
my respects to her once a week. She laughs at my political 
remarks and sarcasms, which she calls scandal ; and the Queen's 
claims and the approaching coronation afford an ample field for 
discussion. The late mild weather has enabled her to go out a 
few times, but she seems impatient for your return. She is what 
I call a fine creature, and such as Sterne would have liked to 
lead round the world with him. I advise her to go to France 



SAMUEL HIBBEBT 

and Italy with you, and to take me as jomr ekearone, but die 

says she would not trust you in my company. If you retain to 
this country by way of Liverpool, I wish you would caM OB mj 
nephew, Gilbert Henderson. You will find him, not a superficial, 
pedantic, conceited, coxcombical t&ve of a Scotch coflege, but a 
modest, imflssmmfng, weH-mfbrmed and learned Fellow of an 
English University. You know there is nothing Scotch about 
me, except some of the noble blood of the Hurrays and Sinclairs, 
which, if I could, I would expel from my veins. 

I have had two severe attacks of fever. I am at present 
weak, but tolerably free from pain. My dear sir, yours sincerely, 

WILLIAM HEXDEBSOB. 

Mrs. Hibbert had now fallen into a very bad state 
of health, and the general illumination which was to 
take place in honour of the king's coronation was, in 
her husband's absence, a source of great anxiety to 
her ; for it was feared that disturbances might happen 
on that occasion, since the king was to be crowned 
alone without the queen, whom he had suspected of 
immoral conduct ; while the people, generally, were 
loud in protestations of their belief in her innocence, 
and were greatly excited. Detained at this time 
much against his will in Manchester, and evidently 
suffering all the doubts and fears of an incipient 
author on the eve of the publication of his first book, 
on which he was hard at work, Dr. Hibbert wrote on 
the 17th of Jidy 1821, to his wife : 

MY DEAB SARAH I am very sorry I am not with you in 

Edinburgh on account of the coronation. . . . 

Your letter has given me much satisfaction since you are 
better. . . . The troublesomeness of this book on Shetland has 
been so great. ... I am, however, drawing very near *mlpgd to 
a close, and never again will I embark in such an undertaking. 



LIFE ASD COREESPONDKSCKL _ : : 



I do not want to see you till I have finished it, for nercr do I look 
again to be so diained as I hare been. It is a Ices of time that 
wr,ewr wffl be repaired. It would bare been better to have let 
people nm away with diseoreries and ererytlibi^sooDer than hare 
written iL It is soeh a trouble to me that I cannot bear to offend 
you with the sight of the book until it is finished. Make some 
excuse to Mr. Henderson for my not leylf u% to Ma. BeaDy, 
I want (between ourselves) not to say anything about the book 
till it is finished. My delay is not uncommon. Many persons 
hare, fike myself, embarked in a work, and instead of inidiisjg 
it in fire or six months, as they thought, it has lasted them 
years. With my lore to my Hide children, whom I will not 
again neglect for amy boats of my writing believe me, yours ever 
affectionately, 8L HfBMKl 1 , 

In order not to delay the progress of his work on 
the Shetland Isles, he had, as we have intimated, 
earned with him the necessary papers and books, and 
Mr. Thomas Golland, who managed his property in 
Manchester, seeing how frequently he wanted to 
consult with him, kindly invited him to his house, 
where he gave him a separate room wherein to write. 
We have before observed that the Doctor was what is 
termed an "absent man." One day he had been 
working very hard, quite uninterruptedly except at 
meal times, for literary men, like all other men, must 
eat, and, when supper-time arrived, he was called 
down, Mr. Gotland's family were already seated 
round the table, when he walked into the room and 
took the seat left vacant for him. Mrs. GoUand 
helped him to what he liked, and his plate was placed 
before him ; but, instead of taking up his knife and 
fork, he sat gazing wistfully at the "*J""g viands. 
Mr. and Mrs. GoUand looked wondering at him for a. 



286 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

few moments : at last Mr. Golland said, " Doctor, 
won't you put down those books and papers, and take 
your supper?" The spell that bound him was at 
once broken! He had come down from his room 
with a lot of books and papers under one arm, and 
thus encumbered had sat down to supper, but so 
absorbed in his work was he that he could not tell 
what prevented him handling his knife and fork. 

Mrs. Hibbert having had another very severe 
attack of illness, her husband returned home about 
the end of July. He now employed himself assidu- 
ously in finishing his book; nevertheless, he could 
always spare an hour or two to receive the visits of 
his friend Mr. Henderson, from whom, as we have 
before said, he obtained much useful information. 
Sometimes, however, as will be seen from the follow- 
ing letter, the old gentleman would decline telling all 
he knew. That letter also affords some insight into 
Mr. Henderson's early life. 

LEITH, 1st October 1821. 

MY DEAR SIR When I declined giving you information 
this morning respecting the law and practice in the cases of 
wrecks in Shetland, it was not for want of knowledge of the 
subject, but because if you were to publish facts of late cases as 
practised in Shetland, it might involve you in very serious 
consequences, since truth, according to the dictum now held to 
be law by my relative the great Lord Mansfield, is held to be a 
libel 

My first outset in life was as clerk to the deceased William 
Balfour of Trenaby, who was factor for Sir Lawrence Dundas 
over the Earldom of Orkney and Lordship of Shetland, Vice- 
Admiral Deputy of the same, Sheriff-Substitute of Shetland, and 
Collector of Customs at Lerwick. I was clerk of the Earldom 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 287 

and Lordship, and clerk of the Court of Admiralty. In the 
latter capacity I often acted, when a very young man, as Admiral- 
Substitute, and held Courts in Orkney for settling wrecks and 
taking precognitious of theft and other malpractices, Mr. Balfour 
being too old and infirm to travel to places where wrecks 
happened. He was a man of great natural endowments, im- 
proved by a regular education in the laws of his country, and 
his practice and decisions were just and honourable. But after 
his time, men of a very different description held the office. In 
Orkney, a fellow of the name of Watson imprisoned the master 
of a ship wrecked on the coast for attempting to save the wreck 
of his own vessel, for which Lord Dnndas, his constituent, paid 
a very handsome sum. In Shetland, the Admiral was an old 
smuggler, and knew as much of the laws of the country as he 
did of Greek. When power is right* such a man seldom forgets 
his own interest, and in some cases well known, he appropriated 
everything saved, when there was no claimant, to himself, and 
never paid any salvage. Yet being such, he was reckoned a 
very honest man. Ever yours most sincerely, 

WILLM. HENDERSON. 

Thomas Edmondston of Shetland had began at 
this time to show the cloven foot, and the reader will 
now understand why certain passages in his former 
letters have been printed in italics : 

"MY DEAR SIR," wrote Mr. Henderson on the llth of 
December 1821 "In my way from Edinburgh I met L. 
Edmondston, who asked if yon would see him. I said that at 
present you saw no person, not even Dr. Brewster. He then 
asked me if I would deliver a message from him, which I said 
I would. He said it was only to repeat the message from his 
brother Thomas, which he delivered last year, namely, that if 
yon claimed the merit of discovering the bed of chromate of iron 
near Ms house, he would publish a contradictory statement, with 
your letter or letters, acknowledging that he had discovered it 
Now it is very possible that he might have discovered that and 



288 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

many other beds of that mineral after you had taught him the 
characteristic marks of it. The passage in your book which I 
saw this morning is directly contrary to Edmondston's statement. 
L. Edmondston said you seemed offended at him when he men- 
tioned the subject to you last year, but that he is only a 
messenger, and not blamable for anything his brother may say 
or do. He says if you would let him, he thinks he could suggest a 
mode of mentioning it in your book, which would be agreeable to all 
parties" 

Dr. Hibbert wrote on the back of this letter a 
memorandum, as follows : 

" Mr. Edmondston had no conception what the chromate of 
iron was before I showed it to him, and he even laughed at the 
notion that I had found something of value. He discovered 
nothing relative to it, except asking my advice what a peculiar 
substance was at his door, which I gave in favour of being . . . 
(illegible) chromate of iron. He has repaid my disinterested 
labour, in his favour, with ingratitude." 

The dangerous illness of his wife at this time was 
the reason why Dr. Hibbert would see no one except 
Mr. Henderson. However, contrary to expectation, 
she rallied, one might say almost miraculously, and 
continued to improve for some months. 

As we have just alluded to the extraordinary 
claim put forward by Mr. Thomas Edmondston, this 
seems to us a proper place to give Dr. Hibbert's own 
account of his discovery of the chromate of iron. 

At p. 363 of his description of the Shetland 
Islands, he writes : 

"I was indeed first led, in the year 1817, to a search after 
this metal by observing innumerable fragments of it strewed 
about the hill, which must have been loosened by the disintegra- 
tion of the rock in which they were contained. They were 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 289 

chiefly found in a direction due west from Hagdale, as far as the 
hill of Crucifield. One of these weighed 1 cwt. 20 Ibs. ; but I 
saw a mass which must have been considerably larger, since it 
was immovable from its site without a great effort. West from 
Hagdale were several imbedded masses of the chromate of iron. 
In several places the chromate occurs in the form of numerous 
thin, ramifying veins, from two to three inches in breadth, but 
occasionally increasing to the breadth of five or six inches. 
Within, perhaps, a hundred yards of the house of Buness, a 
very considerable mass is found, the extent of which is not 
apparent, since it is on one side concealed by the sea and on the 
other by the deep soil of a meadow. It can be traced three feet in 
breadth and fifteen feet in length, but its magnitude must be much 
greater than this. Some of the chromate of iron that is found 
in a loose state on the hills is perfectly unmixed with talc, and 
does not appear to be formed into distinct grains, but is massive." 

Dr. Hibbert, speaking of the two journeys he had 
made to the Shetland Islands, continues : 

" Of the great sacrifice of my time incurred in these journeys, 
as well as their expense, I would say nothing : the handsome 
testimonial of approbation that I have received from the Society 
in London for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce leaves 
me nothing on this score to regret ; and if the result of my 
labours should in any way conduce to the resources of Shetland, 
or to the knowledge of the natural history of this remote pro- 
vince, I would wish for nothing more than that it should be con- 
sidered as one of the effects arising from the encouragement given 
to the study of Mineralogy in the University of Edinburgh." 

To the above extract is appended the following 
note : 

" When the intelligence of my discovery of the chromate of 
iron had arrived in Shetland, after my first visit to that country, 
there were few landed proprietors who could persuade themselves 
that it was of the least importance, so often had they been de- 
ceived by visitors, who had come over, impressing them with false 

U 



290 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

notions of the value of mines and minerals. To Mr. Edmondston 
of Buness, however, I successfully addressed myself, and spent 
some days in pointing out to this gentleman and his servants the 
character of the ore, which was strewed over the hills in astonish- 
ing abundance ; for, owing to the resemblance it bore to a kind 
of diallage, or hornblende, it was repeatedly mistaken for this 
substance. Accordingly, in following up these instructions, he 
perceived for the first time that a valuable bed of this ore awaited 
the operations of the miner within scarcely more than 100 yards 
of his own door." 

The book on which its author had expended so 
much toil and labour came out with the opening of 
the year 1822 in the form of a large quarto, entitled, 
"A Description of the Shetland Islands, comprising 
an Account of their Geology, Scenery, Antiquities, 
and Superstitions; with a Geological Map, Plates, 
etc." It was published by Archibald Constable and 
Co., Edinburgh ; and Hurst, Eobinson, and Co., 
London, 1822. The motto " Dispecta est et Thule" 
Tacitus, appears under this title. 

Dr. Hibbert had at first intended publishing only 
a purely mineralogical description of the islands, but 
he complied afterwards with a recommendation to ex- 
tend his plan, by including a popular account of the 
scenery and manners of the country, and a particular 
notice of its antiquities. Accordingly, a view is given 
in the work of the manners and state of a country 
which, as the author says, " did not a little (i.e. in 
1817) resemble what the most improved districts of 
England and Scotland must have been many centuries 
ago." 

Before publishing his book, he had read an abstract 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 291 

of that part of it which relates to the distribution of 
the rocks of Shetland to the Wernerian Natural 
History Society, to whom he dedicated it. 

We will here insert an extract or two from notices 
of the work which appeared upwards of thirty years 
ago in the Manchester Guardian : 

" The work commences with a preliminary essay on stratifica- 
tion; which is followed by an Itinerary through the Isles of 
Shetland, in four Itinera, or journeys, each Her having copious 
notes appended. The appendix contains additional miscellaneous 
notes, with notes on the various illustrative plates ; a notice of the 
ancient music of Shetland, with specimens in notation ; a geological 
map of Shetland, indices, etc. The high authority it has always 
possessed may be inferred from the fact that it has often been 
cited in the Scottish Courts of law as the best authority on the 
customs and usages of Shetland. Amongst other curious anti- 
quarian topics investigated is that singular Udal system, which 
was derived from Scandinavia, and which gradually gave way 
before the later feudalisation of these islands. The rude agri- 
culture is faithfully described, and a popular view given of the 
fisheries. Another prominent antiquarian department of the 
work is that relating to the superstitions of Shetland, some of 
which, the author observes, indicate a much nearer approach to 
the original pagan tenets of the Scandinavians than can be found 
in several districts of Norway itself. Some idea may be formed 
of the Doctor's geological labours from the following paragraph 
in the preface to this work : 

" ' The geology of Shetland cost me great pains to draw up ; 
my labour was also much impeded by the wretched charts of these 
islands that have been published, so that I was obliged, with the 
aid of nothing more than a pocket compass, to climb almost every 
point of high land in the country, in order to obtain a new draught 
fit for my purpose. The map, therefore, that is now produced ' 
appears so totally different to any that has ever been before 
engraved as to have every claim to the title of a new survey. 



292 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

That it contains many imperfections is to be expected, but I be- 
lieYe they do not affect it in the least in a geological point of view.' " 

In the preface to his book Dr. Hibbert acknow- 
ledges particularly the assistance he had received from 
Dr. Brewster, during the progress of the volume, in 
identifying minerals from their external character 
alone, the nature of which he himself would have 
been unable to discover without a chemical analysis, 
and which the optical researches that gentleman was 
then pursuing enabled him to do. The author also 
acknowledges his obligations to Mr. David Laing for 
the loan of several rare works for the purpose of 
reference ; and particularly to William Henderson, 
Esq. ; and he also says that he has no slight mention 
to make of the encouragement that he met with from 
Professor Jameson, who, in constantly stimulating his 
pupils to persevere in investigating the Mineralogy 
of Scotland, showed in all such instances a zeal well 
calculated to prove the national utility of the science. 

The numerous plates in the book were from slight 
sketches made by himself ; from which Mr. Parry, then 
a young artist of Manchester, afterwards made more 
elaborate drawings. 

In concluding his preface, Dr. Hibbert observes 
that, while his work was in the press, a new novel by 
the " Great Unknown " had been commenced, with 
the intimation that the scene was laid in Shetland. 
For this reason especially, he (Dr. Hibbert) regretted 
that his work would appear contemporaneous with the 
PIRATE ; for, in adverting to the scenery and manners 
of the country, he could not but feel sensible that 



LIFE A3fD CORRESPONDENCE. 293 

comparisons disadvantageous to himself would be pro- 
voked when the novel of " the greatest of all modern 
masters of description " should appear. 

The book having been dedicated to the Wernerian 
Society, of which Professor Jameson was President, 
we here insert that gentleman's acknowledgment 
of it : 

MY DEAR SIR I beg you wffl accept my wannest thanks 
for the valuable present of your interesting and important work 
on the fihrtUiiil T^^JI^ j have read the whole carefully, and 
many parts repeatedly, and cannot help expressing my astonish- 
"Tit it thf* vaiBt atom flf iiifin imtiffn ft Tmitaiai , mul **w T"wiTiii? l y 
and sagacity displayed on subjects where many have failed. 
Believe me to remain, ever very faithfully yours, 

ROBERT JAMESON. 

34 Royal Circus, May 6th, 1823. 

P.S. A review of your work has just appeared in the New 
Edinburgh Quarterly Retietc. It is done in a bad spirit. The 
author, I believe, thinks he is not known, which is absurd. 

To Dr. Hibbert* Argyle Square. 

The description of the Shetland Islands had after- 
wards become known on the Continent, for we find it 
entered in the Manual du Libraire, etc., par Jacq. C. 
Brunei, published at Paris, by Silvestre, 1831. It is 
also mentioned in the same work as having been in 
the well-known catalogue of the library of George 
Hibbert, Esq., No. 3918. 



294 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

A copy of the work on Shetland is sent to the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society Opinion of Shetlanders on the work 
Death of Mrs. Hibbert George IV. visits Edinburgh The boy 
born without forearms An account of the Manor of Ashton- 
under-Line Sir Walter Scott's opinion of it. 

WITHIN a few days of the publication of his work 
on Shetland, Dr. Hibbert forwarded a copy of it to 
Dr. William Henry for presentation to the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Manchester. During all 
his years of absence from his native town he kept up 
a constant intercourse with his friends there ; and 
whatever concerned Manchester or related to her 
prosperity or welfare was always grateful to him. 
Filled with recollections of past times pleasantly spent 
there, he wrote to Dr. Henry on the 16th of January 
1822:- 

DEAR SIR I shall esteem it as a particular favour if you will 
present to the Literary and Philosophical Society my volume on 
the Shetland Islands, which I hope they will do me the honour 
to accept, as an acknowledgment of the grateful recollection I 
entertain of the many hours that, in former years, I enjoyed, 
with so much instruction to myself, while attending the meetings 
of an Institution, the objects of which, when viewed in connection 
with the science that ought to direct the commercial spirit of so 
important a town as Manchester, cannot be too highly rated. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 295 

To this letter the following complimentary reply 
was made by Dr. Henry : 

DEAR SIR I availed myself of the very first opportunity of 
laying before our Literary and Philosophical Society your accept- 
able present. You are entitled also to the praise of great dis- 
interestedness in proclaiming to the public a discovery, which, 
had it fallen to the lot of some others, would have been made a 
source of private emolument. I earnestly hope that you will 
receive from the public that meed of honourable distinction to 
which the diligent and successful devotion of so much time and 
talent fairly entitle you. 

When you see Professor Jameson, be so good as to present 
to him my kindest remembrances, and believe me, my dear sir, 
very sincerely and faithfully yours, WILLM. HENRY. 

P.S. Mr. Allen has published proposals for a print of Mr. 
Dalton ; will you have the goodness to request permission from 
Mr. Constable to let a copy hang in his shop, and to get another 
placed in some desirable situation ? 

Dr. Hibbert's work met with a specially flattering 
reception from the gentry of the Shetlands. The 
following letter is one of the many complimentary 
communications which he received. 



GARDIE HOUSE, SHETLAND, 
20th February 1822. 

DEAR SIR I cannot deny myself the satisfaction of telling 
you how much I have been delighted with the perusal of your 
work on Shetland. Every one here capable of judging has the 
same opinion of your book that I have. My father, who is an 
excellent judge, and well versed in the lore of the Middle Ages, 
has been exceedingly delighted with it ; so much so that I allege 
it has cured him of a fit of the gout ! I wish the " Great 
Unknown " had seen the description of Shetland before he wrote 



296 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

the Pirate. I have the honour to be, dear sir, your most obedient 
and obliged servant, W. MOUAT. 

To Dr. Hibbert, 

Care of Messrs. Constable and Co., 
Publishers, 

High Street, 

Edinburgh. 

One criticism, however, from a Shetland gentle- 
man will perhaps amuse the reader. Mr. Robert 
Hunter of Lunna in writing to the author said that 
there was nothing bad in the book except the word 
" Shetland ;" for the educated Shetlanders, as the critic 
went on to observe, did not admire the word Shetland, 
which they thought sounded "fishy," and they pre- 
ferred the name " Zetland." 

On a bleak morning in April a hearse and a couple 
of mourning coaches wound their way at a slow pace 
through the narrow passage leading from Brown 
Square into Candlemaker Row, down that thorough- 
fare, across the Grassmarket, and along the road that 
skirts the base of the precipitous rock, over which the 
Castle frowns in its massive grandeur, till they reached 
the front gate of St. John's Episcopal Chapel, in the 
Lothian Road. Here the funeral procession halted ; 
for here was to be the last resting-place of Sarah 
Hibbert, the amiable and affectionate woman whom 
Dr. Hibbert had led a bride to the altar whilst still 
in her girlhood, and who had been a devoted wife 
and the tenderest and most affectionate of mothers. 
Her patience and resignation during the long months 
of her wearying and painful illness had touched the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 297 

hearts of all around her. Towards the end, a change 
for the better had suddenly taken place ; and Dr. 
Hibbert, himself deceived, encouraged the fond though 
delusive hope that his wife might yet be spared to 
him ; but this change was like the expiring flash of a 
lamp, shooting up into momentary brilliancy, to be 
quenched the next instant in utter darkness. The 
summons came suddenly at night, and before the 
spring morning dawned the soul had passed away to 
its Creator. 

Dr. Hibbert followed his wife to the grave, 
accompanied by his two boys, aged respectively ten 
and eleven. The coffin, when taken from the hearse, 
was carried to the chapel burial-ground and let 
silently down into the grave ; and then the mourners 
took their last sorrowful look, and returned to the 
home made desolate by death. This was the Presby- 
terian mode of burial in Scotland; but the burial service, 
according to the form of the Church of England, of 
which the deceased was a member, had been read over 
the coffin before its removal from the house which 
had once been her home. 

In the following month the widower left Argyle 
Square, and took a house in Wharton Place, a pleasant 
locality, opposite to which stood that picturesque and 
beautiful building, Heriot/s Hospital, founded by 
the "Jingling Geordie" of the Fortunes of Nigel. 
Fronting Heriot's Hospital was Watson's Hospital, a 
large, plain stone building, placed in the centre of a , 
broad, grassy space ; the former Institution for the 
maintenance and education of the orphan sons of 



298 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

decayed tradesmen, and the latter for the sons of 
decayed merchants. The Heriot boys at that time 
wore a uniform, consisting of a brown, short-tailed 
jacket with large brass buttons, a stiff leather skull- 
cap, and corduroy trousers ; whilst the Watson uniform 
only differed in this, that the short- tailed jacket was 
green instead of brown. Between the lads of these 
two hospitals there existed an hereditary feud, and 
frequent were the fights, or " bickers," as they were 
called, of these hostile parties ; and as there were no 
" Bobbies " then, the combatants had so much their 
own way in the neighbourhood of the Hospitals, that 
it was dangerous for passers-by to go into any 
thoroughfare where the fight was taking place. 

Sometimes the Watsons would drive the Heriots 
within their own gates in the Vennel, and besiege 
them there ; whilst at others, the Heriots would be 
victorious, and the Watsons would be forced to beat 
a retreat down Wharton Lane, and take refuge within 
their own domain. Broken and cut heads were 
frequent ; for sticks, brickbats, and stones were freely 
used on both sides. Gentlemen's sons took sides with 
the Watson boys, as being more aristocratic, whilst 
the allies of the Heriot lads were the "blackguards," 
so called, of the not far distant Grassmarket, West 
Port, and Potterrow. 

Dr. Hibbert's two sons, of course, took part in 
these frays. William, the younger of the two, showed 
all the fire of an incipient warrior, and he had an 
additional advantage which would have won for him 
the applause of Mr. Charles Reed, for he was ambi- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 299 

dexter; and so highly was his skill in hitting his mark 
with either hand acknowleged by his companions, 
that they bestowed on him the cognomen of " Cawry 
paw/' whatever that word may mean. 

But to turn from these puerile matters, Robert 
Hibbert, a brother of the Doctor, was now residing in the 
Isle of Man, a circumstance which, as the reader will 
ere long see, had an influence on the future state of 
life of the latter. Mr. Robert Hibbert, after leaving 
Cambridge, had married, and given up all idea of the 
Bar; for, like most men who are fond of literary 
pursuits, he did not willingly take to the restraint of 
a profession. He seems to have felt considerable 
interest in the peculiar law courts of the island, and 
believing that this subject would also be worth the 
attention of his brother, sent him a book, along with 
a paper containing an account of the meetings of the 
courts of the Tynwald : 

"MY DEAR SAM," he wrote on the 12th of July 1822, " I 
take the opportunity of sending you, by a gentleman going to 
Glasgow, and to be forwarded from thence per coach, Mill's 
Laws of the Isle of Man, which you will oblige me by accepting. 
You will also receive a newspaper containing an account of the pro- 
ceedings of the annual Tynwald Courts, over which the Duke of 
Atholl, as Governor, presides. I was present, and had afterwards 
the honour, as the saying is, of being one of the select who 
partook of his beef and drank of his wine. Before we left 
Manchester I took my wife and Emma to see little Sarah. We 
were very much pleased with her." 

This communication, which Dr. Hibbert had 
received from his brother, was considered by him to 



300 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

be of great importance, as we learn from the following 
letter : 

" I thank you very truly for the valuable present I received 
from you. More interesting documents I have not perused, and 
nothing could have given me greater satisfaction than to have 
seen the revival of the ancient open court of Tynwald. The 
book and papers had not been in my house two days when they 
were observed by Mr. Peterson, the Sheriff-Substitute of Orkney 
who is preparing for the press a number of law documents re- 
lative to the ancient Scandinavian government of that country ; 
and who, when noticing many traits of resemblance, as might 
indeed have been expected, in the legislation of the Isle of Man, 
prevailed upon me to lend him all the documents that I received 
from you, so that I have not yet had time to fully discuss them." 

The account which Robert Hibbert had sent his 
brother of the Tynwald courts had perhaps suggested 
to the latter to read before the Antiquarian Society 
a paper entitled "Memoir of the Tings of Orkney 
and Shetland." This memoir was afterwards printed 
in vol. iii., part 1, of the Transactions of the Society for 
1823, and contains one hundred and seven pages, large 
quarto. In the Memoir, which is illustrated by 
several woodcuts of erect stone circles, earth circles, 
and so forth, Dr. Hibbert traces and explains the 
origin of the Scandinavian Thing or Ting, or court of 
justice, from the times of the Vikings, before the in- 
troduction of Christianity ; and he explains that the 
Ting was either held on the site, or was made an ap- 
pendage, of the hof or temple, which was dedicated to 
the rites of the Edda. After making mention of the 
several judicial tests, as the ordeal, combat, or others, 
that were practised in the Tings, the author says, that 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 301 

in the course of time, a Ting became not only a 
judicial but a legislative assembly, summoned to enact 
laws and make provisions for the general weal ; and 
that when a field was selected near the temple, as it 
always was, it acquired the name of the Thing-vollr, 
now corrupted into Ting-wall, many of which existed 
in Iceland, Shetland, the Isle of Man, and various 
parts of Scotland, and wherever, indeed, the North- 
men had intruded, even in the north-west of England, 
as the hundred of Wirrall, in Cheshire. The Tings 
were usually surrounded by a fence, consisting either 
of stone circles or a ditch ; or they were marked out 
by shallow furrows, within which loose stones were 
thrown, until they had reached about two feet above 
the ground. The fence which encircled the ground 
where the Ting of the Isle of Man was held, consisted 
of turves. 

But the Memoir is far too lengthy to give even a 
bare outline of its contents. 

The visit of George IV. to Edinburgh induced 
Dr. Hibbert to invite his brother Kobert and his 
family to stay with him for a few days. The in- 
vitation was accepted, and Mr. Henderson, then 
lodging at Leith, kindly undertook to secure good 
places for his friends in Wharton Place, from whence 
they might witness the royal landing ; and on the 
llth of August that gentleman wrote to Dr. 
Hibbert :- 

" All the pier is most substantially seated with four or six 
rows . . . Scaffoldings are erected in Bernard Street and Constitu- 
tion Street, and two triumphal arches, surmounted by imperial 



302 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

crowns, a ship and an anchor, and other devices. On the 
triumphal arch, near the pier, is inscribed, ' Scotland hails with 
joy her King.' " 

His Majesty, as we learn from the Edinburgh 
Observer of the 19th of August, lodged at Dalkeith 
Castle, holding his court at Holyrood House, the 
ancient palace of the Stewarts. 

A few days after his entry into the metropolis of 
the north, the king held a grand levee at Holyrood. 
About the throne were the Duke of Montrose, the 
Marquis of Conyngham, Lord Melville, Lord George 
Beresford, Lord Graves, Sir Edmund Nagle, Lord 
Charles Bentinck, Mr. Peel, Mr. Butler, and others. 
In the hall there was a great array of dukes, mar- 
quesses, barons, honourables, and right honourables, 
chieftains and lairds, civil and military officers, who 
had to enter the presence chamber, and to pass one 
by one before the Majesty of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and make his bow and his exit, an awful 
ceremony that was over, however, in a trice. 

Amongst the gentlemen who passed through this 
ordeal was Dr. Hibbert, who was presented, along 
with Dr. Abercrombie, by the Earl of Elgin. 

The Doctor's little son had been struck by his 
father's unusually fine appearance, as we have said, 
when he received the gold medal, for discovering the 
chromate of iron, from the hands of the Duke of 
Sussex ; but the sight of his father in a full court 
dress of solemn black knee-breeches, silk stockings, 
buckles on his knees and shoes, a black silk bag 
hanging from the nape of his neck, and a long rapier 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 303 

at his side produced a lasting effect on his youthful 
imagination. In speaking of the ceremony afterwards, 
Dr. Hibbert would often observe, with a laugh, that 
the hand which royalty presented to the Scottish 
lieges to kiss was, in size and shape, like a shoulder 
of small Highland mutton. 

Chivalrous and romantic as are the Highland 
chieftains and gentry, we cannot but fancy that, when 
they crowded into the spacious halls of their ancient 
kings to tender their homage to a monarch having 
only a mere driblet of British blood in his veins, his 
obese form (arrayed in a full suit of the Royal Stuart 
tartan) and his unintellectual countenance must have 
contrasted unfavourably, in their minds, with the 
picture handed down to posterity of the chivalrous, 
fair-haired prince, handsome in form and feature, and 
of a truly royal presence, who only seventy years 
before had for a few brief hours sojourned within 
those very halls. Surely more than one sigh must 
have been silently breathed to the memory of bonnie 
Prince Charlie. 

Princes Street, which at the hour of four had 
ever been on ordinary days the favourite lounge of 
dandies, officers, lawyers, young doctors, and the fair 
sex, all bent upon admiring themselves and each 
other, was now more than usually crowded with 
people, some loitering about, others hurrying, all 
expecting, at some time or other, to feast their eyes 
on the royal dandy of sixty. Amongst these loyal 
gentlemen, not the least conspicuous were sprinklings 
of the Royal Edinburgh Archers, equipped like so 



304 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

many Robin Hoods ; Celtic chiefs, kilted, and armed 
with dirk and claymore, their heads adorned with 
blue bonnets, out of which stuck the eagle's feather, 
that mark of rank. Even the black-coated, reverend 
minister of the kirk had caught the loyal enthusiasm, 
and mingled with the motley crowd. And last, but 
not least, might be seen the "Great Unknown," his 
tall figure towering above ordinary sized mortals (as 
the Ettrick Shepherd tells us), whilst, with a long and 
short leg, he limped quickly along, holding aloft his 
head, mirth and good humour appearing in his bright 
grey eyes, the observed of all observers, 

" Pulchrum est digito monstrari et dicier. Hk est /" 

Certainly, the king could not complain of any want 
of loyal enthusiasm in the reception accorded to him 
by his Scottish subjects, for he was greeted every- 
where in Auld Reekie with shouts of joy. Exuberant 
loyalty, indeed, blazed forth in every part of the city. 
All the tailor's and silk-mercer's shop-windows were 
filled with court dresses, cocked hats, small swords, 
tartans, ostrich feathers, tortoise-shell combs, silks, 
satins, diamonds, and jewellery. But to turn to a 
subject more grave. 

In the September of this year Dr. Hibbert went 
to Manchester ; and whilst here he received from his 
eldest son, whom he had left to keep house in Edin- 
burgh, the melancholy and important intelligence of 
the death of a companion of his Shetland travels. 
The letter written, boy-like, consists of little more 
than the following paragraph : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 305 

"I am sorry to inform you that Silly died on the 2d of 
October ; she was buried at the top of the garden." 

We may smile, perhaps, at the manner in which 
the intelligence was communicated, as though it had 
related to the death of a human being, and yet this 
poor dumb beast, with her wonderful sagacity, her 
affectionate nature, and her unbounded devotion to 
her master, was probably of far more aid and comfort 
to him in his lonely wanderings than many a human 
guide ; hence we need not wonder at the meed of 
sorrow accorded by Dr. Hibbert to the memory of 
his little white terrier when he heard of her death, 
He would often tell how, after having left her for 
hours to keep watch and ward over his coat and his 
minerals, gladness would sparkle in her eyes, when at 
last she saw him approach ; how she would bark, whirl 
round him, and spring upon him, when he cried out, 
" Poor Sill, poor Sill," as if his presence only were her 
greatest happiness in life ; and with what looks of 
thankfulness she would take her meal of sillocks, 
which she was so fond of, as they sat side by side in 
some solitary hut. 

During this visit to Manchester he took occasion 
to go to the small estate he possessed at Hale Barns, 
near Altrincham, in order to look over some improve- 
ments he had ordered to be made. When walking 
one day through the hamlet, he halted to see the boys 
of the school there at play. One amongst them im- 
mediately caught his eye. He was about twelve 
years of age, a fine, stout, healthy-looking lad, appar- 
ently of a lively and cheerful temper, and full of good 



306 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

nature. But these were not the qualities that at- 
tracted his attention. The lad was playing at marbles, 
and so skilfully and with such precision did he play, 
that he beat all his companions. It will excite the 
reader's surprise to learn that this adroit player had 
no hands and no forearms! His name was Mark 
Yarwood, and he was the son of poor but respectable 
parents. 

This boy's peculiar case induced Dr. Hibbert to 
investigate narrowly all the circumstances relating to 
him, and narrate them in detail in a paper which he 
read to the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh, and 
which was afterwards printed in their Transactions. 
The paper is entitled, "The Natural Expedients re- 
sorted to by Mark Yarwood, a Cheshire Boy, to supply 
the Want he has sustained from Birth, of his Forearms 
and Hands." 

Some minutiae respecting this boy, whom we will 
not call unfortunate, for he was of a most happy dis- 
position, and was often heard to say with pride, " I 
do not care for having no hands, I can do without 
them," may not be without interest to the reader. 

On each of the ossa humeri, wrote Dr. Hibbert, 
there were prominences which bore a faint resem- 
blance, in their appearance and situation, to those of 
the external condyles, whence two prolongations, one 
at the end of each arm, might be observed, which 
were slightly 'bent inwards ; neither of them, however, 
was much more than an inch in length, while that of 
the left limb was perhaps about a quarter of an inch 
longer than the one which terminated the right os 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 307 

humeri. As the bones of those prolongations felt as 
if they were bifid at their extremities, they might 
probably have been each considered as the scanty 
rudiments, or even relics, of an ulna and radius; 
while their firm and immovable junction with the 
ossa humeri might have been interpreted as the result 
of a process of anchylosis ; but Dr. Hibbert further 
remarked that there was not the least indication that 
a joint ever existed, nor were there any signs of 
demarcation between the ossa humeri and the short 
processes which formed their respective terminations. 
The length of the right arm was 7-f- inches, and the 
length of the left arm was 7J inches. The two small 
projections at the termination of the arms, by enabling 
the stumps to come into close junction, served, in 
some degree, as organs of prehension. At the abrupt 
termination of the prolongations of the stumps there 
were the same curved or waving configurations which 
distinguish the apices of fingers, so that the boy was 
gifted with as much sensibility and accuracy of touch 
as if he had had fingers. 

We will now narrate some instances of the use 
Mark Yarwood could make of his stumps ; and first, 
the loss of arms did not render him defenceless he 
could wield the stumps with activity, and hit a severe 
blow, as his school-fellows well knew. When he 
played at marbles, and he had the reputation of being 
the best player in the school, he took up the marble, 
and, with a conjunct motion of the muscles of the 
arms, seldom failed to hit the mark he aimed at. 
His ingenuity was ever on the alert in forming 



308 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

devices to do things which, in others, required the aid 
of fingers. If he wanted to thread a needle, he deli- 
cately pressed it between his stumps, lifted it up and 
stuck its point into the felt of a hat, so as to fix it 
steadily ; then he took the thread between the extre- 
mities of his stumps, rubbed it with them to make it 
taper to a point, and then easily insinuated it into the 
small eye of the needle. 

On some occasions, however, he had to avail him- 
self of the service of other organs of the body. To 
tie a common bow, for instance, every organ con- 
nected with the mouth was required lips, teeth, 
tongue. He would fix one extremity of the string, 
with which the knot was to be tied, between his teeth, 
and, by guidance and gentle pressure, that flexible 
member, the tongue; was made to perform the func- 
tions of a ringer ; then he would take one of the two 
extremities of the string with his stumps and pull the 
two ends of the string in opposite directions, while a 
synchronous and corresponding motion of the head 
and ossa humeri enabled him quickly to form a knot. 

In some operations the boy's chin was an organ of 
no small importance. If he wanted to stir the fire, he 
would press the poker between his stumps at about 
a middle distance from the end of it ; then he would 
press the head of it under his chin, when he would 
easily insert the point of the poker between the bars 
of the grate, and, his stumps acting as a moving 
power, he would stir the fire with as much agility as 
any one possessed of both hands could do. 

Mark Yarwood fed himself much on the same 



LIFE AND COKKESPONDENCE. 309 

principle : he passed the handle of his spoon a little 
way up between his arm and coat-sleeve, pressed it 
downwards with his left stump, and then plunged the 
spoon into the trencher and raised the food to his 
mouth. 

On other occasions the boy would call in the aid 
of his knees, closing them upon such substances as 
were larger than the teeth could secure ; and when 
with his ossa humeri he could not reach his feet, he 
enlisted the toes to do duty for the missing fingers. 
For instance, when Mark had to put on a stocking, 
before he could put in one foot he was obliged to open 
its orifice by means of the other, and then he drew on 
the stocking with his teeth. Fertile, however, as he 
was in expedients, he was not quite independent of 
the help of others ; for, in dressing himself, he could 
never button his clothes. 

With regard to education, Mark Yarwood could 
read, but, what was more surprising, he could write, 
which he had learned to do at the school of Hale 
Barns. The manner in which he performed that act 
was as follows : the paper was fixed to the table by 
a small weight, the lad then took up the pen with his 
teeth, which he lodged, in a proper position, on the 
soft integuments of the right stump, where he kept it 
by the pressure of the left one ; then, by a conjoined 
motion of both arms, but more particularly by the 
guidance of the left arm, he drew the pen easily along 
the paper, and wrote a surprisingly good hand. Not 
only could he write, however, but he could also mend 
a pen. The mode in which he performed pen-making 



310 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

was as follows : he placed the quill between his 
knees, the barrel upwards, then, with a knife held 
between his stumps, he cut off the end of the quill, 
and, forcing the blade between the barrel, made the 
slit ; next, he cut away portions from each side of the 
quill until a point was formed ; then, lastly, he placed 
the pen upon a flat surface of some hard substance, 
and snipped off the point. 

The late Mr. John Crampton of Hale Barns took 
great interest in the boy, and gave Dr. Hibbert much 
information about him. 

When Mark Yarwood had grown to manhood, he 
officiated, as we have been told, as clerk at Eingway 
Chapel-of-Ease ; and in course of time became a bene- 
dict, spite of his stumps, and died several years ago. 

This same year, 1822, Dr. Hibbert published, for 
private circulation, a thin quarto volume, entitled, 
Illustrations of the Customs of a Manor in the North 
of England during the 1 5th Century, with occasional 
remarks on their resemblance to the incidents of 
ancient Scottish Tenures. 

This dissertation had been read as a paper to the 
Society of Scottish Antiquaries, and was printed in 
their Transactions of 1822. The essay illustrates the 
state of manorial tenures in the north of England dur- 
ing the fifteenth century, and shows that many of the 
earlier feudal customs are very similar to those which 
formerly existed in Scotland, relics of which may be 
traced in the tenures of the present day. 

In the lord of the manor's book of Customs of 
Ashton is an ordinance settling the degree of preced- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 311 

ence to be observed among the wives and daughters 
of the tenants at will on the forms or seats in the 
parish church. As was the case until comparatively 
recent times in the Highlands, the lord had absolute 
power of life and death, and had strong dungeons and 
a " gallows field." This paper gives a curious picture 
of society in the fifteenth century, and on Dr. Hibbert 
presenting a copy of that essay and another tract to 
Sir Walter Scott he received the following acknow- 
ledgment from that illustrious novelist :. 

SIR I beg your acceptance of my best thanks for your 
curious antiquarian tracts, and for the pleasure I have received 
from perusing the procedure against the Shetland witch, which 
displays an ignorant and brutal degree of prejudice and supersti- 
tion, unmatched even in the .annals of witch-burning. The 
illustration of the Customs of a Manor are also highly interesting. 
I have an ancient MS. (of the fifteenth century) relating to a 
family called Hottol (?), who possessed some valuable lands in 
Cheshire, if I remember aright. I think you will have pleasure in 
seeing and examining it, and when I come to town in May I 
will be happy to communicate it to you. It is now in the hands 
of Mr. Thomas Thomson. I am, sir, your obliged humble 
servant, WALTER SCOTT. 

Abbotsford, Thursday. 

To Dr. Hibbert, care of Mr. D. Laing. 



312 SAMUEL HIBBEUT WARES 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 



Edinburgh breakfast parties W. C. Trevelyan Dr. Richardson, 
Franklin's companion Sale of the chromate of iron Thomas 
Edmondston and the chromate of iron Dr. Hibbert is made a 
Secretary of the Antiquarian Society Publication of the work 
on Apparitions. 

AT the date at which we have now arrived Dr. 
Hibbert's time ceased to be solely engrossed by his 
literary avocations, and we find him devoting some 
few hours of the day to lighter pursuits, and willingly 
entering into gay society. Probably his lonely state 
as a widower had been the cause of the numerous 
cards of invitation to breakfasts, dinners, and suppers 
which poured in upon him. Breakfast seems to have 
been a favourite meal, especially amongst literary 
men, to which to invite their friends ; at least if we 
may judge from the number of invitations which he 
received. 

His evenings were often, as in the days of his 
youth, spent at the theatre ; with this difference, 
however, that now he usually was one of a gay party 
of friends, and played the part of escort to some lady. 
In short, he was never allowed to feel lonely, and, 
doubtless, the tender hearts of his female acquaint- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 313 

ances were brimful of pity for the widower and his 
three motherless little children. 

Another great change had also come over him in 
these days : he who had been so slovenly and careless 
about his dress in years gone by, as to draw down a 
reproof from his mother, and the saucy insinuation 
from his brother Robert that his servant wore the 
better hat of the two, was now gaily and fashionably 
dressed so fashionably, that his boys admired his 
attire and wondered at the great change. A beau or 
dandy, as the term then was he certainly must have 
looked, as he sallied forth in an olive surtout and 
crimson velvet stock, a drab waistcoat (padded at the 
breast, and buttoned up to the throat with gilt buttons) 
called a Prussian waistcoat, and trousers, either of 
blue or drab colour, hollowed out at the instep to fit 
his Wellington boots, and fastened down under them 
by chains such as the horse-soldiers then wore. In 
an evening he dressed in better taste ; for he confined 
himself to a sober black suit, tights, shoes, and silk 
stockings. It is not recorded of him that he ever 
sported the then fashionable blue dresscoat with gilt 
buttons. We say dressed in better taste, because he 
never looked well save in black ; for he had no taste 
whatever in the choice or assortment of colours. 

Of course, parties had to be given in return for all 
these invitations, and many of the well-known literary 
men of the Modern Athens were to be seen at Dr. 
Hibbert's table. William Francis Ainsworth, Ph.D., 
the Eastern traveller, in a letter written not long ago 
to the editor of this memoir, says, that when a young 



314 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

student at the Edinburgh University, Dr. Hibbert 
showed him very kind attentions, and often invited 
him to his house ; and that he remembered dining in 
company with Jeffrey, Wilson (the Christopher North 
of the Nodes Ainbrosiance), Eobert Kay Greville, 
LL.D., a distinguished botanist, and many others. 
At that time Charles Darwin was a fellow-student of 
Dr. William Francis Ainsworth, and they often made 
little natural history tours together. Not long 
afterwards, the latter gentleman became one of the 
editors of the Edinburgh Journal of Natural and 
Geographical Science. 

The breakfast parties in Edinburgh must have 
been very pleasant and convivial reunions. At the 
party to which, as we see from the following note, 
Dr. Hibbert was asked by Dr. Greville, he made his 
first acquaintance with Mr. Trevelyan, who, after his 
father's death, became Sir Walter Calverley Trevelyan 
an acquaintance that ripened into a life-long friend- 
ship : 

"DEAR SIR," wrote Dr. Greville "I met with my friend 
Dr. Richardson, Captain Franklin's companion, to-night at 
Professor Jameson's, and he breakfasts with me to-morrow at 
nine o'clock ; if you can come in and join our party, you will 
also meet Mr. Trevelyan." 

Mr. Thomas Edmondston, to whom we have fre- 
quently adverted, appears at this time to have been 
profiting nicely by Dr. Hibbert's discovery of the 
chromate of iron ; for, in a letter dated 8th of March 
1823, Mr. William Henderson writes from Leith to 
the Doctor : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 315 

" Captain Simpson has bought ten tons of chromate of iron 
from Thomas Edmondston, but its destination is kept a profound 
secret. One consignment was lost in the Coldstream, but he has 
sent several others." 

We are now approaching the time when Dr. 
Hibbert published his second important work, namely, 
his Philosophy of Apparitions, a work which quickly 
passed through two editions, and has been frequently 
referred to both by scientific writers and authors of 
light literature. Amongst the latter we may mention 
the great master of fiction, Sir Walter Scott, in his 
Demonology and Witchcraft ; Bulwer Lytton, in his 
Strange Story ; and Samuel Warren, in his Diary of a 
Late Physician. 

The origin of this work on Apparitions may be 
traced to the following circumstance. The Doctor 
had himself been subject for some short time to very 
troublesome spectral illusions, probably occasioned by 
his hard work and close study when bringing out 
his book on the Shetland Isles. He afterwards 
embodied his reflections on these illusions in a series 
of papers which he read before the Royal Society. 

These papers attracted considerable notice at the 
time. 

The Edinburgh Literary Gazette for 1823, in 
reviewing a work entitled Ghost Stories, collected 
with a particular view to counteract the vulgar belief 
in ghosts, etc. [8vo. Ackerman, 101 Strand, London: 
1823], writes, after referring to the irony of the 
author : 



316 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" It is much easier, however, to ridicule the belief in ghosts 
than to convince persons that spirits never revisit the earth. 
Indeed, there are some cases with which we are acquainted that 
will baffle the metaphysical powers of every disciple of Locke to 
account for. The first story (in the work reviewed) is one which 
was related by Sir Walter Scott in his capacity of President to 
the Koyal Society on the night wherein Dr. Hibbert read one of 
his interesting papers on spectres, as reported in No. 6 of this 
Gazette. ' There were some stories,' said the learned President, 
' so well authenticated, that it was impossible for any mind open 
to conviction to disbelieve them.' " 

It was during the reading of these papers on 
spectres by Dr. Hibbert at the Royal Society that Sir 
Walter Scott jestingly asked him if he intended to 
favour the members with any specimens or illustra- 
tions. 

But to return to the reviewer of the Edinburgh 
Literary Gazette, who appears to coincide in the 
opinions of Sir Walter Scott : 

" We could narrate numerous instances of this nature firmly 
believed by the witnesses, who are men of strong mind and 
entirely free from all superstitious dread ; but we shall keep our 
stores in reserve till we have an opportunity of perusing Dr. 
Hibbert's forthcoming publication." 

The work on Apparitions appears, in the first 
instance, to have been placed in the hands of the 
publisher of the book on Shetland, Mr. Archibald 
Constable : 

" DEAR SIR," wrote that gentleman on the 28th of April 
1823, "I return you the two first sheets of your work on 
Apparitions, which will be interesting and curious ; but still, the 
sale must be very limited. We shall print 500 copies, pay all 
expenses of paper, advertising, etc., and divide the profits 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 317 

equally with you. Further editions to be on the same terms, 
should such be called for, as to which I am not sanguine." 

Probably some difference may have occurred be- 
tween the author and Mr. Constable, as nothing 
more concerning the publication of the work is to be 
found among the letters of the former, and the book 
appeared from the shop of another publisher. 

In the month of June of this year Dr. Hibbert 
bade farewell to his old Shetland friend Mr. William 
Henderson, who was then about to sail from Leith for 
Lerwick, to take up his residence on " the vile rock 
where he first drew breath," as he termed the island 
on which he was born. 

As soon as Mr. Henderson had arrived at the place 
of his self-styled banishment, he wrote one of his 
characteristic letters (dated 28th of June 1823), and at 
the same time, informed his friend that Mr. Thomas 
Edmondston persisted in making his extraordinary 
claim to the discovery of the chromate of iron : 

" In the old-fashioned school in which I was educated," says 
Mr. Henderson, " and among the old-fashioned people with 
whom I was brought up, it was reckoned dishonourable, and 
highly derogatory from the character of a gentleman, to break a 
promise or an appointment, however trifling the occasion might 
be ; and from long habit I have seldom, if ever, been guilty of a 
breach of this old-fashioned rule, now generally gone into 
desuetude. I therefore, agreeable to my promise, informed you 
by letter of the Fidelity's not sailing on Saturday last, and she 
did not depart till Monday at 2 o'clock P.M. Her accommoda- 
tions are excellent, but upwards of thirty passengers completely 
filled the cabins and state-room. An English clergyman and 
myself occupied the latter. The weather was fine; but on 
approaching the vile climate of ' Thule ' we encountered showers 



318 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of hail and torrents of rain. You have described me truly as a 
person who had moved in the polished society of the principal 
capitals of Europe. Of course I must have been accustomed not 
only to the conveniences, but even to some of the luxuries of 
life. It is therefore easier to conceive than to express the 
sensations produced in such a person by a climate and mode of 
living too severe for any one not formed with the coarse organs, 
and endowed with the obtuse feelings, of a Shetland fisherman. 
I enclose a letter from my nephew George, by which you will 
see that your friend Mr. Thomas Edmondston adheres to his 
claim of having discovered the chromate of iron in Unst. I 
shall expect a few lines from you by the first opportunity, with 
a copy of your essay on ghosts and hobgoblins. If it do not 
come soon, it is probable that this climate will have made a 
ghost of, my dear sir, yours most sincerely, 

" WILLIAM HENDERSON." 

We insert the following letter from a Shetland 
gentleman, as showing what the general opinion was 
as to who was the real discoverer of the chromate of 
iron in Shetland, apologising for having anticipated, 
by a few months, the date of the letter in placing it 
here : 

H.M. SHIP Britannia, 
DEVONPORT, 5th March 1824. 

DEAR SIR Since I joined this ship I have inquired respect- 
ing mineralogical specimens, and find that a considerable variety 
may be procured in Plymouth and in Devonport. Sir Alexander 
Cochrane, the Commander -in -Chief at this port, whose flag is 
now flying in this ship . . . was in Shetland many years 
since, and understanding that I was a native of it, he put many 
questions to me respecting its geology. In the course of con- 
versation I mentioned your discovery of the chromate of iron, 
and he expressed a desire to obtain some of it and of the other 
minerals which you collected there. I accordingly promised to 
write to you on the subject, and I request that you would do me 
the favour to send whatever you can spare, addressed to Admiral 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 319 

the Honourable Sir Alexander Inglis Cochrane, G.C.B., Com- 
mander-in-Chief at Plymouth. Yours very truly, 

JAMES SCOTT. 

Dr. Hibbert, Wharton Place, 
Edinburgh. 

Dr. Hibbert was now about to lose, for many long 
years, one much dearer to him than even his old friend 
William Henderson. In the spring of 1823 the 40th 
regiment received sudden orders to embark in detach- 
ments and sail with convicts to Van Diemen's Land. 
Captain George Hibbert, with his company, left the 
shores of England on the llth of August, and so 
hurried was his departure that he had not even time 
to bid farewell to his brother. 

Towards the end of this year the latter was elected 
one of the secretaries of the Society of Scottish 
Antiquaries, an office which he filled for several years. 
He had previously received a very flattering invitation 
from his friend Dr. Brewster to undertake it. That 
gentleman wrote to him in the following terms : 

Sunday. 

MY DEAR SIR I called upon you to-day to ask if you would 
accept the office of one of the secretaries of the Antiquarian 
Society, in case we shall have one of these offices to fill. Mr. 
Kinnear remains in office, but we are most anxious, and 
particularly Mr. Kinnear, to have as an associate a man of 
talents and of real antiquarian knowledge. The meeting of the 
Council is convened to consider of this, and I therefore beg that 
you will let me know your sentiments. The impulse which the 
Antiquarian Society will receive from its splendid accommoda- 
tion in the new buildings will give it a new character in 
Edinburgh. I am, my dear sir, ever most faithfully yours, 

DAVID BREWSTER. 
Dr. Hibbert, 7 Wharton Place. 



320 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

From the intimate relations subsisting between 
Doctor Brewster and Doctor Hibbert, the former often 
sent him his papers for perusal. In the case of the 
paper on the Eye, the philosopher wrote to his friend 
as follows : 

Sunday. 

MY DEAR SIR As I am going to print my paper on the 
Eye, you would oblige me if you could let me have it by the 
bearer. I am, my dear sir, yours truly, 

DAVID BREWSTER. 

Early in the year 1824 the book on Apparitions 
was published. It is entitled, " Sketches of the Phil- 
osophy of Apparitions ; or an attempt to trace such 
illusions to their physical causes. By Samuel Hibbert, 
M.D., F.R.S.E., Secretary to the Society of Scottish 
Antiquaries, etc. 

1' the name of truth 



Are ye fantastical, or that indeed 
Which outwardly ye show 1 MACBETH. 

[Edinburgh : Oliver and Boyd, and Gr. and W. Whit- 
taker, London, 1824.] 

The book is embellished by two wood engravings 
from drawings, very skilfully executed by the 
author's old friend, Captain Edward Jones, of two of 
the set of curious old oak panels in Hulme Hall (now 
demolished), near Manchester. One of these engrav- 
ings represents a " philosophic devil," as the author 
styled him, leering and grinning, with a sceptre in 
one hand, while with the fore finger of the other hand 
he gives emphasis to his argument ; the other engrav- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 321 

ing depicts a human figure grasping the opened jaws 
of two intertwined monsters. 

The following extract from the author's preface 
will give the reader some insight into the scope of 
the book : 

" In the first place, a general view is given of the particular 
morbid affections with which the production of phantasms is 
often connected. Apparitions are likewise considered as nothing 
more than ideas, or the recollected images of the mind, which 
have been rendered more vivid than actual impressions. In a 
second part of this work my object has been to point out that, 
in well authenticated ghost stories of a supposed supernatural 
character, the ideas which are rendered so unduly intense as to 
induce spectral illusions, may be traced to such fantastical objects 
of prior belief as are incorporated in the various systems of 
superstition, which for ages have possessed the minds of the 
vulgar. In the succeeding and far most considerable part of 
this treatise the research is of a novel kind. Since apparitions 
are ideas equalling or exceeding in vividness actual impressions, 
there ought to be some important and definite laws of the mind 
which have given rise to this undue degree of vividness. It is 
chiefly, therefore, for the purpose of explaining such laws, that 
this classification is written. The last object was, to have estab- 
lished that all the subordinate incidents connected with phantasms 
might be explained on the following general principle : that in 
every undue excitement of our feelings (as, for instance, when 
ideas become more vivid than actual impressions), the operations 
of the intellectual faculty of the mind sustain corresponding 
modifications, by which the efforts of the judgment are rendered 
proportionally incorrect. The illustrations which appear in the 
course of this work are not more numerous than the treatise 
requires ; my object being, not only to render the principle that 
I have inculcated as intelligible as possible, but to direct the 
attention of the reader less to the vulgar absurdities which are 
blended with ghost stories, than to the important philosophical 
inferences that are frequently to be deduced from them. The 

Y 



322 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

subject of apparitions has indeed for centuries occupied the 
attention of the learned, but seldom without reference to super- 
stitious speculations. It is time, however, that these illusions 
should be viewed in a perfectly different light ; for, if the con- 
clusions to which I have arrived be correct, they are calculated, 
more than almost every other class of mental phenomena, to throw 
considerable light upon certain important laws connected with 
the physiology of the human mind." 

The general scope of the Philosophy of Apparitions 
may be gathered from the following amusing dialogue 
from the Noctes Ambrosiance, which appeared in 
Blackwood's Magazine : 

" North. By the way, James, that Ode to the Devil of yours 
makes me ask you, if you have seen Dr. Hibbert's book on 
Apparitions ? 

" Shepherd. Ghosts ? No. Is't gude ? 

" North. Excellent The Doctor first gives a general view of 
the particular morbid affections with which the production of 
phantoms is often connected. 

" Sheplierd. What the blude and stomach ? 

" North. Just so, James. Apparitions are likewise con- 
sidered by him as nothing more than ideas, or the recollected 
images of the mind, which have been rendered more vivid than 
actual impressions. 

"Shepherd. Does the Doctor daur to say that there are nae real 
ghosts ? If sae, he needna come out to Ettrick. I've heard that 
failosophers say there is nae satisfactory evidence of the existence 
of flesh-and-blude men, but o' the existence o' ghosts and 
fairies I never heard before that the proof was counted defective. 
I've seen scores o' them, baith drunk and sober. 

" North. Well, Hogg versus Hibbert. Sam very ingeniously 
points out that, in well authenticated ghost stories, of a supposed 
supernatural character, the ideas which are rendered so unduly 
intense as to induce spectral illusions may be traced to such 
fantastic agents of prior belief, as are incorporated in the various 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 323 

systems of superstition, which for ages possessed the minds of 
the vulgar. 

" Shepherd. There may be some sense in that after a'. What 
mair does the Doctor say ? 

" North. Why, James, my friend Hibbert is something of a 
metaphysician, although he puts his faith too slavishly on some 
peculiar dogmas of the late Dr. Brown. 

" Shepherd. Metafeesics are ae thing, and poetry anither ; 
but Dr. Brown was a desperate bad poet, Mr. North, and it 
would tak some trouble to convince me that he knew muckle 
about human nature, either the quick or the dead. 

" North. James, you are mistaken. However, my friend 
Hibbert well observes that, since apparitions are ideas equalling 
or exceeding in vividness actual impressions, there ought to be 
some important and definite laws of the mind which have given 
rise to this undue degree of violence. These he undertakes to 
explain, and he does so with the qualification I mention 
ingeniously and even satisfactorily. 

" Shepherd. That's a' thegither aboon my capacity. What 
would become o' the Doctor's theory, if he had ever sleepit a 
nicht, three in a bed, wi' twa ghosts, as I have done ? They 
were baith o' them a confounded deal mair vivid than ony by- 
gone actual impressions, or sensations, or ideas, or ony ither 
words o' that outlandish lingua. Can an idea nip a man's thees 
black and blue, and rug out a handfu' o' hair out o' the head o' 
him ! Naither Dr. Brown nor Dr. Hibbert will gar me believe 
onything sae unwiselike. 

"North. The last object, James, of the Doctor's ingenious 
dissertation was to have established this : that all the subordinate 
incidents connected with phantoms might be explained on the 
following general principle; that in every undue excitement of 
our feelings (as, for instance, when ideas become more vivid than 
impressions), the operations of the intellectual faculty of the mind 
sustain corresponding modifications, by which the efforts of the 
judgment are rendered proportionably incorrect. 

" Shepherd. And does Dr. Hibbert make that weel out ? 

" North. No. He very truly and prudently observes that 



324 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

an object of this nature cannot be attempted but in connection 
with almost all the phenomena of the human mind. To pursue the 
inquiry, therefore, any farther, would be to make a dissertation 
on apparitions the absurd vehicle of a regular system of meta- 
physics. 

" Shepherd. That would be maist ridiculous, indeed. Neither 
could the Doctor, honest man, hope to accomplish such a task 
before he was an apparition himself." 

It might have been some satisfaction to the worthy 
Ettrick Shepherd could he have known, what there 
are some little grounds for suspecting, that though 
the Doctor could write so philosophically against the 
belief in apparitions, he was himself not entirely proof 
against superstition, for instance, he never liked to 
see a winding-sheet on a candle point towards him ; 
and he occasionally showed other similar little weak- 
nesses, which, perhaps, he had inherited from his 
mother, who, he used to say, " was terribly super- 
stitious." 

An amusing incident occurred to him not long 
after the publication of this last work, whilst travel- 
ling in the mail from Manchester to Edinburgh. The 
sole inside passenger, besides himself, was a lady, 
with whom he soon engaged in conversation. Amongst 
other topics, when they neared Edinburgh, the dis- 
course chanced to turn on the work on Apparitions ; 
the lady, of course unaware who was her fellow-travel- 
ler, rated the author soundly in a flow of feminine 
eloquence for his disbelief in ghosts, asserting, at the 
same time, her firm impression that he was no better 
than an infidel. 

The Doctor, in reply, told her with great com- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 325 

posure, that he had himself read the book very care- 
fully ; and he explained the parts to which she had 
objected, so much to her satisfaction, that she modified 
her opinion of the author materially, and was so well 
pleased with the explanations her fellow-traveller had 
given of the work, that when they parted, on the 
coach arriving at Edinburgh, she asked the favour of 
his name. 

We can imagine the quiet smile on the face of the 
much abused author, and the unbounded confusion 
and astonishment of the lady, when he replied 
" Dr. Hibbert, ma'am." 



326 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XL. 

Royal Institution, Manchester Old carved oak panels at Hulme 
Hall Geological lectures in Manchester Vitrified Forts in 
Scotland Constable and " cheap literature " Professor Buck- 
land Dr. Hibbert elected a member of the Geological Society of 
London The Edinburgh Journal of Science. 

IN 1824 the plan of a Royal Institution in Man- 
chester had been settled for the promotion of literature, 
science, etc., and a site for the building had been 
bought in Mosley Street. Dr. Hibbert had, a short 
time previously, suggested to the trustees of the 
Institution to purchase the very curious old carved 
oak panels at Hulme Hall, near Manchester, and Mr. 
George Frederick Bury, their solicitor, wrote to him 
in the following terms ; but we will first premise that 
the " Duke Bradshaw " in his letter was the agent of 
the Duke of Bridgewater, and was probably so styled 
from the fact of his being as great a man as his 
master : 

"DEAR SIR," wrote Mr. Bury, on the 10th of March, " I 
have delayed answering your very kind note, in the expectation 
of hearing that the purchase you recommended had been made. 
I gave some hope to Mr. G. W. Wood, who with Mr. Gilbert 
Winter and several other gentlemen is now in London on public 
business connected with the town. Hulme Hall belongs to the 
Duke of Bridgewater's trustees, and as the business I alluded 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 327 

to in London will lead to much intercourse with ' Duke Brad- 
shawj it was thought a good opportunity of obtaining these 
valuables for the institution. The committee, to whom I com- 
municated the contents of your note, were much gratified that 
you should have thought of them." 

As Hulme Hall was so fine a specimen of a half- 
timbered mansion of the fifteenth century, we do not 
hesitate to give some account of it, taken from rough 
MS. notes found among the papers of the late Dr. 
Hibbert Ware, and which Mr. J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., 
editor of that interesting periodical the Palatine 
Note-Book, arranged and published therein. The 
hall, which stood on a low, rocky, and somewhat 
abrupt sandstone cliff on the banks of the Irwell, 
about two miles from Manchester, presented an array 
of picturesque, irregular buildings. One of its gable 
ends contained oriel windows, with a projecting story 
above. In the entrance porch there was a staircase 
of large dimensions and massy appearance, made of 
oak, which age had turned to a dark-brown or black 
colour. This mansion belonged to the Prestwiches, 
afterwards baronets, one of the most ancient families 
of Lancashire, who, in the reign of the unfortunate 
Charles, joined the Koyal standard and lost much of 
their property. Impoverished in their fortunes, the 
Prestwiches were compelled to sell their estates in 
the reign of William III., of which the Mosleys, de- 
scendants of a wealthy London merchant, became the 
purchasers. The estate eventually came into the 
possession of the late Duke of Bridgewater, by whom 
the fine old pile of buildings, so long an ornament to 



328 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

the county, was subdivided into thirty or forty distinct 
habitations for poor families, and eventually razed to 
the ground. 

The discovery of the curious old oak panels, to 
which allusion was made by Mr. Bury in the fore- 
going letter, is thus mentioned in the MS. notes of 
Dr. Hibbert Ware : 

" One of these tenements, formed from some of the best 
apartments, was let out for country lodgings. In visiting a 
gentleman who occupied them two years ago, I discovered to my 
surprise, on the panels of the room, a profusion of wooden carvings 
evidently executed by the hand of a master. As I was obliged 
to leave this part of the country soon afterwards, I requested an 
antiquarian friend (Captain Jones) to delineate for me one of the 
carvings, which represented the costume of an English bagpiper 
a character certainly contemporaneous with, if not anterior in 
date to, the Scottish bagpiper. Captain Jones has since trans- 
mitted other drawings of the sculptures, which in his name I 
now offer to the Society (of Scottish Antiquaries). Most of the 
figures on the panels represent the domestic fools of the sixteenth 
century. One of the state-rooms in Hulme Hall is full of them, 
as is indicated by their peculiar dress. The next subject of the 
carvings relates to the ancient Mystery Plays of Britain, as is to 
be inferred from the figures of the devil, and one which we may 
presume to represent Adam and Eve. There is again, in one 
compartment of the room, the figures of wrestlers." 

These notes were fragments of a paper on the 
" English Bagpiper," which Dr. Hibbert read to the 
Society of Scottish Antiquaries. 

When he showed the spirited drawings made by 
Captain Edward Jones of these panels to Sir Walter 
Scott, the great novelist was struck with admiration 
of them, and pronounced the sculptures to be German 
productions, conceiving them to possess a merit be- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 329 

yond the power of English artists of the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century. 

On the demolition of Hulme Hall, these panels, 
numbering about forty, were transferred to Worsley 
Hall, the property of the Duke of Bridgewater. 

We may here notice, en passant, that the writer 
of the last letter, Mr. George Frederick Bury, was 
a son of Mr. John Bury, an eminent timber merchant 
in Salford in the last century, and a cousin of Mr. 
Joseph Jordan. Mr. G-. F. Bury was unfortunately 
killed by the overturning of the mail-coach to London, 
about the year 1828. 

Notwithstanding his multifarious literary engage- 
ments in Edinburgh, Dr. Hibbert had never forgotten 
the town of his nativity, nor its Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, where he had in his younger days 
passed so many pleasant hours. In the spring of this 
year, 1824, at the invitation of the Society, he de- 
livered a course of lectures on geology, illustrated by 
the exhibition of a large collection of minerals and 
fossils, made by himself. These lectures originated 
from a paper, " On some Fossil Bones lately found 
near Whitby," which had been communicated by him 
in 1823 to the Society. Probably it was when the 1st 
Lancashires were quartered in Yorkshire that he had 
visited Whitby. 

But about this time, or very soon afterwards, a 
matter of much deeper interest than geology began to 
occupy his thoughts ; and we will therefore here 
insert a gossiping letter from the wife of his brother, 
Kobert Hibbert, containing the first mention of 



330 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

a lady who will soon frequently appear in this 
memoir : 

"Mv DEAR BROTHER," wrote Mrs. Robert from Douglas in 
the Isle of Man on the 7th of April 1824, " We have had an 
extremely gay winter regular balls and plays twice a month, 
exclusive of private fancy dress balls, and a very splendid public 
one, held in the rooms at Dixon's Hotel. It went off with great 
spirit, many of the characters changing their costumes several 
times in the course of the evening, which was concluded by an 
elegant supper. The party was numerous and very select. Six 
stewards were appointed, who were responsible for the persons 
to whom they gave the tickets. In theatricals Robert is quite a 
star, I assure you, and brings down thunders of applause. As 
Sir Robert Bramble he was most excellent. The Duke of Atholl 
declared he had frequently seen it played in London by the best 
actors, but decidedly not better than by Mr. Hibbert. To say 
that Robert is a star amongst an indifferent set of performers 
would be nothing; but they are really many of them very 
superior, and as a body I should think it impossible to find a 
better set of gentlemen amateur performers. The theatre is to 
be kept open all summer, so I trust you will have an opportunity 
of judging for yourself. A lady, a particular friend of Dr. 
M'Culloch's, and a friend and favourite of ours, a very clever 
woman, has just been reading your work on Shetland, which she 
borrowed from us, and is quite delighted with it. She has 
studied geology, and found much information on that head in 
your book, and was particularly interested in the history of the 
Udallers. The lady I speak of, my dear brother, is a widow ! 
Give my kind love to the children, to whom Emma also begs 1 
will give hers." 

Gifted with the most versatile talent, Robert 
Hibbert was a fine singer as well as actor, and in the 
latter capacity, his impersonations of old gentlemen, 
such as Robert Bramble, Sir George Thunder, Sir 
Abel Handy, and others, would not have disgraced a 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 331 

London stage. Dr. Hibbert always averred that his 
gay scapegrace brother, who was a clever mimic, took 
his own father as his model for old gentlemen. 

Among his archaeological contributions to the 
Antiquarian Society were papers on the theories 
relating to Vitrified Forts a question of great diffi- 
culty, and one on which the most conflicting opinions 
were held. 

Sir George Mackenzie of Coul was also greatly 
interested in these forts, upon which he had written 
some very learned disquisitions. The baronet and the 
Doctor had made excursions together in different 
parts of the Highlands to investigate these remains. 

Writing to the latter on the 19th of April 1824, 
Sir George says : 

" I hasten to thank you for your kind attention in sending 
me a copy of your work on Apparitions. I can never think of 
your visit here without lamenting its shortness ; but I hope you 
will again appear in these regions and challenge me to go a 
campaign to Duncreich (?) with pick and spade. That you are 
more and more puzzled about the origin of the vitrified forts 
does not surprise me j but the want of tradition respecting them 
is not wonderful when we consider that on the west coast of the 
country there are distinct remains of an iron foundry. My 
family join in offering you their best compliments, and I am, 
dear sir, faithfully yours, G. MACKENZIE. 

P. S. I hope you got the vitrified specimen, with the char- 
coal in it, which was sent to Dr. Brewster's care." 

Replying to Sir George, Dr. Hibbert writes : 

" It was certainly my intention to have published a work on 
Vitrified Forts, having seen now about twelve or fourteen of 
them ; it is probable I may defer it till next summer. There are 



332 SAMUEL H1BBERT WARE'S 

no antiquities that are involved in greater mystery in regard to 
their origin, or the exploration of which is attended with greater 
difficulties. I, however, think I have got a clue regarding them, 
and a friend of mine in the Highlands is pursuing an examination 
suggested by me." 

It was in one of his rambles in search of these 
forts that the leather pockets of the Doctor's geolo- 
gising coat burst from the weight of stones put in them. 
Coming one day to a small village, he sought out a 
tailor, whom he found in the person of a worthy 
Quaker. The good man took the coat, subjected the 
pockets to a lengthy examination, shook his head, 
and pondered with an air of great gravity for a few 
moments ; and finally riveting his eyes, with looks 
full of doubt and unmistakable suspicion, on the 
Doctor's battered hat and mud-bespattered clothes, he 
said, with an air of pitying reproof : " Friend, I will 
mend thee thy coat, but I fear these pockets are for 
no good." 

The shabby clothes and battered hat of Dr. 
Hibbert had once been the cause of his being taken 
for a smuggler, afterwards for a horse-poisoner, and 
on this occasion we see him more than suspected of 
being a poacher. 

Since early spring he had been in Manchester, 
reading the course of geological lectures to which we 
before alluded. Absorbed as he then was in scientific 
pursuits, and also in a pursuit of a more interesting 
nature, which had commenced when on a visit to his 
brother Robert, he seems to have concerned himself 
little with the details of everyday life ; but his son, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 333 

child as he was, whom he had left in Edinburgh, 
understood the want of money, and was compelled to 
make this want known to his oblivious father. 

It is often the case that the author or man of 
science becomes so engrossed in his literary labours 
that, almost unconsciously, he leaves house and family 
to take care of themselves. Fortunately for the little 
Hibberts, they had a constant and watchful friend in 
Mr. David Laing, who seldom let a day pass without 
calling to see how they were getting on during the 
many months of their father's absence. 

Poor old Mr. Henderson had once been equally 
mindful of the little ones on the like occasions ; but 
now, though he had again returned from "the vile 
rock on which he first drew breath " to Scotland, he 
was too ill to leave his apartments in Leith. 

We insert the little boy's pathetic appeal for 
money, and also a still more pathetic appeal, on 
behalf of himself and his sister, for apparel, which 
it appears they were not so regardless of as their 
father was. 

" DEAR FATHER," wrote the boy to his oblivious parent, " I 
have put off writing to you, expecting a letter every day. But 
now I feel obliged to write, as we have no money these ten days. 
If you would be so kind as to send us a few pounds. 

" Dear father, I write to let you know that I am surprised 
that you have never wrote to us; but I will excuse you, as I hear 
you are so much engaged, as Miss Ainsworth has just called and 
told us she has come from your lectures. Dear father, if you 
will be so kind as write me a few lines to let me know if I may 
have a pair of nankeen trousers and a striped waistcoat and blue 
coat; if not, any colour you please. And Sarah wishes to know 



334 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

also, if she may have a silk spencer, and a silk crown to her 
Leghorn bonnet, as she looks very shabby in her beaver hat on 
Sunday, as all the girls are well dressed in our church, and also 
Miss Ainsworth sits in the seat with us. Be so good as tell 
William that Sego was lost, and came back last week with a 
collar round his neck." 

To his great sorrow, whilst in Manchester, Dr. 
Hibbert received the following notification of the 
death of his old friend, the hermit of Roeness-hill : 

LEITH, 14th July 1824. 

SIR The favour of your company is requested to attend 
the funeral of my uncle, William Henderson of Bardister, from 
his lodgings at Mr. Humbles', head of Broad Wynd, to the place 
of interment, South Leith Churchyard, at two o'clock on Saturday 
forenoon next. I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

ROBERT R HENDERSON. 

The reader may perhaps remember that poor old 
Mr. Henderson, in one of his last letters to his friend 
Dr. Hibbert, said, "In the old-fashioned school in 
which I was educated, and among the old-fashioned 
people with whom I was brought up, it was reckoned 
dishonourable, and highly derogatory from the char- 
acter of a gentleman, to break a promise or an appoint- 
ment." Nevertheless, the punctilious old gentleman 
did break his promise at last ! 

In one of the discussions between the two friends 
on the subject of apparitions, Mr. William Henderson, 
who was probably a true believer, solemnly promised 
to appear to the Doctor after death I Now, Mr. 
Henderson had always been in the habit of paying 
almost daily visits to his friend, walking all the way 
from Leith, which was distant a mile and a half. As 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 335 

this was a somewhat tiring walk for him, he always 
halted to rest at the house of an old lady who lived 
half way between Leith and Edinburgh. One day 
Dr. Hibbert had been to see Mr. Henderson, who was 
then very ill, and on his way back he also called on 
this old lady ; and, when speaking of their sick friend, 
casually mentioned the promise the latter had made 
to put in an appearance after his death. " Oh, the 
Lord be gude unto us ! " exclaimed the old lady, in 
the greatest consternation. " What could you hae 
been thinking of, Doctor, to make sic an agreement 
as that ? You ken he has always called on me on his 
way to your house. Lord ! his ghaist will be sure 
to come to me first ! " 

Mr. Archibald Constable, the enterprising book- 
seller and publisher, then of the High Street in Edin- 
burgh, was the first to project " cheap literature," and 
carry it out on a large scale. The idea was quite his 
own, and his object was to supply a want of the age, 
and give to those who could not afford to buy books 
as they were originally published, the same works in 
his small but moderate-priced little volumes. We 
allude to the series of works called Constable's 
Miscellany, which made its appearance soon after 
this time. The following work, to which Dr. Greville 
alludes, was much of the same class, but whether it 
ever came into existence we are not aware. That 
gentleman writes to Dr. Hibbert : 

EDINBURGH, July 18th, 1824. 

MY DEAR SIR Since you left Edinburgh I have engaged 
with Constable to edit a sort of elementary encyclopaedia, to be 



336 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

completed in 4 volumes, 8vo, of 600 pages each. We meant to 
make a peculiarly handsome book, and such a one as may be 
freely perused by females as well as males. It is not to be a 
young book, and not a very deep book. Important subjects are 
to be treated in as popular a manner as they will admit of. Sir 
Walter Scott and Jeffrey have already promised to write for it, 
and so has Miss Edgeworth. Fyfe is engaged for the chemical 
department, our friend Neill for articles in his own line. Now, 
my dear friend, you must have perceived whither I am tending ; 
to come to the point at once, I consider your name of the highest 
importance, because you are a moral as well as a scientific writer, 
and have made a noise in the world in a different manner to 
the drummer in the old story ! There are various articles which 
you would do better than any one I know, and for which I should 
stand highly indebted such as Antiquities Apparitions 
Cairns Castles Celts Curfew Dance Divination Dreams 
Feudal System Vitrified Forts Grants Goths . . . Animal 
Magnetism Sleep - Walkers Rocking - Stones Superstition 
Witchcraft. Many of these must be short articles, and the whole, 
from the nature of the work, treated so much in outline, as it 
were, that it would give you, whom I know to be at home in 
most of them, little trouble. Would you oblige me by taking 
the thing into consideration ? 

Our friend Brewster, you will perceive, has got the weaker 
side in Court about the journal. This has not sold well, but I 
suspect the sale will increase of the Philosophical Journal. I 
remain, my dear sir, ever yours with regard, 

ROBT. KAY GREVILLE. 
To Dr. Hibbert, 
At Mr. Gotland's, 

Manchester. 

During the summer of this year Dr. Hibbert was 
frequently travelling between Manchester and the Isle 
of Man, professedly to see his brother Robert. We 
will, however, only remark that at that time he was, 
more than was ordinarily his wont, particular about 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 337 

his attire. Was this out of deference to the feelings 
of his brother, who, as the reader may remember, 
had once told him that his man wore a better hat 
than he ? 

It may surprise the cheap-trippers to that island 
nowadays to learn that visitors were obliged to obtain 
a permit. This document ran as follows : 

" Permit the bearer hereof, Mr. Hibbert, to pass for England 
upon his lawful occasions, without lett, stop, or hindrance, he 
behaving himself as behoves all liege people, and departing this 
isle within one month from the date hereof. 

" Given at Castle Rushen, this 19th day of September, 

C. SMELT." 

On his return to Edinburgh in the month of 
October, the Doctor received a letter from Mr. George 
Anderson of Inverness, the friend in the Highlands 
to whom he had alluded in his letter to Sir George 
Mackenzie on Vitrified Forts, and who had given him 
much valuable assistance in searching for them, 
particularly in the neighbourhood of Inverness. 

"DEAR SIR," wrote the young Highlander on the 15th 
October 1824, " Dr. Macculloch's new book I presume you have 
of course seen, and I need only say that his severity has roused 
the wrath of all Highlanders who have seen it, but though the 
lash is sharp at present, I have no doubt his strictures will 
produce as much good as those of Dr. Johnson. One particular 
you may perceive from the public prints, that Sir George 
Mackenzie is already in a flame in defence of his views on 
Vitrified Forts, which the Doctor used very unceremoniously, and 
this is perhaps the very point which we all wish to obtain, as it 
will have the effect of again bringing the subject under discussion. 
Macculloch is dreadfully severe against the supporters of all the 
theories which have yet been started on this subject, and if he 

Z 



338 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

has frightened the Antiquaries from the field, he has, at least, the 
merit of declaring that the solution of the question entirely rests 
with the Geologists and Chemists. I trust the boys and Miss 
Sarah are quite well. I hope they have not forgotten the High- 
lander, who used to intrude on them with so little ceremony. 
With every wish for their prosperity, and for your own health 
and happiness, I remain, my dear sir, with the greatest respect, 
yours very affectionately." 

Mr. George Anderson, the writer of the preceding 
letter, some years afterwards, along with his brother 
Peter, published a very valuable guide to the High- 
lands, in which Dr. Hibbert had, up to the time of its 
coming out, felt very great interest. The work bears 
the following title : " Guide to the Highlands and 
Islands of Scotland, including Orkney and Zetland ; 
Descriptive of their Scenery, Statistics, Antiquities, 
and Natural History, by George Anderson, General 
Secretary to the Northern Institution for the Promo- 
tion of Science and Literature ; and Peter Anderson, 
Secretary to the Inverness Society for the Education 
of the Poor in the Highlands." It was published by 
John Murray, London, 1834. 

The authors, in their preface, return their grateful 
acknowledgments to their scientific friends, and 
particularly to Drs. Hibbert and Hooker, and 
Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq., and the Rev. 
George Gordon of Birnie. 

Dr. Macculloch's book, The Highlands and Western 
Isles of Scotland, in four volumes, published in 1824, 
to which Mr. George Anderson refers, had, indeed, 
roused the wrath of all Highlanders to such a pitch 
that Dr. Hibbert often laughingly said the insulted 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 339 

Celts swore that if the offender should ever show his 
face in the country again, they would toss him in a 
blanket ! 

Dr. Macculloch must surely have been at times very 
much troubled with indigestion whilst in the High- 
lands, for nothing seems to have pleased him ; and his 
condemnations are so wholesale as to cause us either to 
attribute his sweeping criticisms to a temper soured 
by dyspepsia, or to a determination, right or wrong, 
to find fault with everything and every one, and to 
abuse those who had lavished their hospitality upon 
him. 

Dr. Hibbert was now occupied again in his scientific 
and literary pursuits. 

In the month of December of this year he was 
elected a member of the Geological Society of London. 
But during his very long visit to Manchester in the 
previous summer he had not been idle, for he had 
been carefully investigating the geological structure 
in the neighbourhood of that town ; and, as the result 
of his labours, he contributed an article " On the 
Dispersion of Stony Fragments remote from their 
Native Beds, as displayed in a Stratum of Loam, near 
Manchester," which was printed in volume ii. of Dr. 
Brewster's Edinburgh Journal of Science. This 
stratum or deposit of loam, wrote Dr. Hibbert, was 
found near Strangeways Hall, and shelved from north 
to south, being interrupted by the cliffs of red sand- 
stone at the confluence of the rivers Irk and Irwell, 
and was deserving of notice from the fact, that while 
the rocks there consist of newer red sandstone or red 



340 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

marl, many of the fragments of rock in the loam be- 
longed to the primitive or transition class of formation, 
as granite, trap, greenstone, and he thought that 
an overwhelming force of water had transported them 
from the places whence they were originally detached. 
The above article had been read at the Koyal Society. 

De la Beche in his Geological Manual, 1831, p. 
162, treating on erratic blocks and a transporting 
power by water, observes that Dr. Hibbert had found 
fragments of rocks in Shetland, which must have 
travelled twelve miles. 

At the same meeting of the Royal Society, at which 
the foregoing paper on the dispersion of stony frag- 
ments was read, Dr. Brewster read a paper on " Certain 
new phenomena of vision which seem to confirm Dr. 
Hibbert's theory of mental spectrum." 

In vol. i., for 1824, of that journal the latter 
contributed an article on " The passage of Basalt into 
Granite." Mr. Henry De la Beche, in the chapter on 
Unstratified Rocks, in his Geological Manual, p. 
471, after observing that these rocks so pass into one 
another, that distinctions are not easily established 
between them, remarks in a note, that Dr. Hibbert 
notices the passage of granite into one of those com- 
pounds, namely basalt, in this case formed of an 
intimate mixture of hornblende with a small propor- 
tion of felspar, as taking place in the Shetland Islands. 
In the same volume i. of the Journal of Science, Dr. 
Hibbert contributed a short memoir, entitled, " Re- 
marks suggested by the resemblance which certain 
ancient stone axes, found in Orkney and Shetland, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 341 

bear to those which have been found near the 
Humber." He had brought two or three of these 
weapons from Shetland, and he considered that they 
had long been improperly described under the name 
of Celts. 

He thought that the stone axes were either 
Scandinavian or Saxon implements of war, and that 
the expression stone axes was originally staimbart, a 
compound of stein, a stone, and barte, an axe, and 
that different kinds of them had been found also in 
England, near the Humber, in Lincolnshire and in 
Warwickshire, while one is described by Whittaker in 
his History of Manchester. 



342 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



CHAPTER XLL 

Dr. Hibbert's second marriage Vitrified Forts He becomes one of the 
editors of the Medical Journal Antiquarian Society dinners 
Sir Walter Scott and the black-jack The fossil elk Concretions 
at Alderley Edge Second edition of the book on Apparitions 
Phrenology and Sir George Mackenzie and Sir William Hamilton. 

" AT Douglas, Isle of Man, on the 8th instant, 
Samuel Hibbert, Esq., M.D., of Edinburgh, to Mrs. 
Scott, daughter of the late Lord Henry Murray and 
niece of the Duke of Atholl." 

The above announcement appeared in the Edin- 
burgh Independent, the Manchester Advertiser, and 
Manchester Guardian in the month of January 1825. 

Immediately after their marriage Dr. and Mrs. 
Hibbert proceeded to England, and after a few days' 
sojourn in Manchester went on to Edinburgh. 

So soon as they had become fairly settled at home, 
the Doctor resumed his literary labours with, if 
possible, greater zest than before ; for he found in 
Mrs. Hibbert a zealous participator and invaluable 
assistant in his toils. 

A letter from one of his Shetland friends had been 
awaiting his arrival, on the all-important subject of 
chromate of iron ; for the Shetlanders still continued 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 343 

to apply to him, whom they ever considered as a 
benefactor to their country, for information. 

" DEAR SIR," wrote Mr. W. Spence from Lerwick on the 2d of 
January 1825, " I intend to try on a small scale the manufacture 
of some of the salts of chrome ; and as an acquaintance I take 
the liberty of requesting of you, to whom this country is already 
so much indebted, any information you possess on the following 
points : 

"Will crude nitre (?) answer in forming the chromate of potass 1 
Does the chromate of iron require to be very finely pounded, 
and free from all earthy matters ? What are the most approved 
proportions for employing the nitre (?) and chromate of iron, in 
order not to waste too much of the latter ? 

" I have already experimented on chromate of iron, and might 
in time ascertain the best mode of performing all the operations ; 
but I would rather take the short road, if possible." 

On the 10th of March of this year Dr. Hibbert 
was elected an ordinary member of the Caledonian 
and Horticultural Society ; and on the following day 
Mr. George Anderson wrote from Inverness to ask 
him if he would become an ordinary member of the 
Northern Scientific and Literary Institution, which 
had just been inaugurated, and many of whose 
members took so lively an interest in the question of 
the Vitrified Forts. 

Vitrified Forts still continued to excite the interest 
of Scottish antiquaries, and on the 28th of March 
1825 Dr. Hibbert read before the Antiquarian Society 
a paper entitled " Observations on the Theories which 
have been proposed to explain the Vitrified Forts of 
Scotland." In this paper, which was printed in the 
Transactions of the Society, the author defines a 



344 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Vitrified Fort to be " an area of ground, often of a 
round or elliptical form, and evidently selected for 
some natural defence possessed by it, which is further 
protected by one or more enclosing ramparts formed 
by stones ; these stones showing, to a greater or less 
extent, marks of vitrification, by which they are con- 
nected together." The question was, How the vitri- 
fication was induced, naturally or artificially ? But 
on this subject it might then be said, as perhaps it 
may yet, Quot homines, tot sententice. He himself 
was inclined to the opinion of those who affirm that 
the vitrification of the forts might have been the 
result of beacon-fires or signal-fires, when wood, with 
which Scotland in ancient times abounded, would be 
piled up to a great extent in them and fired, thus 
causing the fusion of such stones as were fusible in 
their nature; and he gives a drawing from Olaus 
Magnus (Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus), 
published at Kome, 1555, illustrating the chapter De 
ignibus montanis tempore hostili. 

In the month of May following, as we learn from 
a note which we give of Mr. Walter Calverley 
Trevelyan, Dr. Hibbert had proposed that gentleman 
as member of the Antiquarian Society : 

" I shall have great pleasure," he wrote, " in breakfasting 
with you to-morrow. I have to thank you for the honour you 
have done me in proposing me as a member of the Antiquarian 
Society, and the Society in electing me. In Sir James Ware's 
History of Ireland, voL ii p. 168, etc., you will find a curious 
disquisition on the fossil elk of that country." 

Towards the close of the summer, business relative 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 345 

to his property in Manchester called him to London, 
and Mrs. Hibbert took the opportunity to visit an 
uncle in Cheshire ; consequently the Doctor's young 
family, which had now been increased by Mrs. 
Hibbert's children by her first husband, William 
Scott, Esq., Receiver- General of the Customs in the 
Isle of Man, were again left to keep house; but 
another friend now volunteered to look after them. 
This friend was Dr. Milligan, a well-known literary 
man in Edinburgh, and a bachelor, like the late Mr. 
William Henderson and Mr. David Laing, who, being 
without family ties of their own, had hitherto per- 
formed that friendly office. Dr. Milligan, however, 
took this occasion of enlisting Dr. Hibbert as one of 
the editors of a new journal : 

"MY DEAR Sm," he wrote on the 9th August 1825, 
" Yesterday I went to your house and saw all the little ones, 
who mustered round the table; they are all in good health, 
spirits, and humour with each other, so Mrs. Hibbert, to whom 
I beg my best respects, may rest easy respecting them, and if 
you do not return soon I shall repeat the visite domicUiare. This 
next is for myself, my good friend ; you must know that a pro- 
posal for a new Journal of Medicine and Science, embracing all 
its subsidiary departments, has been secretly balloting, for nearly 
a twelvemonth, amongst certain persons in Edinburgh, the 
first proposer being Dr. Knox. After a good deal of trouble, a 
bookseller (Maclachlan and Stewart) was at last found to be 
willing to undertake the whole risk of the work, and to divide 
the profits with the editors, two in number, share and share 
alike. In short, Knox and myself were destined to this office, 
but the Doctor has taken fright at this new addition to his 
winter's labours, and so might I if I chose ; but the booksellers 
are still urgent that I should go on if I can get an efficient 
partner to the concern, and I thought of you as one to whom 



346 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

such an engagement might dispose of an idle hour to advantage, 
and who had already entertained ideas somewhat similar. The 
thing may be fairly computed to put from one to two hundred 
pounds a year into each of our pockets. Should you think this 
then an eligible offer, it would merely be necessary to insert 
your name in place of Dr. Knox's. You will oblige me by 
giving the thing your serious consideration in as short a time 
as possible. The first number must be out by January 1st, 
1826." 

On the return to Edinburgh of Dr. and Mrs. 
Hibbert, we find him again partaking of the break- 
fasts of the literati of the Modern Athens. 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote Dr. R K Greville to him," On 
Wednesday Monsieur Adolphe Brogniart and M. Coquebart, 
Membre de I'Institute, etc., breakfast with me at nine o'clock. 
Will you meet them ? Brogniart is the man who is about to 
publish the work on fossil vegetables, and has a beautiful collec- 
tion of drawings with him. He cannot speak English, so you 
must rub up your French." 

But the dinners of the Antiquarian Society must 
have been specially attractive, if we may judge from 
a letter of Mr. George Dunbar, the Professor of 
Greek in the University, although Dr. Hibbert 
appears to have been somewhat remiss in his duties 
as secretary. 

" DEAR SIR I have not yet got the notice of the Anti- 
quarian dinner," complained James Skene, Esq. of Rubislaw; 
" I hope that the others have been sent, as, I fear, if delayed 
longer we shall lose the company of our best members. When 
I mentioned it to Lord Meadowbank and Sir Walter Scott, they 
were both about to have engaged themselves for that day, which 
I hope I was in time to prevent." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 347 

That these antiquarian dinners were things not to 
be lost, the learned Professor of Greek testifies as we 
have just mentioned. 

" Your Antiquarian Society I believe you are a member of 
it" wrote the Professor to Mr. Patrick Neill of Canonmills, in 
a letter which that gentleman jocularly handed to the secretary, 
" is making such a figure, in the annals of dining at least, that I 
have some thoughts of offering myself as a candidate, and of 
applying to yourself and Dr. Jamieson to recommend me ; but, 
first of all, let me know your terms of admission and annual 
payments, as I am a member of so many societies that a new one 
may be a heavy tax." 

The Dr. Jamieson here mentioned must not be 
confused with Professor Jameson. The former gentle- 
man was an eminent antiquary and author of a valu- 
able Gaelic dictionary. 

It was during a visit to Poulton Lancylin in 
Cheshire, the seat of Joseph Green, Esq., a maternal 
uncle of Mrs. Hibbert, that the Doctor saw an old 
black leather drinking-jack, in shape somewhat like a 
large bedroom-ewer, and about eighteen inches high. 
He admired this dilapidated piece of antiquity so much 
that it was given to him, and on his return to Edin- 
burgh he got it repaired. He afterwards showed it 
to Sir Walter Scott, whose delight at handling the old 
leathern drinking- vessel was, as Dr. Hibbert was wont 
to say, almost unbounded, and the feelings of the 
great novelist found effervescence in clarion tones- 
he recited there and then all the snatches of Border 
ballads and ancient minstrelsy which he could recall 
in his richly-stored memory, and which contained 



348 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

descriptions of, or allusions to, "the bonnie black- 
jack." 

Towards the end of this year Dr. Hibbert was 
occupied in removing to a house he had bought, No. 
13 Manor Place, yet he found time to make some 
contributions to Brewster's Journal of Science. 

Previous to his second marriage, the remains of a 
fossil elk of immense size in the Isle of Man had been 
found. This interested him so greatly that he had 
at once communicated with his friend Professor 
Buckland of Oxford, the eminent geologist, from 
whom he received the following letter on the sub- 
ject. The paper in Brewster's Journal to which the 
Professor alluded is that which we now proceed to 
notice : 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote that gentleman from Oxford, on the 
3d of January 1825, " Allow me to return you my best thanks 
for your obliging kindness in transmitting to me by the hands 
of Mr. Scott some specimens of the marl which accompanies the 
bones of the elk in the Isle of Man. I am glad to find the con- 
clusion you have arrived at is so decided and satisfactory ; and 
have reason to think it will be quite in unison with a similar 
exposition of the history of the Irish elk, and the strata in which 
it is embedded, that has just been sent to the Koyal Society in 
London by Mr. Leaver (?), and which I have quoted by anticipa- 
tion in the conclusion of my reply to Dr. Fleming in April 
last. You do not say in your note to me whether the elk bones 
occur in the peat as well as in the shale marl beneath it ; but I 
fully expect it will be so, and look with much interest to the 
appearance of your paper in Brewster's Journal. 

" Have you heard anything further of the chalk flint pebbles 
in the Shetland Islands ? Are we never to have the pleasure of 
seeing you in Oxford or in London 1 Believe me, it would be a 
great gratification to me." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 349 

In volume iii. of Brewster's Edinburgh Journal 
of Science, Dr. Hibbert contributed a paper entitled, 
"Account of the circumstances connected with the 
discovery of the Fossil Elk of the Isle of Man, which 
prove that the animal is not antediluvial, as many 
naturalists and antiquaries have supposed." These 
circumstances were the geological structure of the 
places where the remains were found, which was in a 
marshy piece of ground filled with shale marl, not far 
from the Tynwald Hill and the Peel Eiver. Relics of 
elks have also been found in Ireland ; but, so far from 
the animal being antediluvian, Dr. Hibbert was in- 
clined to think that, comparatively, it has not been 
long extinct. 

In the same volume he contributed another article 
as an appendix to the preceding one, entitled " Notice 
of the remains of an animal resembling the Scandi- 
navian Elk, recently discovered in the Isle of Man, 
with suggestions on the importance of distinguishing 
this animal from the Fossil Irish Elk." He remarked 
that the relics of the Irish elk were also found very fre- 
quently in shale marl, showing that the animal usually 
frequented marshy grounds, and that Whittaker, in 
his History of Manchester, mentioned the remains of 
the elk having been dug up in the low country near 
Preston. The animal had gigantic antlers. 

Although we are anticipating three or four years, 
we will here, while on the subject of the elk, refer to 
other papers contributed by Dr. Hibbert. In volume 
ii., new series, of Brewster's Journal of Science, there 
is an article entitled, " Additional contributions re- 



350 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

specting the Cervus euryceros, or Fossil Elk of 
Ireland." In this paper he gave a condensed view of 
what was known relative to the history of that animal 
as a very late inhabitant of the wilds and morasses of 
the temperate regions of Europe, showing that it was 
the contemporary of such extinct animals of Europe 
as the elephant, the rhinoceros, the hyena, the hippo- 
potamus, and several others ; and that the Cervus 
euryceros, or fossil elk of Ireland, actually lived in 
the wilds of Prussia so late as the year 1550, when 
Sebastian Munster wrote his Cosmography. The 
animal was about the size of a small horse, and had 
immensely large and wide extending antlers. 

His last communication on this subject a very 
short one is in volume v., new series, of the Edin- 
burgh Journal of Science, and is entitled, " On the 
question of the existence of the Keindeer during the 
twelfth century in Caithness ;" and in it he quotes a 
learned Icelander Jonas Jonoeus that the reindeer 
and the red deer existed at the same time in the north 
of the Caledonian Highlands, and that Konald and 
Harold, two Yarls of Orkney, hunted them there in 
1159. 

The preceding papers on the elk had been read 
before the Society of Antiquaries. 

On the 5th of December 1825 Dr. Hibbert read 
a paper before the Royal Society of Edinburgh " On 
some remarkable concretions which are found in the 
sandstone of Kerridge in Cheshire." This paper sub- 
sequently appeared in Dr. Brewster's Journal of 
Science, vol. v. The rock of Kerridge, where these 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 351 

concretions occur, is close to Alderley Edge, so well 
known at Manchester. When the block of stone in 
which a concretion lies was split by the workmen, one 
part or slab would show a round hollow in the form 
of a basin, while the other slab would exhibit the 
segment of a solid sphere of sandstone projecting from 
its surface, and exactly fitting the basin-shaped hollow 
of the other slab. As the peasants about Alderley 
considered the hill to be spell-bound, they named 
these concretions witch-knots ; and Dr. Hibbert, believ- 
ing that their origin was puzzling to account for, 
questioned whether it might not be more prudent to 
allow the peasantry to keep their theory than for him 
to offer any speculations of his own. 

An extensive knowledge of geology, combined 
with the important discovery of chromate of iron in 
Shetland, induced the Council of the Society of Arts 
in Scotland, for the Encouragement of Useful Arts, in 
their Eeport for 1825, to recommend that Dr. Hibbert 
be appointed to conduct that department which em- 
braced all those natural productions of Scotland which 
were applicable to the useful arts. The mountains of 
Scotland, said the Eeport, contain many hidden trea- 
sures which no systematic attempt had been made to 
explore ; and this truth could not be more appro- 
priately illustrated than by mentioning Dr. Hibbert's 
discovery of masses of chromate of iron in Shetland 
a scarce and valuable ore which Europe formerly 
imported from North America, and which was then 
an article of active traffic between Shetland and the 
most distant countries of Europe. 



352 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Several Scottish noblemen and gentlemen were 
the presidents of this Society. 

Dr. Brewster was its director in 1825, and Dr. 
Hibbert one of its secretaries ; whilst Sir Walter Scott 
was one of its extraordinary councillors. 

Amongst the members were the Dukes of Atholl, 
Argyll, Hamilton, Gordon, Buccleuch, Lords Elgin, 
Aberdeen, Tweeddale, Queensbury, Kinnoul, Sir 
Henry Jardine, Sir John Sinclair, and many others 
known as influential or scientific men. 

Shortly after the report of this Society just 
referred to, Macdonald, the chieftain of Glengarry, 
believing that he had discovered on his estates mines 
that might be utilised especially in the Lancashire 
manufacturing districts applied to Dr. Hibbert for 
information on that head. The Doctor, knowing no 
one who could better direct Glengarry how to proceed 
in this matter than his friend Dr. William Henry of 
Manchester, told the chieftain that he would give him 
a letter of introduction to that gentleman. He had 
no sooner made this offer than he became puzzled how 
to word the introduction. If he were simply to name 
the bearer of the letter as " Macdonald," or as " Glen- 
garry," as he was always styled, might not Dr. Henry, 
an Englishman, and perhaps not well versed in High- 
land customs, address the chieftain as Mr. Macdonald, 
or, worse still, as Mr. Glengarry ? If such a thing 
were to occur, only imagine the Highlander's dismay ! 
However, Dr. Hibbert remembered that Glengarry 
was the colonel of a regiment, and so he styled 
him. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 353 

MY DEAR SIR Allow me to introduce to you Colonel 
Macdonald of Glengarry. This gentleman has discovered on his 
estate in the Highlands very extensive beds of iron ore, speci- 
mens of which, I understand from him, yield nearly 45 per cent 
of metal. He is very anxious to make the discovery known to 
the manufacturing districts which are most concerned with 
smelting iron. I am unacquainted with those of Lancashire and 
the adjoining counties ; but for any information you may render 
Glengarry in the object he has in view, I shall feel most parti- 
cularly grateful. 

Mrs. Hibbert joins me in kind regards to yourself and Mrs. 
Henry. I remain, my dear sir, very truly yours, 

S. HIBBERT. 

To Dr. Henry, Manchester. 

The second edition of the work on Apparitions 
came out in 1825, and amongst his papers Dr. Hibbert 
left a draft of a letter, which he must have written to 
some friend, in reference to certain adverse criticisms. 
The letter runs thus : 

"By some it has been as much lauded as it has been decried 
by others. Dr. Brewster, in relation to some optical phenomena 
to which I alluded in my work, has now taken up the subject, 
and informs me that he is convinced my view is correct. So say 
many of my scientific friends. The Kev. Andrew Thompson, the 
editor of the Christian Instructor, says I have written a dangerous 
book ; and he absolutely, in this spirit, advocates the existence 
of ghosts. But carefully as I thought I had prevented my 
arguments from interfering in the smallest degree with theo- 
logical views, it is impossible to please some of these intolerant 
Christians, who falsely arrogate to themselves the name of 
Evangelical." 

But Dr. Hibbert had little right to complain if his 
theories were thus attacked, for scientific and literary 
men are naturally aggressive ; and it appears from 

2 A 



354 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

the following letter that he, too, had not even spared 
his good friend Sir George Mackenzie of Coul, a 
zealous phrenologist : 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote the worthy Baronet to him on the 
13th of March 1826, "I beg that you will have the goodness 
to prevent the billets of the Antiquarian Society being sent down. 
I have not heard of anything since I left Edinburgh except Sir 
William Hamilton's attack upon phrenology, of which more will 
be heard in due time. I know you like a cut at us, as you made 
one in your essay on Apparitions ; but our knives will prove as 
sharp as yours. I hope Mrs. Hibbert is well. Lady Mackenzie 
and one of my daughters are in Edinburgh." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 355 



CHAPTER XLIL 

A journalistic squabble Constable the bookseller fails Mr. Thomas 
Agnew and the History of the Foundations of Manchester The 
second edition of the Philosophy of Apparitions An apparition 
in Earl Grey's family The Antiquarian Society and Dr. Hibbert. 

SCARCELY had Dr. Hibbert entered upon the duties 
of the editorship of the Medical Journal than he 
began to tire of the cares and responsibilities which he 
found that he had brought upon himself; so while he 
was absent in London he left his good lady to do for 
him what many other ladies do for their lords get 
him out of the scrape : 

" MY DEAR HUSBAND," wrote Mrs. Hibbert on the 3d of April 
1826, "I have just had Stewart (of the firm Maclachlan and 
Stewart) here, and I pronounce him a gentleman, and a man of 
honour; but he is a Highlander, I believe, and I never gave 
them up ! From my commencement, you may imagine what I 
am going to say. There can be no objection to your quitting 
the Journal (i.e. the Medical Journal) in October. Mr. Stewart 
is very sorry you have been so poorly. About your leaving the 
editorship before that time, he could not jive a positive answer ; 
but they (Maclachlan and Stewart) intended to see Dr. Milligan, 
and to write to you themselves, as soon as possible. This was all 
before I said a word of your being anxious to serve them. I 
was so much pleased that I told him I knew you would always 
be anxious to do everything in your power for the Journal, 



356 SAMUEL HTBBERT WARE'S 

although your health would not suffer you to continue in the 
editorship." 

The skirmishes of authors and editors, especially 
if scientific men, are often amusing. We illustrate 
this from the following letter to Dr. Hibbert, who 
doubtless thanked his stars that he had now nothing 
to do with the Medical Journal : 



WHARTON PLACE, June 6, 1826. 

MY DEAR SIR You must not be surprised if you see a very 
sharp letter addressed by me to the editors of the Edinburgh 
Medical Journal, but you know me well enough to be aware that 
I have only one of those editors in view, though formality re- 
quired my communication to be directed in the plural number. 
The fact is, Dr. Milligan is carrying things with so high a hand, 
that he will ruin the Journal if he does not change his mode of 
conducting business. He has all the fortiter in re and none of the 
suamter in modo. He told me, yesterday, in the plainest terms, 
that the botanical department is of little or no importance, and 
the article sent in for the forthcoming number not worth three 
farthings ! Now some hot-headed simpleton would have knocked 
him down for such a speech, at any rate the publishers cannot be 
astonished if they lose some contributors. 

I have not the least objection to assist the Journal by 
occasional contributions, but cannot think of contributing a 
department, where Dr. Milligan tells me he may sometimes per- 
haps exclude botany altogether. I could not, under such circum- 
stances, manage a department with credit to myself, and I hope 
I do not esteem myself too highly when I regard myself as 
somewhat above everyday journal scribblers. 

In the forthcoming number Dr. Milligan has excluded the 
notices of our periodical British botanical works, which I intended 
for the use principally of foreigners, and there is no journal of 
any kind which gives this information. I will venture to say he 
(Dr. Milligan) will get no respectable person to undertake a 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 357 

department if he expects him to write so much, and then throws 
away three-fourths of the MS. 

Had you been sole editor there would never have been a word 
of dispute but Dr. Milligan is toto calo, another man. I am, 
my dear friend, very faithfully yours, E. K. GREVILLE. 

Dr. Hibbert, 13 Manor Place, Edinburgh. 

In the month of April 1826 the well-known book- 
seller Mr. Archibald Constable failed, a most disas- 
trous catastrophe for the Great Unknown. To a 
trifling extent, Dr. Hibbert was also a sufferer, as 
among his papers is a claim on the bankrupt's estate 
for half the profits of the sale of the work on the 
Shetland Islands. 

But to diverge from such serious matters to one 
more homely, and which affects all our lady readers, 
if we should have any. The following extract from 
a letter of Mrs. Hibbert at this time will not fail, we 
think, to surprise them in these days of servants' high 
wages. We have seen that about fifty years before 
a cook's wages were 5, more or less. She writes : 
"I have been inquiring about a servant. The one I 
have heard of most likely to suit has lived at 
Cromarty with English people, Captain and Mrs. 
Mason. She asks 9 guineas, finding her own tea and 
sugar ! ! ! She was hired as chamber-maid." Nine 
guineas was considered very high wages in Edinburgh 
at that time. 

In this year we find the first allusion to the 
History of the Foundations of Manchester in connec- 
tion with Dr. Hibbert. Among his papers is the 
following letter from Mr. Thomas Agnew : 



358 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKE'S 

MANCHESTER, April 23, 1826. 

SIR As I have had the principal part of the views of the 
College and Collegiate Church finished some time, I am very 
anxious to have the work completed, and shall be very obliged 
to you to inform me when you will have the manuscript com- 
plete. Immediately after you were so kind as to undertake the 
completion of the manuscript, I proceeded with the engraving 
department, with the utmost expedition, not sparing expense ; 
and as a specimen, I herewith send you a proof of the portrait 
of Chetham. As I have expended a very considerable sum of 
money in the work, I hope you will excuse the anxiety that I 
have for its completion. I am, sir, very respectfully, your most 
obedt. servant, THOMAS AGNEW. 

To Samuel Hibbert, Esq., 
Edinburgh. 

Dr. Hibbert did not overlook this, one of his most 
important works, and moreover a labour of love ; for 
he never forgot that Manchester was his native town. 
But he had engagements on his hands then which he 
could not lay on one side. 

In the month of May, this year, Mrs. Hibbert 
presented her good lord with a son, upon which event 
she received a congratulatory letter from a relative in 
Brussels, which, as it contains some amusing gossip, 
especially concerning a well-known character of the 
time, we give. 

" I beg you will accept my warmest congratulations on the 
birth of your son. We have been so gay all winter, and 
Brussels is now so quiet, that one can scarcely imagine it the same 
place. It would amuse you very much to be here for a short 
time : it seems an assembly of all nations Russians, Spaniards, 
Germans, English, French, Swiss, Italians, Dutch, and Belgians. 
But it would be rather puzzling, sometimes, to guess to what 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 359 

country a person belonged, before he opened his mouth; for 
instance, I always represent a Spaniard to myself as tall, dark, 
thin, etc. etc., and the only Spanish duke I know is a fat, 
shortish, heavy-looking, reddish-haired, light eye-browed, gray- 
eyed personage, and the Dutchmen of my acquaintance are tall 
and slight, and elegant looking. All these, you know, may be 
only exceptions. The Belgians are, in general, a fat, unhealthy- 
looking, heavy race I mean the noblesse, and no wonder, for 
they sit over their stoves and eat such quantities of grease in 
their food, and take so little exercise, that I don't know what 

else they could expect. Captain D and a party returned from 

a tour through Holland last week. All agreed that they never 
wish to go again, as when you had seen one town you had seen 
all; but I don't know whether these were their genuine sentiments, 
or if it were only meant to lull asleep the curiosity of their ladies, 
who all talked of making a tour some time or other ; and now 
they are quite satisfied, or will be, with the one town that is to 
represent all. The persons here, in winter, who would have 
delighted you most were Lord and Lady Cochrane ; but before 
you read another word, you must disbelieve every syllable that 
was ever said against him, and believe that he is the bravest and 
most injured person in the world, or I shall tell you no more. 
And now that you have had time to do all this, I shall speak of 
her ladyship, who is quite a heroine, and has passed through all 
the dangers you ever dreamed of and twice as many more, has 
stood by her husband in engagements, been on the point of 
assassination several times and much more than I can tell you 
now. She is only twenty-seven, very pretty, with black hair, 
curling in natural ringlets over her shoulders, and so animated 
and spirited that she is quite delightful. Her children are just 
as extraordinary. Only fancy the eldest, when he was only three 
and a half it was in South America, and his father went to fight 
escaping from his nurse and persuading the sailors to take him 
in the last boat to his papa; when the first thing poor Lady 
Cochrane, who was quite distracted, saw of him, was sitting on 
the sailor's head in the boat, waving his little hat, and shouting 
Five la patrie / and she never saw him again for thirteen months, 



360 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

during which he was in all the engagements with his father. 
My dear, I have just seen such a baby ! just the age of yours, 
rolled round and round just like a mummy. I took it in my 
arms and it felt exactly like a piece of wood, and I was very glad 
to get rid of it again. It is an old Flemish fashion to swaddle 
the poor little things in this way, and there are more dwarfs and 
cripples about Brussels than I ever saw anywhere whether in 
consequence of this practice or not a wiser person than I must 
determine. " 

Ten years had now nearly elapsed since the dis- 
covery of the chromate of iron ; and though it may 
cause our Memoir to be very disconnected, it is in 
consequence of the singular claim set up by Mr. 
Thomas Edmondston, to which we have already 
alluded, that we insert the following letter to Dr. 
Hibbert at this time, one only of several to the same 
effect, which tend to show the opinions Shetlanders 
themselves still held upon that subject : 

GARDIE HOUSE (SHETLAND), 
22d August 1826. 

DEAR SIR I know not whether your attention in sending 
me copies of the report of the Society of Arts entitles me to 
inflict a letter upon you in return ; but I cannot lose the oppor- 
tunity of keeping myself in the remembrance of one for whom 
I have so great respect, and who has done so much for this place. 

I put the report in circulation, immediately after I received 
it, in those quarters where I conceived the premiums applicable 
to Shetland most likely to be looked after, and I have no doubt 
they will do some good among the Regents bank cod fisheries. 

The deep sea herring fishing does not seem to thrive here ; 
but the herring fishing in boats has, within these two or three 
years, taken root here, and is extending very rapidly, and I have 
no doubt will soon become a very important branch of industry 
amongst us. 

You will be glad to hear that ycur child, the chromate of 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 361 

iron, is advancing towards maturity. Last year the demand was 
considerable, and the price fair. The commercial distresses have 
been much against us in what has passed off this year, but a 
more permanent cause of depreciation exists in the mineral 
getting into a great number of hands, who neither can nor will 
act in concert. 

We have had several mineralogical visitors this autumn, but 
I do not hear that they have added anything to your discoveries. 
Mrs. Mouat joins in making best compliments. I remain, dear 
sir, yours very truly, W. MOUAT. 

The second edition of the Philosophy of Appari- 
tions, which was now in full circulation, excited even 
more general interest than the first, and the author 
received many letters containing accounts of genuine 
apparitions, with requests that he would explain 
them. Amongst them was one forwarded to him 
by Sir John Hay. 

MY DEAR SIR I have just received the enclosed from Lady 
Morton, which I lose no time in forwarding, as I believe it con- 
tains some account of an apparition that may interest you. 
Yours faithfully, J. HAY. 

16 Athol Crescent, 
Tuesday evening. 

The letter which Sir John Hay enclosed runs as 
follows : 

" Lady Morton presents her compliments to Dr. Hibbert, and 
begs his permission to send him an account of an apparition, 
which, from its appearing to several persons, is of a different 
character from most of those mentioned in Dr. Hibbert's theory 
of apparitions. The family of Earl Grey have been for many 
years visited, before the death of any of the members, by the 
appearance of a head, resembling a woman with light hair and a 
very melancholy countenance. Lord and Lady Grey and her 



362 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

daughters all see it. It does not appear to them all at once, but 
is seen by them in different parts of the house. It appeared to 
them in the Government House at Plymouth last summer, a 
short time before the death of one of their sons, and has been 
seen again within the last three weeks. They have seen it in 
their house in London, and their residence in Northumberland, 
and now in Devonshire. If Dr. Hibbert can satisfactorily 
explain so many persons seeing this head, it might be of great 
use to the family, who are made very unhappy by it." 

The editor of this Memoir believes that she has 
made out fairly accurately the reply to Lady Morton 
of the author of the Philosophy of Apparitions, from 
the very interlined, rough draft of it found amongst 
his private letters, although the many corrections and 
obliterations rendered the deciphering of it a work of 
considerable labour. As the two examples from Mr. 
Travers's work, to which Dr. Hibbert refers, are not 
specified in the rough draft of his letter, he probably 
copied them on a separate sheet of paper and sent 
them to Lady Morton. The reply was as follows : 

MADAM I feel myself much honoured by your ladyship's 
communication. If I profess myself at present incompetent to 
explain the supposed supernatural appearance upon which my 
opinion is asked, it is not from any diffidence in my own theory 
on the subject of apparitions, but from a want of knowledge of 
several of the circumstances connected with the production of 
the vision. But this is no unusual omission. It is one of the 
principles which I have ever kept in view, that spectral illusions, 
or most authentic ghost stories that are related, are for the most 
part devoid of the important particulars which are calculated to 
lead to a true explanation of them. Your ladyship is aware that 
in many of the old families, both in Britain and on the Conti- 
nent, forewarnings occur before the death of any relative by a 
sort of domestic evil genius or (illegible) of the house. As I 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 363 

have, therefore, laid it down as a principle that, in corporeal 
indisposition of various kinds, spectral illusions are likely to 
occur, it is by no means improbable that where the superstition 
prevails the object of the illusion would, to the mental imagery, 
be connected with the family legend. The vision, therefore, in 
Lord Grey's family would, I think, if very rigidly scrutinised, 
admit of this explanation. It must be also considered, in certain 
individuals, owing to some particular habit of body or constitu- 
tion, a very slight (illegible) will induce the illusion. I was 
intimately acquainted with a lady, who, by nothing more than 
intensely thinking of a person, could conjure him before her 
eyes with all the colouring of reality. Now, if she had been a 
person of a superstitious turn of mind, the faculty would have 
caused her much distress ; but she treats it merely as the effect 
of corporeal indisposition, thus completely discarding the faculty 
which, in less reflective minds, would so inevitably have existed. 
The chief difficulty, however, appears to be in the spectre being 
seen by more than one member of a family ; yet this is not with- 
out a parallel. In authenticated accounts, given several years 
ago, of the second sight of Scottish families (?), it frequently 
appeared that the faculty was in many families common to each 
member of it, and was even hereditary; this, if true, would 
almost hint to some (illegible) constitutions upon which the illu- 
sion depends. The erroneous impression that there is some 
supernatural appearance, is sufficient of itself to excite a state of 
mind that would greatly dispose the mind to be under the 
influence of spectral illusions, and corporeal indisposition com- 
bined with the same, all the circumstances are present upon 
which a spectral illusion of the kind would depend. 

After these remarks I need say nothing of the forewarning of 
the head being perfectly incompatible with the moral government 
which the Deity exercises in the world. It is not intended that 
in this life a supernatural prescience of future events should be 
extended to any individual whatever, much less to a whole 
family. 

Sir Walter Scott has informed me that he recently saw the 
figure before him of the late Lord Byron, which appeared in as 



364 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

vivid colours as when he lived ; and if he had not been aware of 
the illusion of such appearances, the phantom would have excited 
in his mind the greatest alarm. 

I have lastly to observe that a superstition of the kind which_ 
subsists in Lord Grey's family is capable of doing the greatest 
mischief, and that the only way to make a forewarning of death 
infallible is to believe in its infallibility. I shall quote for your 
ladyship two examples of this truth, which I have collected from 
a medical work (by Mr. Travers) published a few months ago. 
After remarking that the fear of death operates {here tlie sentence 
is left unfinished, and the paragraph at the end of tJie letter seems to 
refer to it), but independently of an attempt at this explanation, 
I think that when there exists a firm -rooted opinion in any 
house, probably fostered from the very hearsay, that a super- 
natural forewarning always occurs before a family death, the 
state of mind which is liable to be excited during the illness of 
a relative, when the apprehension of death subsists, will greatly 
predispose the mind to be under the influence of a spectral illu- 
sion, derived from the subject of the family legend, and if 
corporeal indisposition co-operate with this cause (and it is not 
necessary that this indisposition should be very great), all the 
circumstances operate to the production of a phantom of the 
r kind at present. I shall be much gratified if my remarks on 
this subject prove in any way (illegible) satisfactory to your 
ladyship. 

(Here follows the paragraph referred to in the body of tJie letter) 
These cases will, I think, show that a superstition like that which 
prevails in Lord Grey's family is not without the power of 
producing very serious consequences. 

The Scottish Antiquarian Society was one in which 
Dr. Hibbert had ever felt the deepest interest, and 
well might he do so, for it ranked high as a literary 
institution. Noble lords of celebrity and strangers of 
high position, even from rude and remote Russia, 
were desirous of being acquainted with it. Besides, 
its dinners, composed of well cooked national dishes, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 365 

to say nothing of the accompaniment of Scottish 
songs and Scottish airs, were things to be desired, as 
the learned Professor of Greek in the University 
intimated. The two following letters will vouch for 
what we have said : 

" DEAR SIR It is only on my return from London," wrote 
Lord Elgin to Dr. Hibbert, on the 28th of November 1826, 
" whither your letter of the llth instant had been sent after me, 
that I am apprised of the annual dinner of the Society of Scottish 
Antiquaries being to take place on Wednesday, and that you do 
me the honour to propose that I should take the chair on the 
occasion. It is very much my wish to obey this summons, and 
I do not despair of having it in my power. But if this arrange- 
ment for me still holds, I must accept it under the proviso that 
I may be disappointed ; so that you would have (illegible) this 
casualty, which I shall do all in my power to prevent." 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote Mr. Auriol Hay on behalf of the 
Kussian, " Will you oblige by sending, if you have them, two 
copies of the printed notice of our next meeting of the Antiquaries, 
that I may send them with your signature of admission to two 
very classical strangers, one Mr. Vladimir Dairdoff, a young 
Russian, of a good family, who is attached to the Imperial 
embassy at our court ; and the other, Mr. Augustus Colyer, his 
private tutor, a Catholic gentleman of a very scholarlike cast 
both resident in this place at present. The young Russian, who 
is about twenty, gained considerable honour at the College of 
Edinburgh this year. His family, of which he is, I believe, the 
heir and representative is known to my old college friend, Sir 
James Riddell, when at Moscow. I have met Messrs. Dairdoff 
and Colyer frequently, and lately at the Riddells', and within 

these three days at Sir John Hay's, when Mr. D having shown 

much interest in antiquarian matters, I suggested the nomination 
of him as a corresponding member of our Oldbucks,' with which 
he expressed himself nattered ; and Sir John, who is, I therefore 
conclude, a member, desired to add his name with mine to the 



366 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

nomination. Will you therefore be so obliging as to include 
Mr. V. Dairdoff in the list of nominations of corresponding 
members, and let him, in addition to the two Hays, have the 
advantage of another H. by the signature of your name in the 
young foreigner's favour." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 367 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

Dr. Hibbert goes to the Continent to make Geological Researches 
History of the Foundations of Manchester Returns to Man- 
chester to give a course of lectures on Geology. 

UNDER the title GEOLOGY, at p. 191, of the Edinburgh 
Journal of Science, vol. vii., for 1827, the editor 
announces : 

" Dr. Hibberfs System of Geology Dr. Hibbert is in con- 
siderable forwardness in the System of Geology which he has 
been for many years preparing for publication. It is intended 
to contain a succinct view of the History of the Earth, with a 
geological arrangement of the various mineral substances which 
each description of rock contains, and a particular account of the 
organic remains which have been discovered in the various 
strata. A considerable portion of the work is dedicated to an 
inquiry into the changes which are still going on to alter the 
surface of the globe. Dr. Hibbert, preparatory to the completion 
of his work, is visiting the Continent with the view of satisfying 
himself on some important questions connected with the subject 
of rocks of igneous formation. For this purpose he is under- 
taking a personal examination of several of the most noted 
volcanic districts of Europe." 

Early in the spring of 1827 he commenced mak- 
ing preparations to carry out the intention of visiting 
the Continent, intimated in the foregoing announce- 



368 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

ment in the Journal of Science, and accordingly 
he notified to the Antiquarian Society that he 
would be under the necessity of resigning his office 
of Secretary, as his absence might extend to two or 
three years. 

His resignation was acknowledged in the following 
letter, in terms that must have been highly gratifying 
to himself : 

ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY HALL, EDINBURGH, 
29th May 1827. 

MY DEAR SIR Although I address you in my wonted 
familiar terms, I must, in the first place, assure you that the pur- 
port of my letter is official ; but the subject of it, I am happy to 
add, is as honourable to yourself as it has been most amply 
merited. 

After the ordinary business of the evening had been discussed 
at the meeting of our Scottish Antiquaries yesterday, the 
Curator, Mr. Skene, rose, and in the handsomest terms voted an 
expression of the Society's most grateful acknowledgment of your 
long and valuable services as their chief Secretary, but that their 
expression of thanks should be accompanied by that ^of the 
Society's general and unfeigned regret at your projected residence 
for some time upon the Continent having obliged you to resign 
your functions as an office-bearer among them, and the vote was 
further to express an earnest hope that your return to Scotland 
at no distant period might again enable the Society to reap all 
the advantages that cannot fail to be the result of your zeal and 
skill in the cause of our science. 

This motion was eagerly seconded by myself, and having 
been put from the Chair (filled by Mr. Innes of Stow), was carried 
unanimously ; upon which, I was entrusted, as your humble suc- 
cessor ad interim, to perform the office which I now do, in very 
imperfect terms, but with an assurance that no one will be more 
happy to welcome you back to our northern region, than yours, 
my dear sir, most sincerely, W. AURIOL HAY. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 369 

Towards the latter end of May, Dr. Hibbert took 
a passage for himself and his family and two servants, 

ten souls, all told ! in the good schooner , sailing 

between Leith and Rotterdam. But we must not 
omit to mention the luggage, which consisted of seven- 
teen cases, the major part of these being filled with 
books ! Long years ago, the Doctor, when a young 
Grenadier officer in the 1st Lancashire Militia, had 
been wont to carry with him a " library of books," 
to use his father's words, whenever the regiment 
changed its quarters, and it would seem as if the force of 
old habits still prevailed ; but circumstances were not 
now the same as formerly, for then he had a fatigue 
party of his men to help him to pack. However, 
books he was now under the necessity of taking with 
him ; and in addition to those on geology, which the 
object of his journey compelled him to take, he found 
himself obliged to carry with him books of reference 
to assist him in continuing his work on the Founda- 
tions of Manchester, as well as all his MS.; for he was 
exceedingly anxious to complete the work, being 
well aware of the very great expense the publisher was 
incurring, as may be seen from the following letter 
which he had received from the latter a short time 
previous to his leaving for the Continent : 

"SiR I received the proof sheet," wrote Mr. Thomas 
Agnew on the 10th of April 1827, " and skould have written by 
return, but waited for a manuscript which Mr. Heywood (the 
banker) was anxious to send you, and which I herewith enclose, 
along with a number of Britton's Architectural Antiquities. I think 
that the size of the page is too large ; it had better be the size 

2 B 



370 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of Britton's, as it is a similar kind of work. I cannot exactly 
state how many pages each number should consist of. I pre- 
sume the work will not extend beyond six numbers, and I intend 
to give at least four plates in each number. I wish you to 
arrange the quantity of letterpress, and I think of publishing 
each part at 10s. 6d., and 18s. for imperial proofs ; but it will be 
impossible to fix the price accurately until you have decided on 
the quantity of matter. The paper I have ordered to be sent 
from London, and as the copperplates must be printed in London, 
I think it will be best to send the letterpress to London, and be 
made up there ; in fact, I will be there to superintend the mak- 
ing up of the first part. I shall with great pleasure accept your 
kind offer of writing a prospectus, and shall be much obliged to 
you to do so as soon as possible, and send it here to be printed, 
stating at the same time, if you please, how many pages you 
wish each part to contain, and I then can calculate the expense. 
I believe, amongst the papers you have, you will find a prospectus 
issued by Ford, also a list of the subscribers. If you have the 
list of subscribers I will trouble you to send it me. I intend to 
give in the work several portraits connected with the church and 
college, also the curious monumental inscriptions, as well as prints 
from all the interior and exterior parts worthy of notice." 

On a fine June afternoon, early in the month, one 
of the two or three steamers, which at this date plied 
up and down the Rhine, stopped before the water- 
gate of the old town of Andernach and hailed a couple 
of boats. These boats were for the reception, the one 
of Dr. Hibbert and his family, and the other of the 
luggage. On the deck of the steamer stood the 
Doctor himself, watching with anxiety the transfer of 
his heavy cases from the hold of the vessel on to the 
deck preparatory to their being consigned to the 
boat. Mrs. Hibbert, standing a few paces from the 
mouth of the hold, pocket-book and pencil in hand, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 371 

was jotting down each box as it slowly made its 
appearance, in order to ascertain that none were 
missing. All had gone well so far ; sixteen packages 
had been accounted for, and the seventeenth and last, 
a very large one, was being hauled up, and it swung 
ominously to and fro in its slow ascent. Dr. Hibbert 
watched it with nervous and anxious eyes ; for it was 
one of those containing books, and we all know how 
a scholar prizes his books. It is all safe ! The men 
are about to lay hold of it, when suddenly, without a 
second's warning, the rope snapped, and, with an 
awful crash, suggestive of the bottom of the vessel 
itself being knocked out, down went the unlucky case 
into the hold ! Dr. Hibbert's consternation and 
anger were so great that, at first, he gasped for 
breath, he could not speak ; and, when the power of 
speech did return, he forgot for a moment the nation- 
ality of the men he was addressing, and poured forth 
his wrath in good round English, till, recollection 
coming to his aid in some degree, he mingled scraps 
of French with the English threats. Small wonder 
that the thought of his beloved books strewing the 
bottom of the hold should enrage him. 

"I'll write to the Consul, you rascals! J'ecrierai, 
I'll write of you, you rascals! J'ecrierai, of you! 
J'ecrierai." 

The rascals meanwhile, stolid German sailors, 
understood none of his reproaches ; only this they 
knew, that he was terribly angry, for he shook his 
fist at them ; but one of the men descended into the 
hold and again secured the precious box to the crane, 



372 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

and, to the intense relief of its agitated owner, it was 
hauled up intact, and at length deposited safely on 
the deck. Whilst this scene was being enacted, the 
three graceless youths of the party, Dr. Hibbert's two 
sons and Mrs. Hibbert's eldest son Henry, stood in 
the background enjoying the fun. But the Doctor's 
annoyances were not yet at an end. On landing, the 
cargo of luggage was transferred to a waggon and the 
party directed their steps to the inn. William Hibbert, 
a lad of fifteen, pushed forward in front, and was the 
first to enter the hostelry and to be politely saluted 
by mine host. This was no sooner seen by Dr. 
Hibbert, who had not yet recovered from his late 
state of angry excitement, than, addressing the other 
young people, he said, in aggrieved tones : " Look at 
that confounded puppy William, strutting into the 
inn ! My stars ! the man will think I am an English 
Milor ! A fine bill his poor father will have to pay 
for this!" 

Arrived at the hotel, a comfortable dinner re- 
freshed all the party, and, after it was over, the 
Doctor, who was weary with travelling, stretched 
himself on a sofa, expecting to get a quiet nap. But 
the fates were in every way against him that day, for 
in the room below some officers belonging to a regi- 
ment quartered in the town were celebrating the 
birthday of the King of Prussia ; and no sooner had 
the tired traveller closed his eyes than loud shouts of 
Vivat I vivat ! Prost der Konig ! accompanied by the 
clinking and the jingling of glasses, caused him to 
start up ; while, to add to his further annoyance, every 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 373 

now and then an officer, mistaking the room, would 
throw open the door, enter, and make his exit with a 
hasty Pardonnez-moi. 

Having ascertained the next day that there was 
part of a chateau at Leutersdorf, a village on the 
other side of the river, to be let, Dr. Hibbert engaged 
the place for the summer. There, many happy days 
were spent by the gay and light-hearted juniors of 
the party at least ; and long years afterwards, the 
sole survivor of them would tell of hours spent fishing 
for carp and barbel in the broad Ehine, which flowed 
gently under the garden wall ; of the festive gather- 
ings, and songs of the quaintly-clad vine-dressers ; of 
rambles in the vineyards on the lofty hills overhang- 
ing Leutersdorf; and of many other amusements 
enjoyed in that quaint old German village. 

The town of Andernach lay in the vicinity of the 
volcanic district of the Khine, which Dr. Hibbert 
wished to explore. The old chateau in which he had 
taken up his abode was picturesque ; its rear was 
overshadowed by lofty hills, whose sides were planted 
with vines ; while its garden, in front, extended to the 
river, which washed the garden-walls. Here there 
was a summer-house, in which he would sometimes 
write or sit, watching the boys fish. Within the 
chateau the rooms were large and airy, well fitted for 
study or repose on a hot summer's day ; where no 
sound would reach the ear save the rustling of the 
leaves of the trees. There he worked assiduously at 
the history of the foundations of his native town, 
endeared to him by so many recollections of the past. 



374 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

When relaxing a little from his labours, and looking 
out of the window of the chateau, he could see the 
broad Khine Howing gently past, and, on its opposite 
banks, the ancient walled town of Andernach, with its 
tall round towers and lofty double-steepled church, 
flanked on one side by a range of rocky, densely- 
wooded heights that overhung the river. 

The boys were sent daily across it to Andernach to 
one of the priests of the church, who had been recom- 
mended by the owner of the chateau, in order to 
learn German and to keep up their Latin, in which 
language, in fact, they were forced to speak as well as 
they could, for they knew nothing of French or 
German, and the worthy priest nothing of English. 

August had set in before Dr. Hibbert had finished 
his labours on the History of the Foundations of 
Manchester, and they had indeed been severe. On 
one occasion when, to change the scene, he had 
repaired to the summer-house in the garden, wearied 
out of all patience by the perusal of a MS. sent to 
him by Mr. Agnew, and quite unable to connect in 
any way the links of the genealogies of some persons 
who had been associated with the old Collegiate 
Church of Manchester, in a fit of impatience he tossed 
the MS. over the garden-wall into the river, exclaim- 
ing : " There, my fine fellows, you may trace your 
descent down the Rhine I" 

Having now completed a large portion of the 
Manchester book, he was able to take some rest and 
devote his time to other pursuits ; and, accordingly, 
he and Mrs. Hibbert left their young family to keep 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 375 

house alone in the chateau, whilst they rambled over 
the volcanic district at some distance from Andernach, 
and even as far as the boundaries of France. 

Mrs. Hibbert had, on more than one occasion, 
reminded her husband that she could " rough it," and 
in these wanderings she proved that she had made no 
vain boast ; for few ladies ever voluntarily underwent 
more hardships and privations than did she in the 
pursuit of science now toiling up pathless and rugged 
precipitous heights or scrambling down rocky hill- 
sides ; often drenched by a heavy shower, and then 
exposed to a broiling sun ; and many a time, after a 
fatiguing ramble of many miles, having no other 
refreshment than a little coarse bread and water 
diluted with brandy. As to an inn, even shabby inns 
were luxuries not always to be met with, and the two 
geologising wanderers were often forced to take such 
shelter for the night as any cottage or, it might be, 
even charcoal-burner's hut, afforded, and sleep in their 
clothes, dry or wet. Their custom during these 
wanderings was to let their small portmanteau of 
clothes wait for them at the town or village nearest 
to the parts they were exploring. 

Never, certainly, had a man a more patient or 
contented companion, or one with more indomitable 
courage in persevering under the greatest difficulties ; 
yet Mrs. Hibbert, though tall, was of slight make. 
During these expeditions her talent for sketching was 
of the greatest service. 

At length, when autumn was approaching, they 
returned to their family at the chateau in order to 



376 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

proceed on their journey. .Dr. Hibbert now hired a 
boat (like our own canal passenger boats) and pro- 
ceeded with his family up the rivers Khine and Maine 
to Hanau, halting only for the night at such towns as 
he chose. 

After a few days the travellers arrived at their 
destination. 

Before leaving Edinburgh Dr. Hibbert had re- 
ceived from Mr. George Frederick Bury of Man- 
chester a communication which caused him to return 
to England that autumn. This letter, dated 1 8th of 
January, was as follows : 

DEAR SIR The Committee of the Eoyal Manchester 
Institution met this morning and proposed a resolution offering 
you 150 for a course of lectures on Geology, to be delivered in 
the autumn. The course to be not less than twelve lectures, 
and those to be delivered weekly. I trust you will accede to 
the terms of the Committee, and I venture to say to you, in 
confidence, that no higher sum has been offered to any lecturer." 

This proposal had been accepted. Accordingly, 
after having seen his wife, as he thought, comfortably 
settled in lodgings in Hanau, and having placed their 
sons as parlour boarders at an academy there and the 
two girls temporarily at a boarding-school, the 
Doctor set out for England, to fulfil his engagement, 
whither, however, he did not arrive without en- 
countering divers adventures. 

Travelling in those days, not more than fifty years 
ago, was not the easy matter that it is now, and the 
diary, as we may call the long letter which he wrote 
to his wife, may not be uninteresting to the railway 
tourists of the present year, 1882 : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 377 

On board the Princess Charlotte packet from Helvoetsluys to 
Harwich, Thursday, 13th Sept., half-past nine o'clock A.M. 

X ' 

MY DEAREST WIFE I write this according to your wish, to 
put in the office at Harwich. I am at present very well, which 
you will think wonderful after the many crosses I have had on 
the road ; but I will endeavour to throw my narrative into the 
shape of a journal. 

Friday. An acknowledged day of bad omen for setting out 
on a journey. I set out from Hanau to Frankfort in a track- 
shuyt. 

Saturday morning. Entered the boat at Frankfort. The 
boat crowded to suffocation with people returning to Mayence 
from the fair, and very unpleasant. Our baggage sadly tumbled 
together. Arrived at Mayence about six o'clock. Spent two 
hours at the Bureau of the Cologne steamboat in repacking my 
minerals, etc. etc. Went to the " Trois Courounes," a very good 
house, and very moderate. 

Sunday, September 9th. Wakened at four o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and went to the steamboat company being as numerous as 
from Frankfort to Mayence. At six o'clock in the morning set 
off, passage most unpleasant from the crowd, dined about 100 
in the cabin. Scraped an acquaintance with a very pleasant 
man, Mr. Howard, R.A., who is visiting Germany and Flanders 
to see the collections of paintings and to take views. The 
steamboat from Cologne to Eotterdam does not set off from the 
former place until two o'clock in the afternoon, on Monday. At 
six in the evening arrived at Cologne ; attempted to proceed to 
Brussels by the Diligence, and thence to Ostend or Antwerp, 
but the quantity of luggage (boxes of books, minerals, etc.) ob- 
jected to. Am sorry, as this appears the only way by which I 
can arrive in time in England. Am obliged to stay at Cologne. 
Had a good supper and went to bed. 

Monday, September 10th. Rose at eight o'clock, had breakfast, 
and strolled into the Cathedral, where I stayed a couple of hours. 
Saw a museum of antiquities and paintings, tolerably good. 
Went to the bureau of the steamboat at twelve o'clock, spent two 
hours in packing up my minerals into less compass. Went on 



378 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

board the steam-packet at two o'clock. The company not numer- 
ous, and passage pleasant. Arrived at half-past five at Dussel- 
dorf. Very hungry and thirsty from not dining, and discussed, 
at a good inn, a whole partridge (stump and rump), some ham, 
and a bottle of excellent vin d'Ahr, passed off as French wine. 
Went with Mr. Howard about the town, the handsomest town 
on the Rhine which I have seen, fine laid out gardens and 
grounds in the suburbs. 

Tuesday, September llth. Five o'clock, went on board the 
steamboat company not numerous (a day of disasters). About 
noon, stopped at Loebied, a town on the Holland frontiers. Two 
officers of the customs came on board. Began immediately to 
very rudely unpack the minerals allowed them to go. Broke 
open my two boxes of books insisted they were merchandise 
and ordered them on shore to be weighed, to pay a duty. 
Captain of the steamboat rudely sanctioning them, and insisting 
on the two boxes going on shore, for that he would not wait 
till they were weighed. Uncertain whether to wait another day 
to proceed with my books or not. But the time is advanced ; 
and my non-arrival in England might be attended with worse 
consequences than the loss of the whole, or part, of my books. 
Make a rescue with difficulty of my manuscript lecture (the 
Geological Lectures for the Royal Institution of Manchester) and 
the manuscript Histwy of the Foundations of Manchester, and 
now proceed, deprived of the books, etc., which should assist me 
in my lectures ; and consequently much annoyed, and in a state 
of irritation. Am told that the Captain's conduct, in not waiting 
for me, was unusual and unjustifiable, and that the conduct of 
the custom-house officers was equally so. The books are promised 
to be returned by another steamboat, in two days, and a passenger 
very kindly gives me the name of a mercantile house in Rotter- 
dam, to whom the boxes may be addressed, and who will forward 
them for me to London ; but am in doubt what care will be 
taken of them in Loebied. The Captain rudely attempted to 
justify his conduct, by making a vociferous appeal to the 
passengers, whether he ought to detain his vessel for the sake of 
one passenger. I am silent ; but the passengers decide in my 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 379 

favour. After dinner, set about writing a letter of complaint 
against the custom-house officers to the Director-General of the 
Customs at the Hague. Between half-past nine and ten o'clock, 
arrived at Rotterdam, and went to the house nearest the quay, 
the Bath Hotel. Learnt that no steamboat, or any other kind of 
boat, proceeds from Rotterdam until the Saturday ; but that a 
sloop, which carries the mail, sails in the morning at ten o'clock 
from Helvoetsluys to Harwich. No alternative but to attempt 
reaching Helvoetsluys in time for that vessel, though urged 
against it, from the uncertainty, by the master of the hotel. 
But find I have no choice left finish, therefore, a hasty supper. 
No bank open at ten o'clock at night, therefore exchange my 
Prussian dollars for 15, of British money, to much loss. Order 
a voiture to be ready in two hours, and without going to rest, 
set about writing a letter, representing the detention of my boxes, 
to the Rotterdam merchants, with directions to forward them to 
Messrs. Pickford of London, the great carriers of England, who 
will then transport them for me to Manchester. Wrote also a 
letter of complaint to the agents of the steamboat, against the 
Captain, and threatening that I would take the most efficient 
measures against the steamboat to recover any loss my property 
might sustain, in consequence of the Captain refusing to wait at 
Loebied, which I was assured he was legally bound to do. I also 
gave notice that the conduct of the Captain of the steam vessel 
would be exposed in the English newspapers, by the apology I 
should be obliged to make for the want of those materials which 
were to assist me in my lectures. What effect this will have I 
know not, but I think I can do nothing more to regain my 
property. 

Wednesday, September 12th. At two o'clock in the morning 
finished writing my letters ; the voiture, a mere gig with two 
horses, at this time announced to be ready, and I set off to 
Helvoetsluys pay for it a most exorbitant sum, as it has to 
cross over four ferries, the three last being arms of the sea. Find, 
to my annoyance, that the coachman is in a state of intoxication. 
The fabric of the coach seems most alarmingly loose ; however, 
we pass the two first ferries and proceed along one third of our 



380 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

journey in safety. The voiture has now to make a very small 
bend in the road, the vehicle slips down a declivity of a few 
inches only from the road, and the whole upsets ! My leg is 
entangled in the body of the carriage, and I am thrown flat on 
my face. I retain sufficient presence of mind to tell the coach- 
man (who had got on his legs before me, and fortunately had in 
descending drawn back the reins, so as to stop the horses) 
not to attempt to move the carriage and the horses, but to keep 
all quiet till I had disengaged myself. The truth was, that hav- 
ing been upset on sandy ground, I found that by working my 
leg about, assisted with my hands, I could procure a furrow 
wide enough in the sand to extricate it. I most providentially 
succeeded, with no other effect than a bruise on the calf of my 
leg, which soon after swelled greatly, but has begun to subside. 
A young, stout lad now came up, and replaced our luggage in the 
vehicle. Am now determined to walk, and persist in this for a 
mile or two. The sun now breaks out ; the fellow is a little 
recovering from his intoxication ; and the fear of being too late 
induces me again to try the voiture. This I do, but have to con- 
stantly keep an eye on the man and to check him, for the obstinate 
rogue will not allow me to drive the two horses myself. We 
pass a third ferry; the drunken coachman misses his way, is 
too surly to inquire, and drives four or five miles out of his road. 
He is then set right, and I find we have been making a circuit of 
a small island ! We now arrive at a fourth ferry. I request the 
man at the inn to carefully examine the state of the coach 
springs, the vehicle still moving so unsteadily as to render every 
small rut dangerous in the extreme. We found that one spring 
had been neglected, and that its slack state had been the cause 
of our danger, which the coachman's drunkenness, on our setting 
out, had not allowed him to see. The rascal is still engaged 
swallowing drams ! We proceed, the vehicle is now safer, but 
from missing the way, the horses are fairly exhausted. It is now 
ten o'clock, the time the packet should start, and we are still 
nearly a league from Helvoetsluys we arrive there at eleven 
o'clock The packet, to my joy, has not sailed ; it is waiting for 
the post-bag to arrive. The postrbag is half an hour too late. I 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 381 

have just time to put my letter in the post-office addressed to 
the Inspector-General of the Customs at the Hague, to get my 
luggage into the boat, and to sail to the vessel, which is clear of 
the harbour. The post-bag in a few minutes arrives, and we are 
clear of the coast, and now for old England. I put myself in the 
cabin, much exhausted, and the Captain, at half-past eleven, 
prepares for me a comfortable breakfast. I am soon after sick, for 
there is a great sea, which our little excellent sloop works through 
finely. I am soon asleep. About five o'clock in the afternoon, the 
steward wakened me out of a deep slumber to get a cup of tea ; 
it does me good, but I am soon asleep again. 

Thursday, September I3th. Waked about eight o'clock in 
the morning, after a most refreshing and almost uninterrupted 
sleep of sixteen hours. I have little feeling for the loss of my 
books, as it is all absorbed in thanks to my good and heavenly 
Father, who has so signally preserved me from imminent peril 
to reserve me yet for, I hope, many blessings ; but no blessings do 
I account so great as those which are connected with my domestic 
ties, and to know that my dear wife and children are happy. 
Old England is in sight, and I hope to announce to you my safe 
arrival at last, at Harwich. 

Four o'clock, I am arrived at Harwich, a bruise on my leg 
and shoulder, not worth speaking of: I am quite well. Ever 
yours, my dear Charlotte, S. HIBBERT. 

Mrs. Hibbert. 
Chez. M. Eodiger, Hanau. 



382 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

Lectures on Geology at Manchester Article on Shetland in the En- 
cyclopaedia (Brewster's) Dr. Hibbert returns to Hanau Geologises 
at Claremont in France Rome Naples Returns to England 
An Antiquarian Society dinner. 

AFTER all his adventures, Dr. Hibbert arrived safely 
in Manchester ; but if he had met with disasters on 
his journey, his wife, comfortably as he thought he 
had settled her, had not been wholly without her 
share of trouble and vexation ; for she had been on 
the point of being turned out, not only from her 
lodgings, but from the town itself, as we shall learn. 

"MY DEAR HUSBAND," she wrote from Hanau on the 17th 
of September, "Henry has got an account of Andernach in Latin, 
sent to him for you, from his master, le pr$tre. I like that 
gentleman, in spite of his being a Roman Catholic. I inquired 
to-day if the man had ever come back for the money he said I 
was to pay for permission to remain hene ; they said he had, and 
that if not paid, I must leave the town before night. My host 
said we would see about that, as I had spoken to Mr. Leisler, 
and he must go to him and show that it was a proper charge. 
I have not heard from Mr. Leisler, but suppose that it is paid. 
Old England for me after all, and with all its taxes. We at 
least know what they are, which is more than the inhabitants of 
this town seem to do. Madam Joss (an English lady) mentioned 
being obliged to pay what Madame Shbbler, a German lady, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 383 

never heard of ! I think in this, as well as in other things on 
the Continent, the poor English pay for all." 

Naturally, after so much annoyance, Mrs. Hibbert 
.was anxious for her husband's return ; and on the 27th 
of September she wrote : 

"Let me know at what time you suppose your lectures will 
be completed at Manchester. I am really growing thin instead 
of fattening upon my quiet life. I must, I suppose, wander 
through the woods and over the mountains, and be stinted to 
brown bread and butter with a little brandt-wine and water for 
my dinner, as we sometimes were, to cause me to become fat. 
The time hangs heavily in your absence. Do you think a fort- 
night will suffice for your business in Edinburgh ?" 

Dr. Hibbert had commenced his lectures on 
geology for the Koyal Manchester Institution, on the 
24th September, at the Mechanics' Institute in Cooper 
Street. 

He had now also the pleasure of renewing his 
acquaintance with his old Manchester friends, Dr. 
Henry, Mr. Thomas Heywood the banker, George 
William Wood the first member for South Lancashire 
after the passing of the Reform Bill, Mr. George 
Philips, afterwards Sir George, and many other 
leading men in the town. But his friends in Edin- 
burgh did not forget him or his promises, or let him 
forget the latter ; for he had entered into engagements 
which, in truth, he had not had time to fulfil ; Dr. 
Brewster put in his claim, or rather complaint of his 
friend's neglect. Writing from Allerly, by Melrose, on 
the 9th of December, he says : 

" I have been thrown in the greatest distress by the want of 



384 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

your article on Shetland, which you promised to send me from 
Botterdam in the month of June. The Encyclopedia has been 
lately at a stand, and I have been exposed to the constant per- 
secution of the proprietor. I beg now earnestly that you will 
send it to me in your first packet of proofs to Mr. Stark, even if 
it is only in the state in which I saw it in May. 

" In a letter which I have just received from Dr. Charles 
Hartman of Bluhenberg (?), who is now publishing Dr. Turner's 
Chemistry, and also my Mineralogy in German, the following 
passage concerns you ' It is my intention to translate Dr. 
Hibbert's System of Geology, for a series of works on the 
physical sciences. I beg you will tell me in your next letter 
when the system of Dr. Hibbert will be published.' " 

But he never published the System of Geology 
alluded to in the foregoing letter ; other occupations 
and private family affairs, which could not be set on 
one side prevented him ; however, he brought out a 
shorter work on extinct volcanoes, soon after his 
return to Edinburgh. 

Private affairs connected with his property, and 
arrangements to be made with Mr. Agnew respecting 
Tlie Foundations in Manchester, detained Dr. Hibbert 
in England, long after he had finished his lectures, 
and caused him to write a lengthy and somewhat 
original letter to his wife, which gives some little 
insight into his character, inasmuch as it shows how 
earnestly he devoted himself to his scientific and 
literary labours, yet how at times his inward peace of 
mind was disturbed by the thought that he was 
neglecting his family. In such moments his excit- 
able temperament always led him to exaggerate any 
shortcomings of that sort. He had formerly written 
much in the same strain to his first wife, when pub- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 385 

lishing his work on Shetland, and had made equally 
strong resolves : 

"MY DEAR WIFE," he wrote on the 28th of December 1827, 
from Manchester, " I always write to you like some criminal who 
has committed an offence. To be ever here ! I have really, for 
these three months, undergone such a trial as I do not think I 
ever experienced in my life. But something was to be done ; 
affairs could not go on as they have done, so many literary en- 
gagements, independently of oppressing one in every way, have 
long interfered with every duty I owe to you and to my family, 
and how could they be properly remedied without some strenuous 
exertion of no common kind ? This has been done. I have 
laboured more than ever I did in my life, and, thank God, I am 
on the very moment of having succeeded. I have brought you to 
this, to have allowed you to remain in charge of a family in a 
foreign land ! I never can forgive myself. May I live to reward 
your patience and to be a comfort to you, with leisure to devote 
the greatest part of my time for the future to the care of my 
family. I now intend to have entire new changes in the man- 
agement of my house, for now I can devote my time to it. You 
know it is now the wishing time of Christmas ; let me then wish 
that you may have, for the future, a husband less inattentive to 
the duties of his house, or, in other words, having no literary en- 
gagements on his hands to cause him (certainly with reluctance) 
to neglect them and so, my dear wife, a happy Christmas to 
you and all our dear bairns. 

"My life in Manchester has been simply this, first, my 
lectures, which was severe work to get up, so many minerals to 
pack and unpack ; but this was got over, and so much to the 
satisfaction, as I think, of my hearers, that I have been asked, 
over and over, to repeat them. My good friend Mr. Philips, the 
member of Parliament (now about to be made a baronet), has 
been most kind to me. When the lectures were finished, I began 
taking leave of all my friends in Manchester, who believe that I 
am off, and secluded myself in my lodgings, when I only get out 
about nightfall, for fear of being seen. The Manchester book, 
my second task, is finished as far as I have anything to do with 

2 C 



386 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

it. I ought perhaps to except that, having written a part of 
the work showing that there was a most foul conspiracy against 
your ancestor Dr. Murray, the warden of Manchester, in Charles 
the First's time, by which he was calumniated and deprived of 
his office, I shall certainly correct these few pages myself and see 
that they go to press ; well, so far for Manchester. The third 
task I had to do was to alter my paper on the Tings, adapting 
it to the additions you made. This work I did with far greater 
pleasure, because at every line I had to refer to your writing. 
But you will scarcely believe me when I tell you it was a far 
harder task than that of the Manchester book. It is indeed the 
hardest paper I ever wrote. But I have completed it to my 
satisfaction. My fourth task, and last, was annoying. The En- 
cyclopcedia of Dr. Brewster was quite stopped for my article on 
Shetland I have been more than a week at it. This will be 
done to-morrow, and sent off to Edinburgh. It is a task of no 
little difficulty to reduce my book (the History of Shetland] to the 
limit of an article for this work. All my literary debts are now, 
I trust, on the instant of being paid. I have paid my creditors 
twenty shillings in the pound, and I will not get into debt again ! 
I now dare not tell you when I set off, I have disappointed you 
so often ; but do exercise some forgiveness, I have been punished 
for. my imprudence. With regard to our future destination, I 
think passing the Alps is impossible, though a foreigner lately 
laughed at me for doubting that I could. I think either Heidel- 
berg or Paris would suit us best. I hear much of the former 
place ; either would be instructive to me, for now I shall think 
of nothing during my leisure but preparing my work on geology. 
I have already been applied to, to allow it, as soon as published, 
to be translated into German. There is a great notion to ap- 
point a lecturer on geology in London ; but I believe I am most 
stoutly opposed. I do not expect much good luck, and do not 
build yourself on it. I have reason (?) to believe Dr. Henry, who 
constantly attended my lectures, is very strenuous to have me 
appointed, and that he is secretly assisting me very much. But 
I do not expect it, for I must tell you I am opposed might and 
main. If I get in, it will be through my Wliig friends. Dr. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 387 

Henry has just found me out in my lodgings, and has compli- 
mented me for my lectures and in getting rid of my engagements. 
I am now getting all the articles you wish for, lead pencils, etc. 
I have nothing to add, except that I hope you will be a good 
German scholar, for I shall want your assistance in German. 
With love to all the bairns, ever, my dear wife, yours affection- 
ately, S. HIBBERT." 

After writing the foregoing letter a slight attack 
of fever still further delayed him in Manchester, and 
it was not till February 1828 that he returned to 
Hanau. Whilst there he received intelligence that 
his brother Robert had died in the Isle of Man. 

Dr. and Mrs. Hibbert remained in Hanau a few 
weeks, and then started on their tour, leaving their 
sons to pursue their studies in that town, and taking 
their two daughters with them. Their first halting- 
place was Treves. Here they left the girls to keep 
house with the two English servants, whilst they were 
geologising amongst the mountains near Roskeskyll, 
and again revisited the volcanic district of the Rhine. 
From time to time they sent off consignments of 
minerals by a messenger to the young ladies at Treves. 

After two months' sojourn in that old city, the 
family left it and took up their abode at Clermont, 
in Auvergne, in the department of Pui de Dome. 
Here Dr. and Mrs, Hibbert again left their daughters 
to keep house, whilst they traversed on foot the wild 
volcanic districts of those parts, often under a broiling 
summer sun, at times enjoying the comforts of good 
lodging and good meals, but as frequently " roughing 
it " he walking with his capacious coat pockets laden, 



388 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

as usual, with specimens of minerals which, when a 
good collection had been made, were sent, as before, 
to their daughters. 

At the end of July they went for a week to the 
mountains of Auvergne. Though geologising, Dr. 
Hibbert was still engaged on the History of the 
Manchester Foundations, and from time to time for- 
warded MS. and corrected proof-sheets to Mr. Agnew, 
whom he informed that he should proceed very 
gradually from Clermont to the south of France. 

Some of the results of his researches in the south 
of France appeared in Brewster's Journal, and will 
be hereafter alluded to. 

At length, leaving the south of France, the scene 
of their geological labours and arduous mountain 
rambles, the Doctor and his family crossed the Alps 
and journeyed into Italy, in the month of October, to 
see all the wonders of the Eternal City, 

"mirari bealce, 
Fumum et opes strepitumuqe Romce" 

and there to spend some months. He remained in 
Rome until after Easter, and witnessed all the cere- 
monies of the Holy Week the procession on Palm 
Sunday, the Tenebrce, and, on Easter Day the Papal 
benediction, given to the thousands of people, many 
of whom were pilgrims from distances, congregated 
in the great square below St. Peter's. 

During his stay in Rome Dr. Hibbert met his old 
friend and former brother officer, Captain Edward 
Jones, and he also made the acquaintance of that 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 389 

gentleman's brother, Mr. Michael Jones, and of Mr. 
Joseph Tempest of Yorkshire, and other English 
Catholics then in Rome. To Captain Jones he was 
also indebted for introductions to many of the clergy 
in the city, and thus he obtained an insight of several 
of the institutions, etc., to which he might otherwise 
have failed to obtain admission. He had also an in- 
troduction to the Eev. Mr. Gradwell, the President 
of the English College. 

Captain Jones was a frequent visitor at Dr. Hib- 
bert's lodging, at 32 Piazza di Spagna, and being like 
our former acquaintance, "the hermit of Roeness," 
especially courteous in his manners to ladies, he 
was a great favourite with the two girls, who fre- 
quently accompanied him when sketching ; on these 
occasions he would also draw for them the different 
costumes of the people, such as the pilgrims with 
their slouched hats, crimson or black gowns, and 
white tippets and scallop shells. 

Having witnessed the ceremonies of Holy Week, 
the family left Rome for Naples, where Dr. Hibbert 
intended staying some weeks in order that he might 
make a critical survey of Vesuvius ; he also visited 
other volcanic districts of Italy. Then returning 
homewards by Leghorn and through the Tyrol, after 
calling at Hanau, the family arrived in England after 
an absence of nearly three years. 

In an Edinburgh paper, at the close of the year 
1829, containing an account of the last meeting of the 
Antiquarian Society, we are told " that, in the even- 
ing, the Society, with several distinguished guests, 



390 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

dined at Gibb's Koyal Hotel, when an elegant enter- 
tainment, comprising many excellent antiquarian 
Scotch dishes, was served up in a very superior 
manner. Gilbert Innes, Esq., of Stow, was chairman. 
Among the company were observed Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, Bart. ; Sir Robert Dundas ; Sir Demetrio 
Valsamachi, a Greek nobleman, and Secretary to the 
Legislative Assembly of the Ionian Islands ; and 
Samuel Hibbert, Esq., M.D., etc. 

"Among the healths proposed was that of Dr. 
Hibbert, in proposing which a hope was expressed 
that he would be prevailed upon to resume the office 
of secretary, which he had formerly held with so 
much credit to himself and benefit to the Society." 

As in the feasts of the Homeric heroes, intellectual 
amusement was not wanting to heighten the hilarity 
of the Scottish Oldbucks, 

ov8e n Ovp.os eSevero SCUTOS ewr^s, 

and several national songs and glees were sung by 
them, and the chairman favoured the company by 
singing in excellent style the favourite old song, 
" Tak' your auld cloak about ye." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 391 



CHAPTER XLV. 

History of tlie Foundations of Manchester Sale of chromate of iron 
Fossil bones, etc., in the south of France Sir Walter Scott's 
Demonology Royal Commission to report on the Universities of 
Scotland Dr. Hibbert's spectral illusion at Dr. Brewster's 
Tour in the Highlands and Shetland. 

SETTLED again in Edinburgh after his long sojourn 
abroad, Dr. Hibbert soon became immersed in literary 
labours of various kinds, and one of the first subjects 
which engaged his attention was the History of the 
Foundations of Manchester, regarding which Mr. 
Agnew wrote to him on the 26th of January 1830 : 

DEAR SIR You will herewith receive a copy of one of 
Warden Stratford's letters, sent me by Mr. Entwisle. He has 
also sent me an excellent original portrait of the Warden, which 
I intend to engrave. I am also in hopes of getting an original 
portrait of Peploe. I am determined not to spare any expense 
with the embellishments. I have again to express my very great 
sorrow at the amazing trouble which you have had, and I am at 
a loss how to repay you. I hope the most troublesome part is 
now over, and that when the work is before the public it may 
meet with the encouragement which it deserves. If it had not 
been for your kindness, we certainly could not have proceeded 
with it. 

It was no sooner known that Dr. Hibbert was 
again in Edinburgh than his Shetland friends ad- 
dressed him on the subject of chromate of iron : 



392 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote Mr. Thomas Gifford, from Hillswick, 
in Shetland, on the 27th of January 1830, " I much dread that 
by this time you will have forgotten me altogether ; but from 
your uniform politeness to Zetlanders, I take the liberty of ad- 
dressing a few lines to you on the subject of chromate of iron, 
on which score this country is already so much indebted to you. 

"As you predicted, chromate has been found in quantity in 
the Ness of Hillswick and elsewhere in Nathmann (?). I have 
now to solicit your influence to enable me to dispose of some of 
it, which I trust you will assist me in doing, by interesting some 
of your Manchester acquaintances in my behalf. Messrs. Mouat 
and Edmondston have in time past kept the market to themselves, 
and are still determined so to do if possible. I remain, my dear 
sir, yours very faithfully, THOS. GIFFORD." 

But we think that the Doctor was too much occu- 
pied in Edinburgh to give his time to the finding of a 
market for the chromate. 

Mr. Thomas Heywood of Swinton, near Man- 
chester, had sent him a copy of a curious old ballad 
which, as we see from the following correspondence, 
had been submitted to Sir Walter Scott. The letter 
of Dr. Hibbert to Sir Walter Scott is here copied from 
a rough draft of it : 

DEAR SIR WALTER As I know that, like myself, you have 
no objection to admit old ballads in your library, I beg to send 
you, in the name of an antiquarian friend of mine, Mr. Heywood 
(of Swinton, Manchester), "The most pleasant Song of Lady 
Bessy," a few copies of which he had printed for private distri- 
bution. 

It is my intention, when I have leisure, to draw up an 
account of the origin of our European castles, for which the 
rude structures of the Shetland Vikings afford most excellent 
examples. 

Dr. Hibbert had communicated to Mr. Heywood 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 393 

the opinion of Sir Walter Scott on the old ballad, and 
that gentleman wrote to Dr. Hibbert on 27th March 
1830 as follows: 

MY DEAK SIR I am much obliged by your kind letter 
and for the trouble you have taken respecting the Antiquarian 
Society. I feel much gratified by being thought worthy of such 
association, and will one day endeavour to do something which 
may at least show I am not unforgetful of the distinction 
conferred. 

You do not tell me the reason which led Sir Walter Scott 
to think that the ballad of the " Lady Bessy " is by the author 
of " Flodden Field ; " that author, if I remember right, was never 
discovered, at least he is not mentioned by name in the editions 

of Benson and . He was a retainer of the Stanleys, and I 

think it is conjectured, from Sir Edward Stanley's pedantic 
orations in the ballad, that he was a schoolmaster. 

I have never seen Agnew touching Heyrick's discourse, but 
I keep the MS., and in truth it is just now binding. I will 
pay him, when I see him, the cost of transcribing. 

I think the Collegiate Church History is liked by the Warden, 
etc., and you are voted sufficiently orthodox, which I know you 
will think a suspicious compliment. 

Roby has issued a prospectus of a second series of Lancashire 
Traditions, to be dedicated to Lord Stanley. The last were 
very bad." 

We have said in the last chapter that we would 
notice some of the results of Dr. Hibbert's geological 
wanderings on the Continent. 

In volume ii. , new series, of Brewster's Edinburgh 
Journal of Science, M. Bertrand de Doue, an eminent 
French geologist, and also a member of the London 
Geological Society, contributed a " Memoir on the fossil 
bones of St. Privat d'Allier, in the province of Velay, 
France, and upon the basaltic district in which they 



394 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

have been discovered." This geologist, along with 
another eminent savant, M. Deribier, concluded, from 
the age of the ground in which the bones were found, 
that they belonged to those mammalia which had 
formed a part of that third succession of terrestrial 
animals, the remains of which are dispersed in ancient 
alluvial soils. The animals in question had been 
buried in the basaltic lava, volcanic cinders, scorice, 
and tufa of volcanic eruptions. Baron Cuvier, to 
whom many of the bones had been sent, pronounced 
them to be those of the rhinoceros of Italy, the hyena 
of the caverns, and certain species of Cervi, one of 
which was of very considerable magnitude. 

These remains had been discovered by Dr. Hibbert 
in his wanderings, or, we ought perhaps to say, by 
Mrs. Hibbert. The following narrative of the finding 
of them is given in the before-mentioned Journal : 

" In an excursion from the Cantal to Le Puy en Velay, they 
crossed the granitic mountains of La Margeride, and took the 
unfrequented route, little known to geologists, of Monistrol 
d'Allier and St. Privat. At the latter place Mrs. Hibbert drew 
her husband's attention to some small specks of a whitish sub- 
stance interspersed in a bed of volcanic tufa and cinders, con- 
ceiving it at first to be fossil wood, similar to what she had often 
assisted him in discovering in the volcanic district of the Lower 
Khine. But upon an examination of this substance, Dr. Hibbert 
found it, to his surprise, to be osseous instead of ligneous matter. 
His hammer, as well as the pickaxe of a labourer from an 
adjoining house, were therefore called into requisition, and 
several fragments of bones were exposed to view in a section 
which was replete with instruction. It was evident that the 
animals whose remains were thus found had lived during a 
period when the deposition took place of the tufa and scorice in 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 395 

which they were imbedded, and that whatever might have been 
the cause which had induced the inhumation, the bones had been 
afterwards covered over by renewed torrents of basaltic lava. 
Hence a sort of geological date was given to the existence of 
these animals, as well as to the volcanoes with which they were 
contemporaneous. The extraction, however, of the fossil bones 
he found to be a laborious undertaking, as they lay immediately 
under the superimposed mass of columnar, basalt already men- 
tioned, which it was not easy to undermine. Contenting 
himself, therefore, with bringing away a few interesting speci- 
mens, among which was a part of the os femur of an animal of 
some magnitude, and a portion of bone attached to a piece of 
slaggy basalt, to which it had adhered while in a fluid state, he 
was only intent (particularly as he was obliged to immediately 
cross the Alps of Italy) that the further search after the animals 
thus entombed should be entrusted to some individual residing in 
this country, who, from the local advantages which he would 
possess, was the best enabled to prosecute with effect an inves- 
tigation which was calculated to throw no inconsiderable light 
upon certain obscure questions that continue to interest geologists. 
Accordingly, the name of a scientific gentleman, well known for 
his zeal in this department of science, instantly suggested itself 
to his mind. 

"To M. Bertrand Roux, therefore (now M. Bertrand de 
Doue), the very able illustrator of the geology of the Velay, he 
addressed himself, and not in vain, as the following memoir 
sufficiently attests." 

M. de Doue", before describing in the memoir just 
referred to the locality in which the bones were found, 
compliments the discoverer of them in the following 
terms : 

" Dr. Hibbert, with that disinterestedness which characterises 
the true friend of science, described to me the place where he 
had found them, and engaged me to visit them, by assuring me 
that there was still a rich harvest to be hoped for." 



396 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

As we have already seen, he had been equally 
disinterested when he had discovered the valuable 
ore of chromate of iron in Shetland. 

In the next volume of Brewster's Journal of 
Science Dr. Hibbert contributed a paper, entitled, 
" Inquiry into the circumstances under which the 
remains of some fossil animals were accumulated in 
the volcanic soil of the Velay, in France." In this 
paper he mentions another discovery by M. Felix 
Robert, an eminent naturalist of Le Puy, of the fossil 
remains of animals of the Bos genus, and of the Cervi 
of a larger size, which were found near a basaltic 
plateau in the north of Polignac, the accumulations of 
which he considered to be difficult to explain, except 
in connection with a more general geological history 
of the Velay, and this he gives in his paper. It 
appears from his remarks that the lowest exposed 
rocks of that district consisted of granite, associated 
in some places with such primary rocks as gneiss or 
mica slate, the granite near Le Puy being surmounted 
by secondary strata, and that long after this deposit 
the valleys became a series of lakes, flowing the one 
into the other, along the course of the Loire, of which 
the basin of Le Puy was the most elevated. The 
effect of this was a tertiary calcareous deposit ; and 
that the forests and marshes of the Velay, like other 
parts of France, had long been peopled with various 
races of animals when commotions of the earth and 
volcanoes, tremendous in their nature, burst forth, 
ejecting basalt and trachytic felspar ; and that 
successive torrents of lava, sconce, and tufa had 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 397 

coated the preceding calcareous state of the earth ; 
and that the remains of many large animals that 
had been discovered appeared to have been in an 
intermediary state of these convulsions ; but that in 
the Velay no bones of the human race were mingled 
with those of other animals. Dr. Hibbert also 
offered other hypotheses as to the cause of these 
bones of animals being found congregated where they 
were. 

Writing on this subject in his Manual of Geology 
(1831), p. 245, Mr. Henry de la Beche says that 
Dr. Hibbert considers that the lower supercretaceous 
rocks of the Velay were deposited in fresh -water 
lakes, entombing the remains of the Palaeotherium 
and Anthracotherium of terrestrial and fresh -water 
shells, and of vegetables which then existed ; such 
deposit being of continuance, as shown by its depth, 
namely, about 450 feet ; that this deposit ceased, and 
the land became covered with forests of a marshy 
growth and animals. 

Another result of Dr. Hibbert's geological labours 
on the Continent was his History of the Extinct 
Volcanoes of the Basin of the Rhine, to which we 
shall allude shortly. 

In the last mentioned volume of the Journal of 
Science he also contributed an article, entitled, " Re- 
marks on a natural rocking -stone of granite, sur- 
mounted by an ancient cross, illustrative of the early 
Gaulish customs observed in the village of Loubeyrat, 
in the province of Auvergne, in France." From this 
article we gather that the author entertained the 



398 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

opinion that rocking -stones were the products of 
every country where loose, detached rocks of a 
particular structure have been subject to concentric 
disintegration, induced by atmospheric causes ; that, 
from the peculiarity of their shapes, they became 
objects of rock -worship by the ancient Celts and 
Teutons; that the missionaries who first preached 
Christianity to the Pagans, with great prudence did 
not abruptly destroy these idols, but gradually 
weaned the natives to the Christian religion, and let 
their ancient stone idols be surmounted with a cross, 
as in Auvergne. 

Sir Henry Jardine having submitted to the inspec- 
tion of the Scottish Antiquarian Society a rod of gold, 
about fifteen inches long, which had been found when 
ploughing a field near Inverness, Dr. Hibbert read a 
paper, in which he conjectured that rods of this sort 
were used for making payments, and that on every 
such occasion a piece of it was cut off to be given to 
the person to whom a payment was made. 

In the month of May this year the first sheets of 
Sir Walter Scott's Demonology had been sent to the 
press, a work which the writer of the following letter 
observed would be of great interest : 

CASTLE STREET, 
Friday Evening, 28th May 1830. 

MY DEAR SIR I have been so extremely busy since I had 
the pleasure of hearing your paper read at the late meeting of 
the Antiquaries that I have not had leisure until now to look out 
for and select my notes and extracts as to the ordeal or supersti- 
tion of touching a murdered corpse as a test of guilt. I am told 
the German authors abound with this superstition. I have 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 399 

somewhere in the classics met with mention of the bleeding of a 
corpse in presence of the murderer. Ovid, I think, gives traces 
of this. I observe most honourable mention made of you in Sir 
Walter's treatise on Demonology, the first sheet of which I have 
read in proof. It seems to promise much interest. Believe me 
always, yours faithfully, ROBT. PITCAIRN. 

Dr. Hibbert, 13 Manor Place. 

In the spring of 1830, the Eoyal Commissioners, 
who had been appointed to visit and report upon the 
Universities of Scotland, requested Dr. Hibbert, along 
with other scientific men, to give his opinion respect- 
ing the museum attached to the Edinburgh University. 
This he did at full length, and made several sugges- 
tions, premising, however, that a museum of Natural 
History could not be of much use without being of 
easy access, and for this purpose its doors must be 
thrown open to the public gratuitously, or at a very 
moderate rate, as on the Continent. He concluded his 
observations, saying that before the present spacious 
rooms had been built for the museum of the Edin- 
burgh University, he had been in the habit of present- 
ing it with various objects of Natural History, which 
he thought might be useful to the student ; but when 
he saw that the doors were closed against the naturalist 
except on terms which few could afford to pay, he had 
ceased to contribute in any degree to an institution 
which was injurious to science, in proportion as it 
intercepted from free inspection specimens intended 
to be useful to naturalists, and thus defeated the 
disinterested views of donors. This, the Doctor said, 
was his own feeling, and he knew that he did not 
stand in that respect solitary. 



400 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

William Francis Ainsworth, Esq., Ph.D., who at 
that time was one of the editors of the Edinburgh 
Journal of Natural History and Geography, was also 
one of those examined respecting this museum. 

The answers to questions put, and the suggestions 
of the gentlemen examined, are to be found in the 
Blue Books. 

The History of the Foundations in Manchester 
was now published, and appears to have given satis- 
faction. Mr. Thomas Heywood of Swinton Lodge, 
writing on the 14th of June, says : 

MY DEAR SIR I have lately read with close attention 
your book on the Collegiate Church. I confess I have been 
greatly pleased. It may contain all the mistakes you described, 
but it surpassed out of sight all preceding accounts, and is a very 
valuable addition to Lancashire history. I observe that Sir 
Walter Scott is about to publish an essay upon Witchcraft. 
This subject has many charms to us Lancastrians. There is a 
mistake in Sir Walter Scott's notice of Pott's tract (Somers' 
Tracts, vol. iii. p. 95), by which he seeks to connect the proceed- 
ings against the witches in Lancashire in 1612 with those 
instituted in 1633. Thank you for your promise of a diploma 
from your Antiquarian Society. I value very much this and 
every other mark of your kindness. Pray remember me most 
kindly to Mrs. Hibbert, and believe me, yours truly, 

THOS. HEYWOOD. 

The title of the work on which Dr. Hibbert had 
been so long engaged, and upon which he had spent 
so much labour ^-labour he never regretted, seeing 
that it was for the town of his birth was the Histoi^y 
of the Foundations in Manchester of Christ's College, 
Chetham's Hospital, and the Free Grammar School. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 401 

The work, which was comprised in three large quarto 
volumes, was published at Manchester by Thomas 
Agnew and Joseph Zanetti, and was illustrated by 
numerous and very fine engravings, made at a great 
expense. 

Its scope may be gathered from the preface of the 
publishers in the first volume. In it they say that 
they have undertaken to perpetuate the names of 
founders and benefactors ; to enumerate their useful 
labours ; to specify their munificent grants ; and to 
describe the internal regulations which have been 
established for the government of the institutions to 
which they have contributed. . . . That to complete 
this labour they have been indebted to several literary 
gentlemen. 

Dr. Hibbert, to whom had fallen the lot of writing 
the greater and most arduous portion of the work, 
says in his preface to the same volume : 

" When I undertook to superintend these volumes, I was led 
to suppose that the late Mr. Greswell, who, I understood, many 
years ago had spent much time in collecting materials for a work 
like this, had left few sources of information unvisited ; and that, 
in order to give the public the benefit of them, little more was 
necessary except to arrange them in a due methodical order, and 
to add to the narrative thus formed any explanatory or connecting 
links which it might demand. With this expectation I under- 
took an office which, under different prospects, no inducement 
whatever could have tempted me to accept." 

The author of the History then goes on to say : 

"I found that this gentleman (the late Mr. Greswell), for 
whose memory I entertain every respect, had in a manner done 
little more than commence his labours, the design having been 

2 D 



402 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

evidently frustrated by his lamented decease ; and that a wide 
field of information subsisted, of which no Lancashire historian 
had yet availed himself." 

After a few other remarks, and acknowledging the 
great share of information he had derived from the 
extensive collection of books relative to Manchester 
in the library of Mr. Heywood of Swinton Lodge, Dr. 
Hibbert concludes as follows : 

" The ecclesiastical information, much of which is collected 
from very rare and almost inaccessible documents, will, I be- 
lieve, be found to be for the first time published ; nor can it be 
perused by the most hasty reader without his conviction that the 
College of Manchester gave the impulse to all the ecclesiastical 
events which took place in Lancashire from the commencement 
of the reign of Elizabeth down to the commotion of the year 
1745. Many facts are also related, particularly during the great 
civil wars of England, which not only reflect a great light upon 
the general history of Lancashire, but are calculated to explain 
many obscure points in the ecclesiastical annals of the kingdom 
at large. These I have assiduously collected, and have en- 
deavoured to record with impartiality and fidelity." 

Mr. Thomas Heywood, writing from Swinton 
Lodge on the 2d of November, thus again expresses 
himself on the History of the Foundations of Man- 
chester : 

" Your last number of the ' Collegiate Church ' pleased me 
very much. I hear Hunter, who is particularly skilled in Pres- 
byterian history, praises it highly. There is nothing about the 
execution or the reputation of this work which should make you 
so fastidious. It is esteemed by those who know anything about 
the matter, and must be a standard work. 

" I am just setting out, in about a fortnight, to Bath for the 
winter. I have sent to Bath your book on Apparitions and Sir 
Walter Scott's Demonology (I am glad to see the use Sir W. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 403 

made of your labours, and the estimation in which he holds 
them), also a dozen tracts on the Lancashire witches, Glanville, 
Webster, Hutchison, etc, 

" Sir Walter does not understand our Lancashire ladies ; he 
has only seen a portion of their history. I think the witches, 
those who obtained supernatural power by a compact with the 
devil, were the creation of the Calvinists. The obsession was 
imagined to render the dispossession necessary. This mode of 
demonology must be separated from necromancy, sorcery, ma- 
gicians, and then it will be found to have risen and fallen with 
the Presbyterians. Nothing that I can find under Popery can 
be identified with witchcraft. The priests have done impudent 
things enough in their day in the way of miracles and wonders, 
but never anything half so tragical, or half so absurd, as what 
occurred at Lancaster when the Puritans were omnipotent in the 
Palatine. " 

Mr. Edward Baines, of the Leeds Mercury, had 
recently commenced the publication, in monthly 
numbers, of his valuable History of Lancashire ; and 
feeling a special interest in whatever related to his 
native county, Dr. Hibbert had offered contributions 
to that gentleman, from whom he himself had also 
received valuable information for the History of the 
Foundations in Manchester. 

Writing on the 1st of January 1831, to acknow- 
ledge that offer, the author of the County History 
says : 

" I feel honoured and obliged by your polite letters. That 
my topographical sketch of Lancashire has afforded you any 
information and assistance in your labours, is matter of gratifica- 
tion to me. Your very interesting work on the Collegiate 
Church of Manchester, which I possess, as far as it has advanced, 
will amply repay any services that you may have derived from 
my book. Your treatise on the Customs of the Manor of Ashton, 



404 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

a copy of which you have been so obliging as to present me with, 
I shall remember when that parish comes again under my notice, 
and I shall enter somewhat more fully into the particulars of 
their customs, now that I have more room for enlargement. 

"As soon as it suits your convenience I shall be most truly 
happy to receive the papers you are so obliging as to offer, and 
any suggestions you may be pleased to give on my present under- 
taking." 

We record the following letter of Dr. Brewster to 
Dr. Hibbert, as it affords an opportunity of relating 
an amusing incident which happened to the author of 
the Philosophy of Apparitions when visiting at that 
gentleman's house at Allerley, and which the latter 
afterwards told to Dr. Hibbert's eldest daughter : 

ALLERLEY, Feb. 22, 1831. 

MY DEAR SIR I have just finished the chapter on spectral 
apparitions for my volume on Natural Magic. The theory of 
them that I have given includes your general principle, but goes 
much further. If Mrs. Hibbert could make a capital drawing of 
you in your drawers, with your ceiling illuminated with the blaze 
of your nightcap, I could make a very good apparition out of it. 
Mrs. Brewster joins me in best compliments to you and Mrs. 
Hibbert Ever most truly yours, D. BREWSTER. 

Dr. Hibbert, as we have just said, had been on a 
visit to his friend at Allerley, and doubtless (after 
supper perhaps) they had been discussing spectral 
illusions and Dr. Brewster's volume on Natural 
Magic. At any rate, the brain of the author of the 
Philosophy of Apparitions must have been occupied 
with some such subject ; for when, in the seclusion of 
his bedchamber, he had blown out his candle, and was 
walking in the darkness 'across the room towards his 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 405 

bed, lo ! he saw what appeared to be a bright ray, or 
star, moving to and fro over his head on the ceiling. 
The startled philosopher rubbed his eyes, shut them, 
opened them again, still the light over his head was 
there. " What can it be ?" he asked himself. " I see 
it as plain as can be," he exclaimed; "something 
must be the matter with my optical nerve." How- 
ever, this explanation did not pacify him, for the light 
was still there, and even brighter than at first. He 
felt certain that the vision must be some illusion 
some spectral illusion; and beginning to feel very 
uneasy, he at last determined to go to Dr. Brewster's 
room, and tell his friend what had occurred. 

The latter had not yet got into bed. 

" Brewster ! Dr. Brewster ! Dr. Brewster ! " ex- 
claimed the agitated philosopher as he knocked at the 
bedroom door of his host , who immediately opened 
it ; " Something very strange has happened to me ! 
I am under the influence of a most unaccountable 
spectral illusion !" 

The two philosophers stood on the staircase land- 
ing, staring at each other ; one of them, at any rate, 
be it observed, in his night-shirt and barefoot I 

"Spectral illusion!" cried out Dr. Brewster, 
snatching the night-cap off the head of the disbeliever 
in ghosts. " Bless my life ! your cap is on fire !" 

And so, indeed, it was. 

The matter-of-fact part of the case was this : 
gentlemen at that time wore at night a very unsightly 
cotton head-gear, from the apex of which dangled a 
long tuft of the same combustible material, and Dr. 



406 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Hibbert, in one of his absent moods, had leant too 
closely over his candle to blow it out before getting 
into bed, and so the cotton had caught fire. 

In this year he contributed several articles to the 
new series of Brewster's Journal of Science. 

In vol. iv. an article from his pen appeared " On 
the direction of the diluvial wave in the Shetland 
Islands, which, in sweeping over the less elevated 
parts of the British islands, had dispersed an immense 
mass of clay and boulders far from their native beds ; " 
and at p. 276 of the same volume there is an article 
entitled "History of the Brown Coal Formation of the 
Lower Kheinland." In this article of twenty-four pages, 
after premising that no tertiary deposit in Europe is 
perhaps so difficult to explain in its various relations 
as the brown coal formation, every writer on it having 
differed in opinion from his predecessor (Quot homines 
tot sententice, as in the case of the Vitrified Forts), he 
apologises for entering upon the subject which he pro- 
poses to treat in connection with the general geology 
of the district, with the view of recording its earliest 
manifestation. Then he sketches the geological history 
of the Lower Rhine previous to the formation of the 
brown coal deposit, which is found on both sides of 
the river, from the neighbourhood of Coblentz to that 
of Cologne, the fundamental rocks on which it is placed 
being argillaceous and graywacke schist, the latter 
containing, in some places, organic remains. 

He next makes suggestions as to the age and 
manner of the formation of the brown coal beds, and 
in describing their mineralogical character, avails 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 407 

himself of the account given by Professor Leonhardt 
of Heidelberg, who divides brown coal into pitch coal 
or jet, common brown coal, bituminous wood or 
fibrous brown coal, moor coal, earthy brown coal, and 
alum earth. The Doctor then proceeds to describe the 
nature of each sort of coal as follows : The pitch coal 
appeared only in small layers in the brown coal : the 
common brown coal was the predominating species, 
and appeared in beds of great thickness and extent, 
chiefly distinguished by the form of wood being only 
in part recognisable, by the texture being fibrous, and 
being blackish-brown ; it burned with a tolerably pure 
flame : the bituminous wood or fibrous brown coal 
marked the first degree of change from an organic to 
an inorganic substance ; it was of a blackish-brown 
colour, showing distinct fibres of wood : the moor 
coal was considered as a decomposed brown coal 
without any ligneous structure, and its character was 
a composition of reeds and swampy plants : the 
earthy brown coal was only a more decomposed brown 
coal than the moor coal, and was a sort of bitumin- 
ous substance composed of destroyed vegetables, such 
as leaves, swampy plants, etc. ; it occurred in beds of 
great thickness, and it was remarkable for containing 
the remains of trunks of trees, Germ, and other animals : 
the alum earth was only a clay rich in alum, through 
which bituminous matter was diffused ; that which 
Dr. Hibbert examined at Altwied was of a bluish or 
a brownish colour. 

Tn June this year Dr. and Mrs. Hibbert undertook 
a very extensive and prolonged tour through the 



408 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

Highlands, and even as far as the remote Thule. 
Their object was to examine, not only the vitrified 
forts, but the sculptured stones, crosses, and suchlike 
which abound in the North of Scotland. In this 
journey Mrs. Hibbert's skill as an artist was called 
into requisition. 

They went by Inverness, making their way to 
John o' Groat's House, and thence to the Orkney and 
Shetland Isles. The same fatigues and hardships 
and privations, as had on former occasions been under- 
gone by Dr. Hibbert, were now again encountered ; 
but on this occasion a lady suffered along with him. 
Nor were these hardships unaccompanied with danger ; 
for, when they had to traverse voes or sea-lochs, the 
tides were so rapid, and gusts of wind so violent and 
sudden, as to threaten the boat with swamping, and 
sometimes half -fill it with water. They succeeded, 
however, in the object of their tour, for they examined 
several vitrified forts, and Mrs. Hibbert filled her 
portfolio with sketches of sculptured stones. 

The late David Laing, LL.D., alluding to these 
sketches in an obituary notice of his friend Dr. 
Hibbert, in the Edinburgh Scotsman, calls them " a 
series of elaborate and beautiful drawings of the 
sculptured stones and runic inscriptions that exist 
in Forfarshire, Koss-shire, and other parts." 

As a result of this tour, he conceived that he had 
visited remains of forts which appeared to confirm his 
theory, in a former paper, that their vitrification was 
due to their having been the sites of beacon-fires ; and 
in December 1831 he read to the Society of Anti- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 409 

quaries a memoir (printed in their Transactions), 
entitled, " Notice of the Discovery of very extensive 
Vitrified Eemains at Elsness in the Island of Sanday, 
Orkney." After observing that he preferred the name 
"vitrified sites" to that of "vitrified forts," and remark- 
ing upon the old Scandinavian customs of beacon-fires 
to warn against the approach of an enemy, he describes 
Elsness as having been the stronghold of a Scandi- 
navian chief, and as being studded over with beacon 
cairns, of which there were at least twenty many of 
them exhibiting testimony of a vitrification quite as in- 
tense as in any vitrified fort in Scotland. The stony 
fragments of which these cairns were composed had 
been gathered on the beach, and many of them were of 
an argillaceous schist, deriving their fusibility from the 
felspar, or rather the alkali, they contained. These 
sites were called Ward or Vord hills. The objection 
that "Orkney was not sufficiently wooded to afford 
sufficient materials for large fires, Dr. Hibbert meets 
by suggesting that heather and suchlike combustibles 
might have been used to light them. After carefully 
examining Elsness, he visited several others of the 
wart or ward hills of Orkney, but, with the exception 
of one, the cairns upon them only showed discoloura- 
tion by fire. 

To this paper are annexed sketches by Mrs. 
Hibbert of Elsness, of the Hill of Noth and the fort 
on its top. 

But leaving vitrified forts, cairns, and beacon-fires, 
we will close this chapter with a subject of more 
interest to such of our readers as may be ladies an 



410 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

account of the dress of a bride fifty years ago. On 
the return of Dr. and Mrs. Hibbert from their long 
tour, the latter found awaiting her, a letter from a 
near relative in Cheltenham, describing a very different 
scene a wedding. 

" I suppose your young ladies," says the writer, " will ask, 
What did the bride wear ? She had on a white silk (what they 
call gros de Tyre) dress, pelerine of the same, trimmed with blonde 
lace, and a large, square blonde veil thrown over her head. She 
afterwards changed her dress for travelling, and put on a drab 
silk pelisse and pink silk bonnet. They took their departure 
about eleven o'clock to London. The bridesmaids wore worked 
Scotch muslins from Mrs. Brown, Perth, pearl white silk bonnets, 
with lily of the valley instead of orange flower. The bride had 
also one of the same, which she did not wear. The most of the 
things came from London." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 411 



CHAPTEE XLVI. 

Dr. Hibbert made a Vice- President of the Antiquarian Society The 
History of the Extinct Volcanoes Is elected a member of the 
Geological Society of France Of the Society of Antiquaries at 
Copenhagen Discovers the freshwater limestone formation of 
Burdie House, Edinburgh M. Agassiz Charles Lyell Pro- 
fessor Buckland Dr. Knox and Burke and Hare. 

DR. HIBBERT did not again resume the office of 
secretary to the Antiquarian Society, as it had been 
wished he should do, but in 1831-32, he was one of 
its Vice-Presidents ; and, as we may see from the 
following correspondence, was interesting himself in 
the ancient stone circles and cairns : 

THE GRANGE HOUSE, 
28th March 1832. 

MY DEAR SIR Would you like to insert any note in that 
page of my Floods which describes the cairns and circles at 
Clava ] I am now preparing to send to Mr. Murray of Albemarle 
Street a corrected copy of the book with a few trifling additions 
to it, to put it in his power to insert them, if he pleases, in the 
new edition he proposes to bring out in the Family Library. 
If you are pleased to make any communications to me, you may 
do it in the form of a short letter, or in any other way you think 
proper. Believe me, dear sir, yours very faithfully, 

THOS. DICK LAUDER. 

Dr. Hibbert, 

13 Manor Place. 



412 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

To this note Dr. Hibbert replied : 

DEAR SIR THOMAS In reply to the note with which you 
have honoured me, I enclose my sentiments regarding the origin 
of the cairn of Clava, first brought into notice by your most 
interesting volume. The great attention which Mrs. Campbell 
has displayed in the opening of the largest of the cairns, to pre- 
serve unimpaired its internal character, ought to meet the acknow- 
ledgments of every antiquary. 

Sir Thomas Dick Lauder was then preparing for 
publication another edition of a work which contained 
a most graphic account of the then recent great floods 
of Morayshire, and being desirous of adding a descrip- 
tion of a cairn in that locality, which had excited 
great attention, he had addressed the foregoing letter 
to Dr. Hibbert. The " sentiments " of the latter re- 
garding these cairns, and to which he refers in his 
reply to Sir Thomas, are probably embodied in the 
book of the latter gentleman. But Dr. Hibbert's 
old friends, Messrs. George and Peter Anderson of 
Inverness, in their valuable Guide to the Highlands 
(referred to in a former chapter) give a minute ac- 
count of the cairn in question, which may interest 
our readers. 

After mentioning some stone circles, these authors 
proceed to say : 

" The most remarkable of these antiquities in the plain of 
Clava are three great cairns, consisting of loose stones piled up, 
in one of them, to the height of fifteen feet, and having 
rings of upright stones, hemming in and supporting their bases ; 
another circle of large masses of sandstone (ten or twelve stones 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 413 

in each), at the distance of several paces from the inner structure, 
is attached to each cairn. The principal one has been lately 
opened by a lady who resides in the neighbourhood (Mrs. 
Campbell), and it displayed beneath the exterior pile a circular 
chamber, about five yards in diameter, lined at the base with a 
ring of fourteen large stones in an upright position, and sur- 
mounted by courses of uncemented masonry, the stones of which 
incline inwards, and overlap one another so as to meet at the 
top in a rude dome. This apartment has an entrance looking 
towards the south, with a passage two feet wide, and flanked by 
great stones, conducting from it, through the body of the cairn, 
to the exterior circumference. Eighteen inches below the floor 
of the cell were discovered two small earthen vases or urns of 
the coarsest workmanship, but containing calcined bones." 



The Messrs. Anderson then observe that they 
understand from a learned archaeologist that the 
structure of this cairn demonstrates it to be of 
Scandinavian workmanship, and that its discovery 
is illustrative of many customs and rites described in 
the ancient northern Sagas. 

In volume vi. of Brewster's Edinburgh Journal of 
Science, new series, Dr. Hibbert contributed in the 
early part of this year a long article, entitled, " The 
Volcanic Basin of Rieden in the Lower Rheinland." 
The basin of Rieden, he says, is on the left bank of 
the Rhine, between Coblentz and Andernach, and 
about three miles west of the Lake of Laach ; and he 
further says, that the limits of the valley of Rieden 
are most irregular, and exhibit on all sides bold decli- 
vities, and abrupt and unsurmountable precipices ; 
and that, standing on the eminence of Ganschalls, 
a multitude of insulated cones, towering peaks, 



414 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

and deep and narrow ravines, the whole clothed 
with almost impassable thickets, may be seen. He 
then briefly sums up the history of the basin of 
Bieden as follows : first, it had been originally 
a volcanic crater ; secondly, the seat of trachy- 
tic eruptions ; thirdly, it had been filled with a 
tufaceous mud ; fourthly, this mud had overflowed 
into adjacent valleys and lakes ; and fifthly, the 
basin of Kieden had been the seat of later basaltic 
eruptions. 

Then he treats in detail of the origin of the crater 
of Rieden ; of its trachytic rocks ; of the tufaceous 
deposit accumulated within the basin ; of the several 
overflows of tufaceous mud or moya from the volcanic 
caldron of Rieden, a slight sketchy map of the 
tertiary geography of the basin being given; the 
eruptions of early basalt which took place around the 
basin ; concluding with general remarks on mud 
volcanoes, suggested by the phenomena of the basin 
of Rieden. 

The foregoing article was followed in a few months 
by the publication of a book, the chief result of Dr. 
Hibbert's Continental journey, namely, The History 
of the Extinct Volcanoes of the Basin of Neuivied on 
the Lower Rhine, in an octavo volume, illustrated 
with upwards of twenty maps and views, and 
brought out by Messrs. W. and D. Laing of Edin- 
burgh, and Treutell, Wtirtz and Richter of London, 
1832. 

The work is dedicated to a distinguished foreigner 
whose friendship Dr. Hibbert first made in Germany 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 415 

M. von Leonhard, Professor in the University of 
Heidelberg. 

The author, as we have narrated in a former 
chapter, had travelled down the whole of the volcanic 
district of the Basin of Neuwied on foot accompanied 
by Mrs. Hibbert, who shared with him all the fatigues 
and discomforts of this arduous undertaking. 

The greatest difficulty, he writes, which the visitor 
of this country had to experience, arose from the want 
of correct geological charts, to remedy which no 
resource was left but to attempt a survey of the 
country himself. This cost him, with no other in- 
strument than a pocket compass, exceeding labour 
a labour which must have reminded him of his survey 
of the Shetland Isles long years ago. On this last 
occasion, however, his trouble was materially lessened 
by the companion of his wanderings; for the pains 
taken by Mrs. Hibbert to construct, from observa- 
tions made by him, the geological map in the frontis- 
piece of his volume was, as the Doctor observed, a 
formidable task which ladies in general do not impose 
upon themselves. To her also was he indebted for 
the whole of the geological sketches and views inter- 
spersed throughout the book. There can be little 
doubt but that these sketchy views are very accurate, 
as the author of this Memoir has been assured by one 
who has visited the beautiful neighbourhood of Laach, 
that he can readily recognise the scene from Mrs. 
Hibbert's sketch. 

The work commences with some general observa- 
tions on the extinct volcanoes of the basin of Neuwied ; 



416 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

and glances at the history of the slate mountains 
of Kheinland and the different convulsions which 
occurred there ; the marine basin from Mayence to 
Basle ; the fissured channel of the Lower Rhine 
between Bingen and the basin of Neuwied ; the upper 
freshwater basin of Neuwied ; and the lower fresh- 
water basin of Cologne. Dr. Hibbert then treats of 
one of the first volcanic eruptions which took place in 
the vicinity of the valley of Neuwied, that of Laach, 
near Andernach a more beautiful and romantic spot 
than the Lake of Laach (Laachersee) cannot well be 
conceived, and one well deserving of a visit from the 
lover of the picturesque a deep lake in a crater- 
formed cavity, of a diameter of about a mile and a 
half, surrounded by abrupt rocks, in places well 
wooded, and the ruins of a fine old abbey reflected 
in the blue waters. His work then proceeds to treat 
of other craters now at rest, as at Rieden, Brlihl, 
Fusel, Hahnenbach, Nurburg, Boos, etc. ; the deposits 
of brown coal in the lower lake of Cologne ; the long 
interval of immunity from volcanic eruptions enjoyed 
by the basin of Neuwied ; lava-fields at Mayence, 
Mennig, and other localities ; the formation of differ- 
ent crater-lakes, like that of Laach ; the saline springs 
and gaseous exhalations in many parts of the valley 
of Briihl ; the diluvial current, and the distant trans- 
portation of boulders and gravel, and the consequent 
overwhelming of forests and the destruction of many 
animals ; the eruptions, the accumulations, and disper- 
sions of pumice in many localities ; and lastly, the 
changes effected upon the surface of the rocks and 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 417 

soil of the basin of Neuwied by shocks of earth- 
quakes, meteorological changes, etc., and those 
effected by the successive inhabitants of the human 
race. 

The highly interesting volcanic district of which 
he treats is situated in the Prussian Province of the 
Lower Rhine, forming a depression or basin, which is 
bounded on the north by the hills, whence proceed 
the waters of the Briihl ; and on the south by those 
which give rise to the Nette, each of these streams 
joining the Rhine, the former near the valley of 
Brtihl, and the latter about three miles to the south 
of the ancient city of Andernach. The extent of 
the district may be about twenty-four miles from 
east to west, and six or ten miles from north to 
south. 

The book had sold well ; for Dr. Hibbert, writing 
to his printer, Mr. John Stark, of the Assembly Close, 
Edinburgh, says, in reference to it : 

"Messrs. Treutell and Wiirz inform me that they had not 
ten copies of my book in hand, and that it had sold remarkably 
well. Could you be so obliging as to acquaint Mr. David Laing 
of the circumstance, and to request him to procure some copies 
to be forthwith made up in boards, exactly like the last ? " 

Soon after the publication of this work he had 
sent a copy of it to the Prince of Wied, the ruler of 
the principality of Neuwied, and a literary man. We 
anticipate dates by giving his reply now, which had 
been delayed a long time owing to the Prince having 
been on his travels. Upon his return he politely 
acknowledged the book in the following letter, written 



418 SAMUEL HERBERT WARE'S 

in remarkably good English, the only peculiarity being 
that he addressed the author as Dr. Hibbert, Esq. : 

NETTWTED, 1st September 1834. 

SIR I beg most gratefully to acknowledge the receipt of 
yoor very interesting work on the Extinct Volcanoes of the Basin 
of Neuwied, which you had the goodness to send me, and which 
was handed to me after my return from America, a few days 
ago. I shall read it with that interest which a subject of such 
high scientific research naturally inspires, and request you will 
accept my best thanVs for the favour you so kindly bestow upon 
me. Should you ever return to this country, I hope for the 
pleasure of your nearer acquaintance. In the meantime, I 
remain, sir, your very obliged and most obedient, 

MAX, Prince of Wved. 

Dr. Samuel Hibbert, Esq., 
Manor Place, Edinburgh. 

At the close of the year 1832, the two indefatigable 
ramblers in the cause of science had planned a journey 
to Denmark and Norway in order to examine the 
Scandinavian sculptured stones and cairns of those 
countries, and had even got introductions to the 
literati there, and proceeded as far as Paris. Here, 
however, their project was put an end to by Mrs. 
Hibbert rather unexpectedly presenting her good lord 
with a daughter ! 

After this event they only wintered in the French 
capital, where Dr. Hibbert cultivated the acquaintance 
of its savants, Hie de Beaumont, Adolph Brogniart, 
M. A. Boue, and others, which resulted in his being 
elected a member of the Geological Society of France. 
He had also made himself known to the antiquaries of 
that city. Having sent them his brochure on Vitrified 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 419 

Forts, its receipt was acknowledged in the following 
flattering terms : 

PARIS, 21th Feb. 1833. 

Sm I have laid before the Society your memoir on the 
Vitrified Forts, which you were good enough yourself to submit 
to the Society at their meeting. The Society has instructed me 
to express to you their thanks for this interesting work, which 
they will lose no time in examining. I must, moreover, inform 
you that they would have very great pleasure in seeing you 
present at their meetings, which take place on the 9th, 19th, and 
29th of every month. The next meeting is exceptional, and 
will take place on Thursday next, the 28th. I have the honour 
to be, with most profound consideration, your very humble 
servant, The Assistant Secretary of the Society, 

C. N. ALLON. 

Monsieur Le Docteur Hibbert. 

Whilst Dr. Hibbert was in Paris a vacancy had 
occurred in the chair of Natural Philosophy in the 
University of Edinburgh, and the two chief candi- 
dates for it were Sir David (late Dr.) Brewster and 
Mr. James Forbes. It may here be observed as a 
by-the-by that the widow of the latter gentleman 
afterwards married Major Yelverton, which circum- 
stance gave rise to a cause celebre. 

In this contest for the professorship Dr. Hibbert 
gave his support to his old friend Sir David. The 
election was decided, however, in the manner such 
contests had usually been decided, by the Town 
Council ; the favourite of the stronger political party 
won the day, and Mr. Forbes was elected. The 
latter gentleman, however, notwithstanding his know- 
ledge that Dr. Hibbert had supported his adversary, 



420 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

wrote to him in very generous terms in reference to 
their difference of opinion : 

GREENHILL, EDINBURGH, 22d Feb. 1833. 

MY DEAR SIR I was much gratified by your kind attention 
in thinking of writing to me in anticipation of my election, 
which has now -taken place. I thank you heartily for your 
honest statement of your opinion ; and, although I certainly 
differ from you in thinking our friend Sir David Brewster was 
well adapted by nature and habits for the duties of a Chair 
which demands such arduous exertion and which he had in 
Professor Playfair's time declined, I feel the more convinced of 
the sincerity of the good wishes which you express in my favour. 
I have commenced writing my lectures, which must be my 
apology for writing this short letter. Can you tell me of Dr. 
and Mrs. Somerville, who are said to be in Paris ? Pray do me 
the favour of presenting my regards to Mrs. Hibbert, and accept 
my congratulations upon the recent addition to your family. 
Ever most sincerely yours, JAMES FORBES. 

P.S. I must just add an acknowledgment of the immense 
benefit and great delight I experienced in making your book 
(on the Extinct Volcanoes) my vade mecum on the Rhine last 
summer. My visit to the Lake of Laach was not long ; but I 
was enabled by its guidance to see all that most interested me. 

On the 17th of March Dr. and Mrs. Hibbert had 
returned from Paris to Edinburgh. 

In addition to the honour conferred upon him in 
France, the Doctor was now gratified by receiving 
another mark of distinction from foreign savants, in 
the shape of a diploma written in English and Danish, 
dated the 31st July 1833, and signed by Magnus and 
Rafn on behalf of the Koyal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries at Copenhagen, stating that in testimony 
of their respect for his literary merits, and in considera- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 421 

tion of the zeal he had displayed in matters relating 
to the ancient literature and the antiquities of the 
north of Europe, they had unanimously elected him 
one of its ordinary members. 

A few weeks later Dr. Hibbert made a very 
important geological discovery. When investigating 
the limestone quarry at Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh, 
one of the workmen brought him a piece of limestone 
enclosing a tooth two inches and a quarter in length, 
and in the most beautiful state of preservation, and 
possessing an enamel of a nut-brown colour, shining 
with all the brilliancy of perfect freshness. Reflections 
on the nature of this tooth and on other fossil remains, 
such as scales and so forth, led him to the conclusion 
that the limestone at Burdiehouse was a freshwater 
formation belonging to the Carboniferous group of 
rocks, the existence of which had before then even 
been doubted. This discovery caused considerable 
excitement and interest in the geological world. M. 
Agassi z, a distinguished foreigner who had been visit- 
ing England, came to Edinburgh about this time. He 
took considerable interest in the fossil remains of 
Burdiehouse, and was frequently a visitor at Dr. 
Hibbert's. In his Rapport sur les poissons fossiles 
decouverts en Angleterre, Neuchatel, 1835, speaking 
of the Burdiehouse discoveries by Dr. Hibbert, at 
pp. 24, 27, and 28, he says : " Mais le genre le plus 
remarquable de cette localite est sans contredit le 
Megalichthys Hibberti." This monster possessed 
teeth at least 2 inches long. And referring to Burdie- 
house, M. Agassiz writes: "Les collections d'Edin- 



422 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

burg, m'out offert des nouveautes bien extraordinaires, 
provenant surtout des carrieres de Burdiehouse, qui 
sont devenues un terraiD classique pour la geologic." 
And Charles Lyell, in his Elements of Geology, pub- 
lished by Murray in 1838, p. 425, in his chapter 
on the Carboniferous group, observes that in the Edin- 
burgh coalfield of Burdiehouse, small fishes, mollusca, 
and cypris very similar to those in Shropshire and 
Staffordshire, had been found by Dr. Hibbert. 

But to return from this slight digression, though 
not foreign to the subject : very soon after he had 
made the discovery of the freshwater limestone at 
Burdiehouse, a meeting of the Wernerian Society of 
Natural History was held on the 14th of December, 
chiefly in order to discuss the subject of the fossil 
remains found at Burdiehouse. On this occasion two 
of its members, Lord Greenock and Dr. Hibbert, 
respectively showed their teeth ! to the satisfaction, it 
is to be hoped, of Professor Jameson, the President, and 
all the other scientific members ; but, at all events, 
according to their expectation, inasmuch as the pro- 
gramme of the meeting had stated 

" That a fossil tooth, found in the Eed Sandstone by Lord 
Greenock, would be exhibited, and observations made on it. 

"Also that a fossil tooth, found by Dr. Hibbert in the 
freshwater limestone of Burdiehouse, would be exhibited, and 
observations made on it." 

At a meeting of the Eoyal Society, held a short 
time afterwards, an incident occurred and a pun was 
perpetrated at the expense of the Doctor and his 
much-prized fossil tooth, which was doubtless occa- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 423 

sioned by the following letter, written to him by one 
of its members, Mr. H. Maire Witham, a zealous 
geologist, and the representative of the Withams of 
Lartington, in the county of Durham, a Catholic 
family of repute : 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote Mr. Witham from No. 9 King Street, 
" as I feel confident that the tooth being deposited with other 
remains in the museum of the Royal Society, may be a great 
means of ensuring this phenomenon publicity and notoriety in 
after times, I beg to say, that as far as I have any claim upon your 
generosity, I leave it entirely to your better judgment. I shall 
hope, ere many months are over, other remains may be found to 
satisfy all parties, as, from the number of coprolites, there must 
have been many monsters. I trust Mrs. Hibbert will soon be able 
to get out." 

At the meeting of the Eoyal Society just alluded 
to the Burdiehouse fossil tooth was exhibited and 
learnedly descanted upon ; and the members being 
exceedingly anxious that the Society should possess 
it, used all their persuasive powers to induce Dr. 
Hibbert to surrender his much -prized tooth. No 
sooner, however, had they succeeded in obtaining the 
object of their wishes, than one waggish member 
exclaimed : " We have extracted the Doctor's big 
tooth at last, but it was a tough job !" 

Whilst Dr. Hibbert's attention was so much 
engrossed by the Burdiehouse limestone, and he was 
writing and reading papers on the subject to the 
Koyal Society, he received a note from a Shetland 
friend, Henry Cheyne, which called forth pleasing 
memories of geological labours in a different field, in 
his youth. 



424 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" DEAR SIR," wrote that gentleman on the 30th of December, 
" at a meeting of gentlemen, natives of Orkney and Shetland, 
who propose dining together to-morrow, I am requested respect- 
fully to convey to you the earnest expression of their hope that 
you would do them the honour of attending the party, which has 
solely for its object the fostering of friendly feelings towards a 
district, upon a part of which you have conferred such signal 
benefits benefits which it must be as pleasing for yourself to 
reflect upon, as I trust they will be ever gratefully remembered 
by those who were the objects of them. 

" The dinner takes place at Gibb's Hotel, Princes Street, to- 
morrow at half-past four. Dr. Traill in the chair." 

Burdiehouse, with its wealth of fossil remains, 
animal and vegetable, had for many weeks been a 
sort of pleasure-ground for the geologists of Edin- 
burgh ; while, from those who lived at a distance, Dr. 
Hibbert received letters full of inquiries respecting the 
discoveries, almost daily. He had himself been active 
all winter in his investigations of that interesting 
quarry, and had read two papers on the subject to the 
Eoyal Society, copies of which he had also sent to the 
Geological Society of France. 

From the secretary of this last Society he received 
the following pleasing reply : 

SOCIETE GEOLOGIQUE DE FRANCE, 
Pans, 8th March 1834. 

DEAR SIR Your letter was received with enthusiasm, and 
also some details from Mr. Robinson. Your section will form a 
woodcut in the bulletin. It is a fine and important discovery. 

The Society meet at Strasburg on the 1st of September, and 
from there we all go to Stuttgardt to the German Congress, on 
the 20th September. It will be a crowd of various (obliterated), 
I remain, dear sir, yours most truly, W. BOUE. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 425 

Amongst the letters which Dr. Hibbert received 
from different quarters, respecting the discoveries in 
the Burdiehouse quarries, was the following from his 
old friend Professor Buckland of Oxford, and also 
another, which we give, from a gentleman then 
eminent as a geologist, Mr. Charles, afterwards Sir 
Charles, Lyell : 

"MY DEAR SIR," wrote Professor Buckland, on the 10th of 
April, 1834, "I am anxious to return you my best thanks for 
your very interesting communication, enclosed in your kind letter 
of the 3d ult. A more complete case has, I think, never been 
made out than that of the Fresh-water limestone of Burdiehouse, 
beneath the limestone of mariose origin, as presented in your 
section sketched in the printed Proceedings of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh. 

" Your discovery of gigantic reptiles also in strata of the era of 
the coal formation is decidedly a new point in geology, which 
harmonises well with the existence of such abundant coprolites 
in the ironstone nodules of the adjacent shale. 

" The large tooth sketched in your letter most resembles one 
of the largest plesiosauri of the secondary formations ; the smaller 
tooth seems more crocodilian, and the discovery of scales also 
tends towards the latter family. 

" I shall be most anxious to receive the report of your further 
progress in these discoveries, to record the full extent of them 
in my chapter on reptiles, in my Bridgewater essay, which will 
now be soon going to the press, and which I hope will be pub- 
lished before I visit Edinburgh, at the meeting of the British 
Association in September next. I look forward to a grand treat 
in visiting, under your guidance, the spots which have now be- 
come classic ground in geology in consequence of your researches, 
and hope you will be preparing measures to give some field- 
lectures to the geological section, on ground so interesting, both 
for many of the most early, as well as the most recent discoveries 
in geological science. Believe me to remain, your much obliged 
and most obedient servant, WM. BUCKLAND." 



426 SAMUEL HIBBEKT WARE'S 

Sir Charles Lyell writes as follows : 

16 HART STREET, BLOOMSBURY, 
LONDON, 17$. April 1834. 

DEAR SIR, I am reprinting my book on Geology, in order 
that my publisher may have it before I leave England, on a tour 
to Sweden. Dr. Buckland told me yesterday that you had sent 
him something in print about your discovery of a plesiosaurus 
in the Edinburgh coalfield. I should like to allude to it when 
speaking of the coal, as it is a discovery of great theoretical 
interest. I must send the last chapters of my third volume to 
press in about six days, so you would much oblige me by an early 
reply. I have seen much of the loss, since I saw you, both in the 
Neuwied district and in Wurtemberg and in Bavaria, and you 
will see that I have greatly modified my views, especially in so far 
as I now agree with you that some violent eruption occurred 
during and since the period of the deposit of loss. The day after 
to-morrow, Mr. Phillips of York, who, on my resignation last 
summer, was appointed Professor of Geology at King's College, 
throws off in an introductory lecture on Geology. I found lectur- 
ing interfere with my plan of travelling, r writing, and original 
investigation, which I am determined to follow up with freedom. 
I shall be in Sweden by end of May and be prepared, at the 
meeting at Edinburgh, to recant my notions about the change 
of level in Scandinavia, should I see reason for so doing. 
Believe me, most truly yours, CHAS. LYELL. 

Dr. Hibbert, 

13 Manor Place, Edinburgh. 

"We have observed that Dr. Hibbert received fre- 
quent m visits from scientific men interested in the fossil 
remains continually being discovered at Burdiehouse ; 
and amongst these was a gentleman, an object of so 
much dread and dislike to the servants, that they 
rebelled so strongly against opening the door for him 
when he left the house that the Doctor had to perform 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 427 

that office for his visitor himself. We must here state 
who this visitor was, and why he was so dreaded. 

The University had been long the boast of Edin- 
burgh, not only as a school of philosophy but of 
medicine ; yet the bright star of the celebrated Monro 
School of Anatomy had become somewhat dimmed, or 
rather it was eclipsed, by that distinguished anatomist, 
Dr. Eobert Knox, who had formed a class for ana- 
tomical lectures in Surgeons' Square at the back 
of the old High School. 

Four or five years previously, a series of tragedies, 
unprecedented in the annals of crime, had been 
enacted in that city. The victims were vagrants and 
stray waifs, whom nobody knew ; still vague rumours 
traversed the town, and people were disturbed by an 
undefinable dread of they knew not what. At last 
a crazed, harmless man, called " Daft Jamie," well 
known to every one, was suddenly missed. His body 
was afterwards recognised by some of the students 
of Dr. Knox's school, as it lay on the dissecting- 
table ; inquiries were made, and it was discovered 
that he had been suffocated. The murderers were 
found to be the notorious Burke and Hare, who 
were both arrested. Hare turned King's evidence, 
and many of the crimes perpetrated were disclosed, 
and Burke was hung. Popular indignation was 
strongly roused against Dr. Knox, whom the lower 
classes believed to have wilfully shut his eyes to the 
suspicious appearance of the corpses brought to his 
rooms. 

Towards the end of April 1834 Dr. Hibbert and 



428 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

his eldest son set out for London, where the presence 
of the former was required to settle some legal affairs. 
Desiring to geologise along the east coast, he caused 
the luggage to be forwarded to York ; and father 
and son proceeded to walk now and then avail- 
ing themselves of a stage-coach, and halting for 
the night at some town. On reaching Hull, they 
journeyed to London by steamer. Arrived at the 
metropolis, Dr. Hibbert left his son on board the vessel 
whilst he went in search of a lodging ; and having 
found one, they drove to it. The coach drew up at 
its door ; and, while surprise was depicted on the son's 
face, that of the father assumed a half comical, half 
sheepish look. But if the outside of the inn excited 
surprise, the inside did so in a still greater degree. The 
two travellers followed their luggage to their bedroom, 
groping their way up a dark, narrow staircase to the 
very top of the house, and, a door being thrown open, 
they entered a double-bedded room. The chamber 
was uncarpeted, a decided advantage under the cir- 
cumstances, and once on a time had been coloured ; 
it was, as we have said, quite at the top of the inn, a 
garret in fact, with only the roof as a covering ; look- 
ing up, a large hole gave a view of the blue sky ! 
The paternal countenance again assumed the half 
comical, half sheepish look, as his son said to him, 
" It is to be hoped that it will not rain to-night!" 
Dr. Hibbert, it will be seen, even yet retained his old 
predilection for shabby inns. However, the next 
morning they moved into really respectable lodgings. 
During his stay in London the Doctor saw several 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 429 

of his scientific friends and acquaintances when doubt- 
less the Burdiehouse quarry and the fossil monsters 
it contained were learnedly discussed ; and, amongst 
others, he saw the eminent geologist, the late Sir 
Charles Lyell ; but alas ! it will be seen that the souls 
of savants, like the souls of ordinary mortals, are not 
too exalted to be exempt from being moved by dis- 
putes, squabbles, and petty jealousies ! as the fol- 
lowing letter, written by Dr. Hibbert to his wife in 
the high-flown, vigorous, and very energetic terms he 
usually employed when excited, either by things 
vexatious or things pleasurable, will show : . 

LONDON, May 10th, 1834. 

MY DEAREST CHARLOTTE I had only just time on Saturday 
last, before the post set off, to write you a few lines. I am very 
anxious, as you say, to get rid of all societies, and I now begin 
to doubt whether I shall be at the British Association of Science 
at Edinburgh or not, or whether I shall cut it Lyell had the 
assurance, yesterday, to send me a proof sheet of a new work of 
his coming out, in which, after stating that I had found saurian 
remains in the coal (illegible) which had induced him to change 
his opinion, he adds, that some years ago Dr. Fleming had shown 
him remains also, which he attributed to reptiles. I saw Lyell 
soon after, and I told him if that passage appeared in his work, 
I would certainly draw up an expose of the whole circumstances 
connected with these geologists, who, so far from attributing 
these remains to reptiles, had attributed the remains to fish; that 
Dr. Fleming stood committed, in Chambers's Journal, for naming 
such remains fish, and that I believed he still maintained that they 
were fish. I added that I could not be trifled with if any such 
passage in his work appeared; and that I was pugnaciously inclined; 
and that I would not sit down, as I had done, with such liberties 
which were taken with me. Lyell added that perhaps he might 
have been mistaken in Fleming attributing them to reptiles; that 



430 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

he had a letter on the subject ; and that he would hunt it out. 
Upon this, after I had shown him some specimens, at which he 
professed to state his great surprise, we parted. You now see 
what confounded rascals savants are. I believe Jameson, Flem- 
ing, and others will force me to give them a dressing at last ; 
and if they do, I will lay on to some effect. I shall set off from 
here on Wednesday next for the neighbourhood of Manchester, 
and I hope soon to see you. I shall visit the British Museum 
to see if there are any bones like the mysterious ones at Burdie- 
house. Yours ever, S. HIBBERT. 

Whilst he was in London Dr. Hibbert had received 
an invitation from Professor Buckland to pay a visit 
to Oxford, in order that they might discuss the fresh- 
water limestone of Burdiehouse. This invitation he 
accepted, and on the llth of May he took his place 
in the stage-coach to Oxford. On the 16th he wrote 
from that great seat of learning to Mrs Hibbert, with 
an account of his visit to the distinguished Oxonian 
geologist. 

" I set off for Oxford," he says, " and upon arriving there I 
wrote to Professor Buckland that I could only spend about half an 
hour with him ; but he detained me a whole day, and nothing can 
exceed the civility I received from him and Mrs. Buckland. If I 
had not so many cares, and were not such a distance from home, 
nothing would have prevented it from being one of the pleasantest 
days I ever spent in my life. He took me to see all the rocks 
he had described near Oxford, and in the evening I went with 
him to the Ashmolean Society, and I had invitations enough from 
some of the leading men there to serve me for some days. I 
never met with a more cordial reception in my life. They had 
a world of questions to ask me about crocodiles and apparitions. 

" With regard to the relics, all the persons to whom they have 
been submitted were perfectly astonished with them. 

" The mysterious long bones, curiously figured, belong, as I think, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 431 

to some very large fish ; they most resemble the ' Dorsal bony 
ray of a large Silure,' which I saw preserved in the College of 
Surgeons in London. It was pointed out to me by Mr. Cliff. 

" Pray amuse yourself by ferreting out the account of the 
Silure. 

" I hope to be in two days near Manchester." 



432 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER XL VII. 

The British Association meet at Edinburgh Professor Buckland adds 
the name Hibberti to the saurian animals discovered at Burdie- 
house Dr. Buckland and nomenclature of fossil saurian fish 
discovered at Burdiehouse. 

ON his return to Edinburgh, Dr. Hibbert learned with 
great pleasure that his brother, Captain George 
Hibbert, had landed in England after many years' 
absence. The latter had prepared his friends to ex- 
pect him, having written from Bombay on the 21st of 
January 1834 to his niece Miss Sarah Hibbert; 
and as the letter gives some notion of the sufferings 
which a want of water may entail upon a crowd of 
passengers during a long voyage in a sailing ship in 
former times, we here insert an extract from it : 

" I have taken my passage for England on board the Victory, 
which leaves here on the 1st of February, having obtained two 
years' leave of absence for Europe ; so I trust, God willing, to 
be once more in my native country, in about four months from 
the time of departure. You, of course, heard of our disastrous 
voyage from Van Diemen's Land to this country, in which we 
suffered very greatly from want of water. Our distress amounted 
to such a degree that we were obliged to dispense with break- 
fast altogether, and all cooking where fresh water was requisite ; 
and to keep off thirst in the day time, were under the necessity 
of having a small pebble stone in the mouth, by which means 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 433 

saliva was produced, which in some measure alleviated our 
sufferings. A number of the soldiers died in consequence of the 
deprivation. The happiest Christmas day I ever spent was on 
this voyage, owing to a heavy fall of rain which took place the 
night before ; and you would have been a little amused could 
you have seen us, commanding officer, officers, and soldiers, all 
having mustered every utensil we could find, collecting the water 
as it fell from the rigging. This afforded us means to have a 
good Christmas dinner, but the water so procured never kept 
long, therefore we were soon driven to our old resources, so that 
at last it was determined that the ship should be run on the 
island of Minuacoy (?) and if we escaped with our lives, await 
there the chance of Pattimars to carry us to the mainland of 
India. Fortunately we were not driven to this last resource, as 
the wind changed, and we were enabled to reach Quilon. The 
first article I purchased out of a canoe that came alongside the 
ship was a calabash of water. In about a fortnight afterwards 
we reached Bombay. I look forward with the utmost pleasure 
at once more seeing my dear and only brother. Tell him I 
received his last book, and I looked into it with pleasure, though 
too learned for my understanding. I send this by the despatch 
overland, which will of course reach you sooner than by sea." 

After Captain Hibbert had sojourned at his brother's 
house in Edinburgh for a short time, he proceeded to 
make a tour through the Highlands, and then visit 
his old friends in Manchester. 

In the summer of 1834 Edinburgh was crowded 
with distinguished strangers men of science and 
literature, not only from different parts of the United 
Kingdom, but from the Continent ; for, in the month 
of September, there was to be held a meeting of the 
British Association. The members of the Royal 
Society were especially occupied in the entertainment 
of their guests, and Burdiehouse was a show-ground 

2 P 



434 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

for them. We may here name a few among the dis- 
tinguished members of the Society at that time : Sir 
David Brewster, Lord Greenock, Sir Benjamin Brodie, 
John William Lubbock, Sir Thomas Brisbane, Dr. 
Greville, the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinston, Sir Henry 
Jardine, Dr. W. P. Alison, Viscount Arbuthnot, Sir 
Charles Babbage, Sir Charles Bell, Francis Chantrey, 
Esq., Dr. Christison, Professor Forbes, Captain Basil 
Hall, R.N., Sir William Hamilton, Bart., Dr. Home, 
Professor Jameson, Dr. Robert Knox, Dr. D. Lardner, 
Sir George Mackenzie, Bart., Lord Meadowbank, Lord 
Napier, Sir John Sinclair, Bart., Henry Witham, Esq., 
etc. 

After the meeting of the Association had been 
held, and the fossil treasures of Burdiehouse had 
been minutely inspected and discussed, Dr. Hibbert 
received a letter from Professor Buckland, dated 
Oxford the 28th of October, to allay certain scruples 
his friend had entertained against a proposal to 
christen one of the Burdiehouse fossil monsters after 
him. 

"Although I admire the delicacy which prompts you," wrote 
the Professor, "to act as you have done with respect to the 
nomenclature of your newly-discovered animals, I cannot but 
feel that it is justly due to you to record the part you have taken 
in their development. I think you are quite right in wishing to 
confirm the generic name Megalkhthys to the gigantic fish of the 
Whitby liar, and I shall propose to Agassiz to assign the generic 
name Hibberti and specific Edinensis to the great creature whose 
teeth you were the first to submit to public notice." 

At various meetings of the Royal Society, namely, 
on the 2d of December 1833, the 17th of February, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 435 

the 21st of April, and the 1st of December 1834, Dr. 
Hibbert had read papers on " The Fossils of the Fresh- 
water Limestone of Burdiehouse," which were printed 
in the Transactions of the Society, vol. xiii. All 
these papers he afterwards connected in a single 
Memoir, printed for private circulation, and illustrated 
by many plates ; a view of old Burdiehouse quarry, 
its fossil plants, lesser fish, sauroid remains, large 
fossil teeth, part of the jawbone and round scales of 
the Megalichthys, scales of the Megalichthys and 
dorsal rays of the Gyracanthus, and specimens of the 
Eurypterus, mostly all engraved from very correct 
drawings by Mrs. Hibbert, with the exception of two 
or three by other members of his family. 

The Memoir is divided into two parts and a 
supplement. The first part treats of the fresh-water 
limestone of Burdiehouse in reference to the vege- 
table and animal remains which it encloses. The 
second part treats of the geological relations of that 
limestone ; and in the supplement, Dr. Hibbert notices 
certain other fresh-water limestones in the vicinity of 
Edinburgh. He observed that before the appearance 
of his Memoir no geological description had ever been 
published of a fresh-water limestone belonging to the 
Carboniferous group of rocks the existence of which 
had been even doubted ; and that the limestone of 
Burdiehouse contained no marine remains whatever ; 
whilst the plants it enclosed were developed in the 
greatest abundance, and in a most beautiful state of 
preservation. Entomostoaca, analogous to the recent 
tenants of fresh-water marshes, abounded in the lime- 



436 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

stone, and in it were also enclosed numerous small 
fishes ; but the deposit was most remarkable for the 
monsters which it contained immense sauroid fish, 
forming the first connecting-link between saurian and 
finny tribes, the existence of which during the Carboni- 
ferous epoch was a new and important fact in geology. 
Other extraordinary fish were considered as approach- 
ing to the Cestracion of New Holland. These details 
formed the first part of his Memoir. 

In the second part of it he investigated the geolo- 
gical relations of the limestone of Burdiehouse, the 
system of strata among which the calcareous deposit 
of Burdiehouse had been formed ; and he concluded 
with a summary of the evidence relative to the origin 
of the limestone of that place, in which that fresh- 
water deposit was compared with the estuarian lime- 
stone of Ashford, in Derbyshire, and with the pelagic 
limestone of other localities. 

In the supplement he briefly noticed some few 
other limestones in the vicinity of Edinburgh, and 
also gave an outline of one of the most unique deposits 
in Great Britain, namely, that of Kirkton, near 
Bathgate, which indicated a deposit from thermal 
waters coeval with the Carboniferous epoch. 

Professor Buckland, in a note to his Bridgewater 
Treatise, afterwards published in 1836, vol. i., p. 276, 
refers to this Memoir, and observes that scales like 
those discovered by Dr. Hibbert had recently been 
found in the coal formation of Newcastle-on-Tyne ; 
also specimens of heads of two similar fishes, and part 
of a body covered with scales, from the coalfield near 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 437 

Leeds ; and that Sir Philip Grey Egerton had lately 
discovered scales of the Megalichthys, teeth, and 
coprolites, in the coal formation of Silverdale, near 
Newcastle-under-Lyne. 

The vegetable fossil remains discovered at Burdie- 
house also excited much attention amongst scientific 
men, and Professor John Lindley of London, who had 
been examining the specimens, wrote to Dr. Hibbert 
on the 8th of November telling him that he should be 
furnished with any information he might wish for 
respecting the fossil plants found at Burdiehouse, 
and that drawings of them were being prepared at 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne by Mr. William Button, who 
shortly afterwards wrote himself to the Doctor that 
the whole of the July number of his Flora should be 
devoted to the Burdiehouse fossils he had sent him. 

In the course of the summer of 1834, William, Dr. 
Hibbert's second son, returned home from Canada. 
The young gentleman had not been idle during his 
residence in the colony ; for, being a very accomplished 
draughtsman, he had filled his portfolio with sketches. 
His father wished him to enter the medical profes- 
sion ; but the son's inclinations were in favour of the 
army, so a compromise was made between them the 
latter consenting to finish his medical studies, and the 
former promising to use his interest to obtain for him 
a surgeon's commission in the army. So William 
Hibbert began to prosecute his studies with great 
ardour at the Universities of Glasgow and of Edin- 
burgh, and to all appearances a bright career seemed 
to open out before him. 



438 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

In the month of November of this year Mrs. 
Hibbert presented her good lord with another son. 

The Burdiehouse fossil animals seem to have 
afforded no small amusement to her friends ; for one 
of them, writing to congratulate her on the happy 
event just mentioned, says : 

"My correspondent does not mention whether the young 
Hibberti has got a large -head and conical tail. I beg you will 
enlighten me on the subject." 

Another friend writes : 

" I am desired by the Duchess to return her best thanks to 
Dr. Hibbert for the book he sent her, and many thanks from 
Elizabeth for the minerals, which are a great addition to her 
museum. She immediately began to study the book, and I 
imparted to her the meaning of coprolites, which amused us much. 
"We laughed so much at breakfast when I read your paragraphs, 
that the Duchess and Mungo Murray begged to know the cause, 
and I had to explain the whole matter to them ; but as you say 
ladies and gentlemen talk of such matters coolly in the Modern 
Athens, why should not we in Dunkeld ? It is too bad that 
other people should run off with the specimens of the quarry. 
Are such things considered public property ? The short and the 
long of it is, that Jameson is jealous of Dr. Hibbert having made 
the discovery, and still more annoyed that he differs from his 
theory of salt water. I am happy to hear you are so well satisfied 
with the account of William Hibbert ; we all took such a fancy to 
him in that short visit we had from him. What part of England 
are you going to, and when do you really set outl" 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 439 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 

Dr. Hibbert leaves Edinburgh Mrs. Hibbert dies at Harrogate He 
settles in York. 

AT the end of the year 1834 Dr. and Mrs. Hibbert 
had been preparing for their final departure from 
Edinburgh a step which must, however, have been a 
painful one for him, since in leaving that city he left 
a circle of valued scientific and literary friends in 
whom he had for many years found congenial spirits. 
But cogent reasons had necessitated this step, and 
among them the desirability that he should not be at 
so great a distance from his property ; while another 
reason, and one perhaps more serious, was a necessity 
for retrenchment in his expenses for his many journeys 
on the Continent and in Scotland when pursuing his 
scientific researches, and necessary visits to England 
had been a constant drain on his purse. 

Mrs. Hibbert's strength, too, had been greatly on 
the decline since the birth of her last child, and her 
husband was most anxious to find a place of retire- 
ment and rest where this companion of his geological 
and antiquarian rambles should recruit, as he fondly 
hoped, her shattered health ; accordingly, in the early 



440 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

spring of 1835, they took as a temporary resting-place 
a cottage in Harrogate. 

If the Doctor had deeply regretted leaving his 
Edinburgh friends, they on their side reciprocated the 
regret, which was kindly expressed by one of them 
Lord Greenock when thanking him for his book on 
Burdiehouse. 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote that nobleman on the 5th of February 
1835 "I have never experienced more gratification from any 
circumstance than that which I received from your kindness in 
sending me a copy of your very interesting paper on the Fresh- 
water Limestone of Burdiehouse, as I shall ever regard it as a 
proof of your friendship and esteem, which I have always been 
most desirous to possess. And while in common with every 
well-wisher to the advancement of geology in Scotland I have to 
regret your removal from Edinburgh, I shall always continue to 
feel the greatest interest in the future welfare and prosperity of 
yourself and family ; and it will at all times give me the greatest 
pleasure to learn that you are enjoying health and opportunity 
to prosecute fresh discoveries in that branch of science which 
already owes so much to your talents and exertions. With best 
compliments to Mrs. Hibbert, believe me, my dear sir, most truly 
yours, GREENOCK." 

Though in the midst of the bustle and fatigue of a 
removal, and the packing up of a large library and 
collection of minerals, Dr. Hibbert did not overlook 
his promise to his son William; and before leaving 
Edinburgh he wrote to Sir James M'Grigor, the Chief 
of the Medical Department of the Army, begging that 
he would do him the favour to place on his list of 
candidates for surgeoncies in the army the name of 
William Hibbert. Sir James made the following kind 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 441 

reply to the application a fatal application, as it 
proved in the future, for the young candidate : 

LONDON, 22d April 1835. 

DEAR SIR In acknowledging the receipt of your letter of 
the llth instant, I beg to assure you that every attention in my 
power shall be paid to your son. 

Although I have not the pleasure to be personally known 
to you, I am not a stranger to your name, which stands high in 
the scientific world, and the son of Dr. Hibbert has a claim on 
me, or any one who might happen to fill the office which I have 
the honour to hold. On receiving back the paper from your son, 
which I sent to him through Dr. Grant, and ascertaining that he 
possesses the qualifications required, I will immediately place his 
name on the list of candidates for the Medical Department of the 
Army. 

That list is a very long one ; and from the number on it, and 
the length of time many have been there, I dare not promise 
your son a prospect of a speedy appointment, but he may rely on 
my not forgetting him and whose son he is. Believe me, dear 
sir, very truly yours, JAMES M'GRIGOR. 

Notwithstanding the great number of candidates 
on Sir James M'Grigor's list, William Hibbert had not 
to wait very long for a commission ; but in those days 
favouritism and interest flourished bravely in high 
places. Our competitive examinations are good in 
their way, and secure in some degree the appoint- 
ment of qualified young men to public offices ; but 
they will never do away with favouritism and interest 
as long as human feelings are what they ever have 
been, whatever some pure souls may think on the 
subject. 

Soon after his arrival at Harrogate Dr. Hibbert 
wrote to thank Sir James M'Grigor, and to intimate 



442 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

the nature of the studies he would direct his son to 
pursue. 

HARROGATE, 6th May 1835. 

DEAR Sm JAMES The very kind letter which you did me 
the honour to transmit through Dr. Badenoch I received when I 
was on the point of setting off for Harrogate, where I remain 
for some time on account of the ill-health of some of the members 
of my family. I have also warned my son against manifesting 
any undue impatience, which in youth is perhaps excusable ; I 
only wish him to completely fulfil your object, which is so pro- 
perly directed towards securing a good quality of medical officers 
for the army. Accordingly, I shall take care that the interval 
between the period when you were so kind as to place my son's 
name on the list of candidates and the period when he may be 
called upon for service, be closely occupied in extending his scien- 
tific pursuits, not only in military surgery but in natural history 
and natural philosophy. I have no wish but that he should do 
credit to my own intentions to render him worthy of His Majesty's 
Service. I have the honour to be, dear Sir James, with the 
greatest esteem, your very obliged and faithful servant, 

S. HIBBERT. 

We will insert two or three letters containing 
paternal lectures, as they will give some insight into 
Dr. Hibbert's mode of expressing himself, which was 
at times a little high-flown and grandiloquent, as we 
have before observed. On one occasion he wrote to his 
son William, when impressing economy upon him : 
" As living in Edinburgh will cost much money, you 
must be content with the humble fare and the mean 
condition which some farmer's house in the country 
affords." We can imagine with what a grimace such 
an intimation would be received by a young dandy ! 

But Dr. Hibbert's sons knew well that his ex- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 443 

aggerated expressions were only so many " winged 
words," to which he himself attached no real meaning ; 
for as soon as he had cooled down, his purse was ever 
freely opened to them. 

The following letter shows how anxious he was for 
their welfare, both spiritual and temporal : 

HAKROGATE, May 30th, 1835. 

MY DEAR WILLIAM You may of course stay in your present 
lodgings, but would not a small way out of town be better for 
your health ? I have now -some reliance on your steadiness, and 
be assured I have not received a greater delight for some time 
than in the very honourable testimonials which you have brought 
with you from London. 

I pray for your continued happiness, and I beg that you will 
constantly attend to the moral state of your mind and disposition, 
and never fail to commend yourself and your worldly interests to 
the superintendence of a kind Providence, who ever, amidst your 
sins and errors, has watched over you, and will continue to bless 
you if you fear and obey Him. 

Let me have regularly, at the expiration of the week, your 
expenses, and I shall be able soon to calculate the weekly allow- 
ance which I shall be enabled to make you. You will then be 
put to your own resources to make the allowance answer, a dis- 
cipline which you ought to be subject to. Your affectionate 
father, S. HIBBERT. 

Mr. Willm. Hibbert, 

207 Buchanan Street, 

Glasgow. 

The Doctor was in expectation of soon seeing his 
brother, Captain George Hibbert, who, in a gossiping 
letter announcing his intended visit to Harrogate, 
related an instance of the very good memory, for 
names at least, of the King : 



444 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

".I attended the levee on the 16th of May," wrote George 
Hibbert, " presented by Sir James Kemp. The King asked me 
if I was related to the Hibberts of Jamaica." 

Probably when William IV. was a midshipman he 
had been stationed at Jamaica, and along with other 
officers had been at some entertainments given by 
the Hibberts, who were a branch of the Manchester 
merchants of that name. 

William Hibbert had evidently been showing at 
this time some signs of impatience respecting his army 
commission, and in consequence he received the fol- 
lowing paternal lecture, which the young man had 
carefully preserved along with many other letters 
from his father : 

" I cannot understand what your letter is driving at," wrote 
the Doctor, on the 5th of July, " it seems so strange an one, and 
as is usual with you, exhibits no fixed principle of conduct or 
prudence which is satisfactory. After reading your letter to both 
Sarah and your mother, we are all of us at a loss what to make 
of it. We think you mean to tell us you are tired of Glasgow, 
and that you wish for a change of situation ! Should that be 
the case, I should indeed despair of you. After the object of 
your visit to Glasgow is finished, I will give you leave to be as 
restless as you like about your situation, for I shall be restless 
also myself if the necessity of continuing any means for your 
future support should arise. Why did you not graduate the year 
that young Stark did? Answer that, and blush for ever for 
your foolish, wicked conduct. 

"I do expect that while you are at Glasgow you will study 
all the books recommended to you by the Army Board. I also 
expect that you will complete your studies on the eye and the 
philosophy of the human mind ; your botany must also be at- 
tended to. Your botany and comparative anatomy must be kept 
up, as the greatest recommendations for you in the army. With 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 445 

regard to mineralogy, it forms a part of chemistry, and you ougJit 
to have known it, especially considering the great advantages, 
which you despised at the time, to be obtained from my private 
collections advantages which will never be afforded you again. 
With regard to geology, it will also be expected that you should 
know something of the science, especially considering it is a 
science now so generally cultivated, and considering the connec- 
tion in which you stand to me. But I believe you never 
thought of geology, except in reference to some very unnatural 
attempts at ridicule, of which your own father was the unnatural 
object. If so fortunate a circumstance had happened that you 
had known geology, my recommendation might possibly have 
obtained for you even some public appointment abroad, as young 
Ainsworth has obtained on that very score. Your uncle is 
coming to Harrogate in a day or two, to spend a week or so ; 
he is along with Miss Ainsworth and Mrs. James Ainsworth's 
daughter. 

" It is possible that for the sake of economy I may settle in 
York, where I am less known than in Lancashire, and where I 
may of course live more according to my own wish, as far as 
manner goes. Very affectionately yours, S. HIBBERT." 

The " public appointment abroad," to which Dr. 
Hibbert alludes in this letter, was the Euphrates Ex- 
pedition, under the late General Chesney, to which 
William Francis Ainsworth, Ph.D., whom we have 
before had occasion to mention in this Memoir, had 
been appointed surgeon and geologist. During this 
expedition, Mr. Ainsworth made several excursions 
into Syria and Persia, and he returned to England by 
Kurdistan, searching for coal strata ; and the results 
of his wanderings were his valuable and interesting 
works, Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldea ; Travels 
in Asia Minor ; and Travels in the Track of the Ten 
Thousand Greeks. 



446 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

To return to Dr. Hibbert's letter to his son, we 
must here say a few words in extenuation of William 
Hibbert's delinquencies. Though possessed of talents 
and abilities of no mean order, he had certainly been 
idle when at the Edinburgh University ; still we must 
not take in their literal sense the words in the fore- 
going letter, " you never thought of geology, except 
in reference to some very unnatural attempts at ridi- 
cule, of which your own father was the unnatural 
object." Probably William Hibbert did not hold 
geology in the same high estimation as did his father ; 
and at that time older heads were not very partial to 
the science then in its infancy. Be that as it may, 
the "unnatural attempts at ridicule" of which Dr. 
Hibbert complained, but at which he had heartily 
laughed when it first came to his ears, was this : 
William Hibbert was an accomplished mimic, and, 
being a handsome likeness of his father, it is not sur- 
prising that he could reproduce the paternal face 
with all its peculiarities (for he had some) ; and when 
his father urged upon him the necessity of studying 
geology, the young scapegrace obeyed the injunction 
in his own fashion, and donning the paternal geolo- 
gising jacket, and supplying himself with a few 
minerals and a hammer, he proceeded to give a lec- 
ture to his brothers and sisters and some young lady 
visitors, chipping the minerals, and making use of all 
the hard geological words he could command, at the 
same time twisting his face so as to reproduce that of 
his sire. 

The time was now fast approaching when Dr. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 447 

Hibbert would be called on to endure a very great 
affliction, the loss of a wife endeared to him not 
only by ties of the deepest affection, but by a striking 
similarity of tastes and inclinations. Unwilling as he 
ever was to foresee illness in those he loved, he failed 
to perceive the slow but gradual decay of his wife's 
strength. She too may have fostered this delusion 
on his part; for knowing how nervously depressed he 
would be if he thought anything serious ailed her, 
she tried to keep him in ignorance as to her state of 
health, till at length, on the 6th of July, she fairly 
broke down, prostrated by a nervous fever. The 
shock was more severe to her husband since it was 
unlocked for by him. 

The next three weeks were weeks of cruel anxiety 
and sorrow ; there were fluctuations of hope and again 
of fear, as we glean from the Doctor's memoranda, 
till the evening of the 1st of August, when he was 
called suddenly to his wife's room. He found that a 
change had taken place, and that she was getting 
cold. Warm stimulants were offered and taken, but 
the debility was far too great to be relieved, and she 
expired tranquilly, but so suddenly, that he indulged 
himself for awhile in the illusion that vitality was 
suspended, under some form of hysteria, rather than 
that it was terminated. 

" Where the tree falls, there let it lie." So said 
the bereaved husband when deciding where he should 
lay the remains of his departed wife, and he buried 
her in a vault near the altar, in the church at Knares- 
borough, the only persons present at the funeral being 



448 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Dr. Hibbert and two of his sons, and a son of Mrs. 
Hibbert by her first marriage, William Douglas Scott, 
now Major Scott, late 51st. 

The blow, when it fell, was stunning ; but sustained 
as he was by a deep feeling of religion, Dr. Hibbert 
submitted with resignation to the will of God. Yet, 
to the latest days of his life, he did not forget this 
great affliction. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 449 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

York Mr. Joseph Jordan elected Surgeon to the Manchester Infir- 
mary The Lancaster Cross and Baines's History of Lancashire 
Review of the Foundations of Manchester in the Gentleman's 
Magazine Professor Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise The Over- 
land Route to India. 

AFTER the funeral, Dr. Hibbert, with his eldest 
daughter Miss Sarah Hibbert, and his three young 
children, one of them a baby, set out for York ; for 
the poignancy of the great grief which afflicted him 
was too intense to allow of his remaining where he 
had sustained so grievous a loss. 

Perhaps the greatest solace he received in this 
hour of affliction was the affectionate sympathy of his 
deceased wife's relatives. His only surviving brother 
George strove also, with words of brotherly affection, 
to soften his great sorrow. 

" I regret to find," he wrote from London, " that your health 
is not as it should be, though I cannot wonder at it when I 
think of the sore affliction you have been visited with. Do, my 
dear brother, strive against it, for the sake of your young family. 
How thankful you ought to be that you are blessed with such 
a daughter as Sarah, for without her you would have been 
helpless indeed." 

Miss Hibbert was at this time about twenty-one 

2 G 



450 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

years of age. Before dismissing the name of the 
second Mrs. Hibbert from our pages we should wish 
to pay a slight tribute to her memory. Though pos- 
sessed of a superior intellect, which she had improved 
by study, she was ever most unassuming and retiring 
in society, and never made a display of her know- 
ledge. 

Those nearly related to her by ties of blood 
judged highly of her merits ; but for a more impartial 
estimate of her character we turn to a letter written 
to Dr. Hibbert on the 15th of August by a more 
distant connection of the deceased lady, yet one who 
knew her intimately ; 

Most sincerely do Lady Strathallan and I sympathise and 
condole with you. A more amiable and excellent person never 
existed, which, at her period of life, renders her loss more 
deplorable, especially for those dear little ones ; and we can 
only hope they may inherit a share of their mother's spirit, and 
partake of those attainments for which she was so distinguished. 
It will always afford Lady Strathallan and myself great pleasure 
to hear of your and their welfare ; and with my affectionate regards 
and kind wishes, in which Lady Strathallan and our daughter 
unite, believe me always, my dear sir, very faithfully yours, 

STRATHALLAN. 

In the trying role of stepmother, Mrs. Hibbert 
showed a tenderness of heart, tact, and judgment 
rarely to be met with in those who fill that invidious 
post. The writer of this Memoir has been informed, 
by one who lived under the same roof with her for 
years, that though he never knew her to have the 
slightest altercation with her husband, with whom 
she generally coincided on every point, yet, whenever 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 451 

Dr. Hibbert had occasion to blame or punish any 
of his children by his former marriage, she never 
took part with him, but rather did her best to screen 
them. The epithets of the ancient poets, dura nO- 
verca and sceva noverca, could certainly not have been 
applied to her. 

Being now settled in York, Dr. Hibbert had the 
pleasure of meeting there a very old friend of his 
family, Mrs. Howard, formerly a Miss Baron, a mem- 
ber of an old Manchester Presbyterian family, and 
niece of the late Lieutenant- General Waller, a de- 
scendant of the celebrated Sir William Waller, the 
poet and Parliamentary-General. Mrs. Howard was 
the wife of Charles Howard, Esq., of Melbourne, near 
York, the eminent agriculturist whose son, the late 
Dr. Eichard Baron Howard, was physician to the 
Manchester Workhouse, and the author of an able 
pamphlet entitled, " An Inquiry into the Morbid 
Effects of Deficiency of Food, chiefly with refer- 
ence to their occurrence amongst the Destitute 
Poor." 

Perhaps it was a happy incident that business 
connected with the purchase of a majority in the 40th 
for his brother George called the Doctor to Man- 
chester at this time, since his mind was thereby dis- 
tracted from constant reflection on the painful loss 
he had sustained. 

Many dear and valued old friends also resided in 
Manchester, whose society cheered and soothed him ; 
but, unfortunately, asthma had already begun to dis- 
tress him at intervals, and, finding the smoke of his 



452 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

native town prejudicial, he made it a rule always to 
sleep at the Angel Inn, in the village of Stretford. 
During this visit he arranged with his bankers 
(Messrs. Jones, Lloyd, and Co.) on behalf of his 
brother, for advancing the regulation price of the 
majority we have alluded to, 1400, along with 400 
above that price to be paid to the retiring officer. The 
affection of the two brothers for each other was always 
great, and on this occasion George Hibbert only ex- 
pressed the feelings that ever actuated him when he 
wrote, on the 27th of October : 

Your affectionate letter reached me this morning, and I 
hasten to inform you that I have got the official document from 
Lord Fitzroy Somerset, directing me to lodge the money in the 
agent's hands, it being Lord Hill's intention to recommend me 
for promotion. I accordingly put myself into an omnibus for the 
city, with yours and Lord Fitzroy's letters in my pocket, showed 
them to Mr. Lewis Lloyd, who was complimentary enough to 
say that, independent of your letter, the name would be suf- 
ficient, and that the money would be in Cox's hands to-morrow 
morning. Thank you kindly, my dear brother, for the interest 
you take in me ; and that you may be fully restored to the enjoy- 
ment of health and happiness is the prayer of your affectionate 
brother, GEORGE HIBBERT. 

Whilst in Manchester, Dr. Hibbert met with Mr. 
Samuel Gaskell, a fellow-student and friend of his son 
William, from whom he learned that the health of 
the latter was not quite satisfactory ; and this gives 
an opportunity of showing how the worthy Doctor 
had modified his opinions since those old days at 
Berwick and Haddington, when he held such Spartan- 
like views as to the training of children, and advo- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 453 

cated and adopted a rigid, hardening process. Writing 
to his son William, Dr. Hibbert says : 

"If you have the opportunity of attending Dr. Christison's 
lectures, it will be a very great pity not to avail yourself of it, 
for I think he is one of the ablest professors in Edinburgh 
College. By-the-by, Mr. Samuel Gaskell, of the Manchester 
Infirmary, who is truly anxious for your welfare, tells me that 
your health, in his opinion, is but delicate, and he censures you 
for your light clothing. I wish you to buy two ready-made 
woollen shirts, which will be for the present a sufficient supply, 
one being at the wash while the other is worn. Wear one next 
the skin ; also get, but for the winter only, a doeskin waistcoat, 
which you may wear over the flannel, taking the doeskin waist- 
coat off when you go to bed. Also, supply yourself with good 
woollen drawers. You have been shamefully neglectful in pro- 
tection for the lower extremities." 

No sooner had the Doctor returned to York than 
lie received a letter, dated the 12th of December 1835, 
from his old friend Mr. Jordan, which had the effect 
of recalling him to Manchester in a few weeks a 
beneficial circumstance, in so far as it tended to occupy 
his mind. 

" You will be sorry to hear of the sudden death of Mr. 
Whatton," wrote Mr. Jordan. "I write to ask your interest, as 
I propose to offer myself as surgeon. Could you write to some 
of your friends ? I need not say that you being known to sup- 
port me would much strengthen my interest." 

The death of Mr. Whatton had made a vacancy 
among the surgeons of the Manchester Infirmary, and 
several candidates were in the field. 

The election was a hotly contested one, and Dr. 
Hibbert gave Mr. Jordan all the support in his power, 



454 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 

by writing to the many influential friends he had in 
Manchester and the neighbourhood. 

On the important day which decided the victory in 
favour of Mr. Jordan, two old friends, whilom brother 
officers in the 1st Lancashires of the newly-elected 
surgeon, were seated with him in his dining-room, 
congratulating him on his success. These two old 
officers were Dr. Hibbert and Captain Edward Jones. 

Elated with victory, Mr. Jordan exclaimed in 
exultant tones, " I have now reached the height of 
my ambition ; I will retire from practice, enjoy mine 
ease, and keep my carriage ; my dear Doctor, pray tell 
me what motto I shall take for my coat of arms." 

" PERGE, PERGE," replied the Doctor, pronouncing 
the letter e rather like u, so as to give the word some- 
what of the sound of purge; and then he added 
laughingly, " Go on, my dear fellow, go on, and get 
higher still ;" for well he knew that it was not in the 
nature of his friend Jordan ever to be idle and give 
up practice. 

It may be noticed here that Mr. Joseph Jordan 
died only a few years ago, at the great age of eighty- 
six, having acquired a very large fortune with strict 
integrity and credit to himself; for he practised his 
profession not only with skill but as a gentleman and 
a man of honour, never stooping to such acts as pour- 
ing in unnecessary visits to his patients and so forth. 
The same might be said of other eminent Manchester 
practitioners of his time, as Ainsworth, Brigham, 
Ransome, Thorpe, Turner, Wilson, and many more. 

Towards the close of the year 1835 and the begin- 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 455 

ning of 1836, literary transactions connected with 
Lancashire occupied some of Dr. Hibbert's time. He 
had felt much interest in the important and valuable 
History of Lancashire which Edward Baines, Esq., 
M.P., was then bringing to a close, and on the 21st 
of December 1835 that gentleman wrote from 
Leeds : 

" You have greatly increased the load of obligation that you 
have before conferred upon me, by sending me the drawings of 
the ancient cross with the Runic inscription, and by your pro- 
vident care in writing to Copenhagen to obtain the sentiments 
of Professor Magnusson upon this interesting piece of antiquity. 
When the paper on the antiquarian transactions of Copenhagen 
arrives, I shall be happy to be allowed the use of it for my Lan- 
cashire History. When I have used the drawing and tracings 
they shall be returned to you." 

Unfortunately, the interpretation given by Pro- 
fessor Magnusson of the Runic inscription on the 
ancient cross to which Mr. Baines alludes, came too 
late for him to make use of. The learned Dane had 
entrusted his paper on the subject to Mr. Macdougall, 
Curator of one of the Royal Libraries of Copenhagen, 
who was unfortunately drowned in the autumn of 
1835 by the upsetting of a boat, in consequence of 
which accident Dr. Hibbert did not receive the expla- 
nation of the Runic characters for upwards of a year. 

Drawings of the cross and casts of the inscription 
had been made by Captain Edward Jones, and these 
appear in volume iv. of Baines's ffistor?/ of Lancashire. 
This interesting piece of antiquity is upwards of three 
feet in height, and is covered with entangled scrolls, 
in relief, the usual characteristics of Runic crosses. 



456 SAMUEL HIBBEilT WARE'S 

Below these ornamental carvings is the inscription 
which, has exercised the skill of Anglo-Saxon and 
Scandinavian scholars to interpret. 
, The cross had been dug up in the churchyard of 
St. Mary's at Lancaster by the sexton, some time about 
the year 1807, and lay for a considerable time neglected, 
when it disappeared. It was said that it had been 
sold by the gravedigger for 5s. to some one at Kendal. 
However, it was in a private museum at that town 
when Dr. Hibbert went to see it in the year 1834. 
After the death of the owner of this museum, it was 
sold along with other objects of curiosity, and was 
bought for Dr. Holme of Manchester by a friend ; 
but what became of it after the death of that gentle- 
man in 1847 the editor is not able to say. 

We shall write further of this cross in another 
chapter. 

The other literary transaction relative to Lanca- 
shire which engaged Dr. Hibbert's attention for a 
short time was a review of the History of the Founda- 
tions in Manchester, in the oldest and then one of the 
most influential magazines in England the Gentle- 
man's. Of this work the reviewer says : 

" This is a very elaborate and excellent work, combining the 
utmost minuteness of detail necessary in local histories, and 
accuracy in extent of research, with a history of events of general 
importance, and linking them to the important occurrences of 
history, while many very interesting biographical notices are 
interspersed throughout. The work is founded on the collection 
of the Rev. G. Greswell, schoolmaster of the Chetham Institution, 
who was for several years employed in collecting materials for 
the History of Manchester; but as his materials were found to 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 457 

be too imperfect to publish, Dr. Hibbert of Edinburgh undertook 
the task of remodelling them. No trouble or expense seems to 
have been spared by the publishers in making their work both 
copious and exact. The typography is handsome, and the plates 
well executed. The chief share of the. work is undoubtedly Dr. 
Hibbert's, and the library of Mr. Heywood of Swinton Lodge 
was the ample repository of his richest materials. Those relating 
to the events of Manchester during the grand rebellion are of 
the greatest interest ; indeed, the annals of the Presbyterian 
Church of Manchester will form a curious part of the general 
history of these times in all future accounts. To those interested 
by connection of family or proximity of residence with Man- 
chester, it will be a storehouse of information, and as we have 
said, to the general history of our country it has brought its 
accession of materials." 

William Hibbert had received a private letter, 
dated the 8th of January 1836, written by Sir James 
M'Grigor himself, requiring him to attend in London 
for examination, previously to being recommended 
for a commission in the army. 

" On coming to London," wrote Sir James, "you must bring 
with you all your diplomas, certificates of attendance on classes, 
etc. etc., and further, certificates of moral character. One of the 
certificates of moral character must be by a clergyman. You 
will observe that a married gentleman is inadmissible into the 
service, and that if you marry within two years after you are 
gazetted your commission will be cancelled. As the son of Dr. 
Hibbert, you may be assured I shall not fail to call you up for 
examination at as early a period as I can." 

William Hibbert's conduct had never been such as 
to preclude him from obtaining the required certifi- 
cate, which was given him by a Presbyterian minister 
who had been a private tutor in the family, and which, 
moreover, shows how careful Dr. Hibbert had been 



458 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

in the education of his sons. The Rev. Mr. Whyte 
wrote on the 3d of February 1836 : 

I have much pleasure in stating that I have been intimately 
acquainted with Mr. William Hibbert for the last fifteen years. 
During the first five of these I had the honour to be classical 
tutor in Dr. Hibbert's family. The next two years were spent 
in Continental schools, and from the period of Mr. William 
Hibbert's return, when he commenced his medical studies, to the 
present, I have had constant occasion to remark his exemplary 
moral character. Unlike many who turn to the study of 
medicine as a profitable speculation, and without the pre-requisite 
acquirements, Mr. W. Hibbert has from boyhood been trained to 
all the habits and associations of a liberally-educated naturalist. 
No pains or expense have been spared to render him an accom- 
plished scholar, and it affords me much pleasure to remark that 
he has industriously availed himself of his father's liberality. 

WILLIAM WHYTE, Preacher, 
George Watson's Hospital, Edinburgh. 

William Hibbert was, in truth, as Mr. Whyte said, 
an accomplished scholar, for he had been well drilled 
in the ancient classics, both at Macclesfield Grammar 
School, at the High School of Edinburgh, and at the 
University there ; and as soon as he had determined 
to enter the medical service in the army his father 
impressed upon him the necessity of " rubbing up " 
his Latin and Greek, Sir James M'Grigor having 
been anxious to secure officers not only possessing the 
necessary medical qualifications but the education of 
gentlemen. Another qualification which William 
Hibbert possessed, and which was of the greatest 
advantage to him, was his skill as a draughtsman, 
and being, as we have before observed, ambidexter, 
he could draw and paint with either hand ; nay, in so 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 459 

remarkable a degree did he possess this gift that he 
could perform with both hands at the same time, and 
his drawing -master, Mr. Dick of Edinburgh, was 
wont, on more than one occasion, to introduce some 
gentleman into his class-room to see young Hibbert 
execute his drawing. 

The latter had passed his examination creditably, 
and his father, congratulating him, wrote as follows : 

" I am rejoiced beyond measure, as Sarah was also, to hear 
that you had passed so creditably. You now feel the rewards of 
honest zeal and industry in the cause of science and of that pro- 
fession which you yourself elected, and I trust that by a continu- 
ance in well-doing still greater rewards and honours will await 

you." 

The young surgeon was soon sent to Fort Pitt to 
do duty on the medical staff of the army until he 
should be appointed to a regiment. 

Dr. Hibbert, who had been at this time again 
absent from home, had nearly met with an accident. 
We will give his own account of it to his son William, 
which, as usual, is written in rather exaggerated 
terms : 

"I came home yesterday. I was in a coach passing near 
Rochdale, being an inside passenger. The coach upset near 
Littleboro by the loss of the linchpin, whereby two of the 
outside passengers were seriously injured. One of them had a 
compound fracture of the leg, and the other sustained two deep 
cuts across the forehead, so as to lay bare the cranium. Unfor- 
tunately for me, the latter gentleman rode on the outside in 
order to please the proprietors of the coach, who endeavoured in 
the foulest manner to swindle me out of the inside place I had 
taken the day before, and to induce me to ride outside, a design 
which I, of course, resisted ; and to make the result still more 



460 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

painful to me, it proved that the sufferer was the son of an old 
respected acquaintance of mine, the Eev. Mr. Turner of New- 
castle. I saw Mr. Turner's son to his residence in Halifax, 
and placed him under the superintendence of his wife. A Dr. 
Moulson of Halifax writes to me that he is doing as favourably 
as can be expected. You here see how thankful I ought to be 
to Providence for my narrow escape." 

William Hibbert having thus successfully passed 
his examination before the Army Medical Board, his 
father urged him on to the further prosecution of his 
studies. 

" There is an exceeding complaint in many quarters," wrote 
Dr. Hibbert on the 26th of January, " that young men are not 
educated for the army who understand natural history so well as 
to avail themselves of the situations in which they are thrown in 
distant quarters of the globe, to render valuable contributions to 
science, and the Government has been very often solicitous to find 
out such young naturalists, and to give them a lucrative employ- 
ment in the expeditions they send out. This is a hint for yourself." 

But the Doctor did not, on the occasion of his 
son going to Fort Pitt, omit giving him a lecture on 
economy, couched in his usual energetic phraseology. 

" MY DEAR WILLIAM," he wrote on the 27th of February, 
" Your accounts, as you remark, are tremendously heavy. Send 
me an account of the articles of the hosier's bill 8 : 1 2 : 3 
at which I am puzzled. Does it also include shirts ? for shirts 
are not usually furnished by the hosiers. I wish you to be 
supplied with clothes, but, at the same time, I wish to see how 
the money has been spent. I am not sorry that you do not 
possess such a fribblery, contemptible toy as the watch which 
you had at Harrogate, but I trust you have not sold it. With 
regard to a watch, a good silver one, or, at the best, a good 
silver-gilt one, ought to be your greatest ambition, as far as a 
watch is concerned. Now I must caution you to be very careful 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 461 

regarding your appointments, in not ordering a superfluous 
number of them from regimental tailors and furnishers, whom I 
have always found to mislead young raw officers, and to spunge 
them properly. When you are quite settled, I will make you 
some regular allowance in addition to your pay. What is meant 
by 8/6 for medicines ? Are you unwell 1 Let me hear all about 
it. Ever affectionately yours, S. HIBBERT." 

Major George Hibbert now bade farewell to his 
brother and his friends in England, in order to return 
to his regiment, the 40th, at Bombay. It was not 
till after the lapse of many years, and after George 
Hibbert had gone through all the fatigues and dangers 
of a sharp campaign, that the two brothers again 
clasped each other's hands. He travelled by the 
overland route to India, then lately established and 
arranged by that great benefactor to Europe, the late 
Lieutenant Waghorn. 

While William Hibbert was on the medical staff 
at Fort Pitt, the Museum of Natural History at 
Chatham was placed in his charge, and he was 
directed to catalogue the specimens therein by Dr. 
Davy, brother of the celebrated Sir Humphrey, one of 
the staff-officers. The young surgeon attended strictly 
to the orders of his superior, by whom he was favour- 
ably noticed. But though thus employed in a manner 
not uncongenial to his tastes, he was becoming im- 
patient to be appointed to a regiment, and his father 
admonished him in characteristic letters. 

" MY DEAR WILLIAM," wrote the Doctor on the 8th of April, 
"I am no less sorry on your account than my own to find 
you are still ungazetted ; but this is only the first of a series of 
trials and disappointments that await you in the line of profes- 



462 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

sion which you have chosen for yourself, and under your present 
circumstances I can give no advice but PATIENCE PATIENCE 
PATIENCE. 

" Any fretfulness which you exhibit will not advance your 
object a single hour. Indeed, you will act more prudently by 
letting the delay have no effect whatever on your proceedings ; 
and if a very unreasonable time elapse without your being 
gazetted, I will interfere about the matter. But I trust you will 
not be many days ungazetted, particularly as your delay may be 
occasioned by the very numerous changes going on at this time 
of the year in all the regiments of the line, and independent of 
the occasional changes in various regiments, which have been 
rather unusual, as I find from the gazettes. 

" In the meantime continue at the mess, and let your zeal in 
arranging the museum of comparative anatomy at Chatham be 
undiminished, as it may recommend you to some particular 
service more than you are aware of. 

" I will, in about another week, send you another remit- 
tance. Yours affectionately, S. HIBBERT." 

In another letter of admonition, dated the 24th of 
April, the Doctor writes : 

DEAR WILLIAM Tell Dr. Davy how much obliged I am 
for his attention to you. And now with regard to yourself, I 
presume that Fisher will furnish your regimental appointments, 
but in this business I do not need to caution you to be as econ- 
omical as possible. I have seen many young officers, on their 
first promotion, launch out and buy many useless things of which 
they have afterwards repented. I will pay your bill in fitting 
you out, and I flatter myself you will not by any useless pur- 
chases abuse this privilege. If you order anything from Fisher, 
you will endeavour previously to ascertain the cost of it, or 
thereabouts, and get him to send me in his bill. Tell me what 
pay you receive. I shall make your allowance in addition to it 
as much as I can afford. 

And now with regard to your future operations : If possible, 
I will meet you in Scotland about July, as I am anxious that 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 463 

you should assist me in making some drawings for me in the 
Highlands, of certain monumental inscriptions, which must be 
done under my inspection, and you may then possibly (if your 
leave does not expire sooner) have time to return to York with 
me. With regard to your staff appointment, I am pleased with 
it, as it brings you under the immediate notice of influential 
persons, and I equally hope that you will not be removed from 
Chatham until you have had time completely to arrange the 
museum there, of comparative anatomy, and I do desire you to 
bend your whole thoughts to it, as nothing will serve to recom- 
mend you better should any scientific expedition, such as that 
of the Euphrates, etc. etc., be ever again meditated. Dr. Davy, 
in his valuable researches in Ceylon and elsewhere, is a model 
to you. And now my best hopes and prayers are, that you will 
continue your studies with the greatest earnestness, and that you 
will study all departments of zoology with care, and even turn 
your attention in some little degree to mineralogy, in the know- 
ledge of which you are deficient, as well as to geology, of which 
you know nothing whatever. If you see me either in Yorkshire or 
Scotland, I will give you some few practical lessons in geology, 
which may at a future time be of service to you. I hope to hear 
from you soon. Very affectionately yours, S. HIBBERT. 

A paragraph in this letter shows how greatly Dr. 
Hibbert missed the dear companion of his former wan- 
derings, of whose pencil he had been wont to make 
use ; for, skilful draughtsman as William Hibbert was, 
his father could only have availed himself occasionally, 
and for a very short time, of his services in making 
archaeological sketches for him. 

In the month of May this year (1836), the Doctor 
was gratified by the appearance of the Bridgewater 
Treatise of his friend, Professor Buckland; but his 
pleasure on this occasion had one great alloy, she 
who for a number of years had sympathised with and 



464 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

shared all his scientific labours, was no longer there 
to enjoy it with him. 

The work we have just alluded to is entitled, 
" Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference 
to Natural Theology, by the Kev. William Buckland, 
D.D., Canon of Christ Church, and Reader in Geology 
and Mineralogy in the University of Oxford." The 
Professor, in volume i. p. 275, speaks of the dis- 
coveries at Burdiehouse as follows : 

"Plate xxvil, Figures 11, 12, 13, 14, represent teeth of the 
largest sauroid fishes yet discovered, equalling in size the teeth 
of the largest crocodiles ; they occur in the lower region of the 
coal formation near Edinburgh, and are referred by M. Agassiz 
to a new genus, Megalichthys. Plate xxvii., Figures 9 and 4, 
are fragments of jaws containing many smaller teeth of the same 
kind. The external form of all these teeth is nearly conical, 
and within them is a conical cavity like that within the teeth 
of many saurians ; their base is fluted like the base of the teeth 
of the Ichthyosaurus. Their prodigious size shows the magni- 
tude which fishes of this family attained at a period so early as 
that of the coal formation ; their structure coincides entirely 
with that of the teeth of the living Lepidostem osseus. Plate 
xxvii., Figures 1, 2, 3." 

Professor Buckland appends a note to the above 
passage as follows : 

"We owe the discovery of these very curious teeth and 
much valuable information on the geology of the neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh to the zeal and discernment of Dr. Hibbert, in the 
spring of 1834. The limestone in which these fishes occur lies 
near the bottom of the coal formation, and is loaded with Cop- 
rolites, derived apparently from predaceous fishes. It is abun- 
dantly charged also with ferns and other plants of the coal 
formation, and with the crustaceous remains of Cyprus, 
a genus known only as an inhabitant of fresh water. These 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 465 

circumstances and the absence of corals and encrinites, and of 
all species of marine shells, render it probable that this deposit 
was formed in a fresh-water lake, or estuary. It has been recog- 
nised in various and distant places at the bottom of the carbon- 
iferous strata near Edinburgh." 

In the plate before referred to the great sauroid 
fish is styled Holoptychus Hibberti. 

After Major Hibbert's arrival in India, he sent home 
a detailed account of his overland journey, which 
being at that time anything but the easy overland 
route of the year 1882, it may not be uninteresting 
to cull a few extracts from his letter. On the 30th 
of April he and his fellow-traveller, Captain Leslie of 
the Bombay Artillery, arrived at Alexandria from 
Malta, sailed on the canal part of the way to Grand 
Cairo in a boat swarming with rats, fleas, and all sorts 
of disgusting vermin. On the 1st of May they changed 
boats on the Nile. On the 3d they landed, and 
having mounted donkeys, rode to Cairo. There they 
rested a night and then started on dromedaries for 
Suez, across the desert, travelling by night on account 
of the heat, and resting in the daytime ; and owing 
to some mismanagement of the agent, they fell short 
of water and provisions, and were wretchedly bad 
housed in bad tents. On the 6th of May the travellers 
arrived at Suez, where they embarked on board the 
Hugh Lindsay steamer and sailed down the Eed Sea, 
and anchored at Jedda on the llth. Here the passen- 
gers landed, and an Arab agent prepared for them an 
Arab dinner, one dish being a sheep cooked whole 
and stuffed with all sorts of things, no one knew what. 

2 H 



466 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

On the 1st of June the steamer arrived at Bombay. 
Among the passengers was the Rev. Mr. Wolff, the 
then well-known missionary, who parted at Jedda, 
where he assumed the Abyssinian dress before pro- 
ceeding to Massava. 

Although living in retirement at York, Dr. Hibbert 
did not shut himself up in his study like some melan- 
choly recluse ; for he considered that his daughter 
was young, and that it was requisite that she should 
see something of the outer world ; so we find him 
accompanying her to dinner and evening parties, to 
the concerts at the De Grey Rooms, and accepting 
invitations to the Mansion House balls. But gener- 
ally Miss Hibbert spent her evenings with her father, 
reading or studying, after she had seen to household 
affairs and the wants of the children, thus endeavour- 
ing, as much as possible, to alleviate the great be- 
reavement he had sustained. But the charge was a 
heavy one, and so indeed it was considered to be by 
a near relative of the late Mrs. Hibbert, who kindly 
wrote : 

" I fear you have much more to do and think of than is good 
for you. Those precious children are a great care and anxiety 
for one so young as yourself ; but I hope that you are taking all 
the care you can of your health. I am sure that your father 
will enforce your doing so." 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 467 



CHAPTER L. 

Antiquarian Tour in Ireland William Hibbert travels overland 
to India His sketches Mahometan superstition Sore eyes 
among the poor in Upper Egypt Continuation of the History 
of the Foundations of Manchester. 

FOR a long time past had Dr. Hibbert contem- 
plated making an antiquarian tour in Ireland, in 
which his late wife, had she lived, would have accom- 
panied him. His old friend Captain Edward Jones, 
aware of this, and thinking that the change of scene 
would be beneficial to him, now persuaded him to put 
his intention into execution, and proffered the services 
of his pencil. Accordingly, on the 6th of July 1836, 
they took their passage in the steamer from Liverpool 
to Dublin. 

Having settled themselves for a few days in the 
Irish capital, Mr. George Petrie, the distinguished 
author of the History of the Round Toivers of Ireland, 
called on Dr. Hibbert, and the two tourists visited 
several other literary men to whom the Doctor was 
known. 

Writing from Dublin on the 9th of July, to his 
son William, he says : 

" I was most exceedingly glad to receive an extract from the 



468 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Eeport of the State of the Military Museum at Chatham. This 
is information that gives me a pleasure of the greatest kind, and 
I trust that you will continue to let me have such favourable 
accounts of you. 

" I am now on an antiquarian tour through Ireland. I 
never was received with so much kindness in my life as by the 
good people of Dublin, particularly by those to whom I was 
known by my literary labours. The rich antiquarian museum 
of the Trinity College was open to me, and the librarian, Mr. 
Todd, spent some hours with me. The same also did the Dean 
of St. Patrick's, in showing me his antiquities, as well as Mr. 
Petrie, a famous antiquarian, who accompanied me in my visits 
to the neighbourhood. 

" I was with Sir William Betham, the Ulster King-at-Arms, 
to inquire after the almost lost family of the great antiquary of 
Ireland, Sir James Ware. Sir William proved to me that I was 
the representative in blood of my grandfather, who appears in 
Harris's History of Dublin, as ' Robert Ware, Esq., of Castle 
Street,' but who, upon spending his fortune, died as Lieutenant 
and Paymaster in the Royal Lancashire Militia. As such he 
entered me officially in bis account of the pedigree of Sir James 
Ware, and he required from me the names of all my children. 

" My health is very indifferent ; exertion fatigues me and 
reduces me to a state of imbecility (sic). I am indeed very 
weak, but I hope to mend before I return." 

After spending a few days in Dublin, the two 
tourists travelled through different parts of Ireland, 
Captain Jones assiduously sketching round -towers, 
crosses, cromlechs, cairns, and such like, and obtaining 
information, respecting objects they wished to see, from 
neighbouring priests, with whom the Captain, as a 
Catholic, fraternised, and whose tea and whisky punch 
and hospitality they both were happy to partake of. 

Having wandered through a great part of the 
country for several weeks, they again returned to 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 469 

Dublin. Whilst there Mr. Petrie looked minutely 
over Captain Jones' collection of sketches, and 
borrowed some of them in which he was particularly 
interested, to copy ; that gentleman also gave them 
an introduction to Major Sirr, who possessed many 
valuable Irish antiquities, specimens of minerals and 
paintings. 

We may here narrate an incident which occurred 
during a visit to Major Sirr. Dr. Hibbert observing 
the portrait of a very handsome young man, was so 
much struck with it, that he asked the Major who it 
was. " It is Lord Edward Fitzgerald," calmly replied 
the latter. The Doctor felt instantly much discon- 
certed and annoyed at having asked such a question, 
knowing that Major Sirr had arrested that chival- 
rous young nobleman, who died soon afterwards of 
the wounds he had received in the struggle ; but the 
Major himself appeared to be very unconcerned. 

During his father's absence in Ireland William 
Hibbert had been gazetted in the month of Sep- 
tember, as assistant-surgeon in the 2d Queen's Royals, 
then stationed in the Bombay Presidency, and had 
received an unexpected order to join the regiment 
immediately, so he had to leave the country without 
seeing his father. 

Wishing to go to India overland, he passed through 
France to Marseilles, sketching all the way. From 
that city he took his passage in a steamer to one of 
the Italian ports. It may interest the tourist of this 
day to know something of the tariff of fares, etc., of 
travelling by steamboat in the Mediterranean, in 1836. 



470 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

There was then, according to the printed notice of 
A. and C. Bazin, of Marseilles, a steam navigation 
between that port and Genoa, Leghorn, Civita-Vecchia, 
Naples, and Malta, by means of two French steam 
packets, fitted up with English steam-engines of 140 
horse -power each. The departures from Marseilles 
took place three times in the month. The tariff of 
fares was as follows : from Marseilles to Malta, 12 ; 
to Genoa, 3 : 10s. ; to Leghorn, 5 ; Civita-Vecchia, 
6 : 10s. ; Naples, 8 : 10s. ; from Genoa to Naples the 
fare was 6 : 8s. ; and from Leghorn to Civita-Vecchia, 
2 : 12s. Refreshments and wines, as the notice in- 
forms the public, might be had on board on reason- 
able terms. 

William Hibbert, whilst travelling through Italy, 
filled his portfolio with sketches of remarkable places, 
and of the costumes of the people; he also jotted down 
in his memorandum book copious notes of his travels. 
From Italy he passed over to Malta, and thence to 
Egypt. In this latter country he made numerous, 
well -executed sketches of the pyramids, and also of 
the inhabitants, military and civil, in their different 
costumes. From Grand Cairo he wrote, on the 21st 
of January 1837, to his oldest brother : 

"As I am just on the point of starting for Upper Egypt, 
which is rather an uncivilised place there being, I suppose, no 
consuls or anything in the shape of a post-office, I have taken 
the opportunity afforded by travellers here of shipping you some- 
thing in the shape of a letter. I have been rather unfortunate 
since starting, as, owing to cholera at Naples, I arrived too late 
at Malta to join Lord Brudenell's party, and on arriving here I 
found they were already on the road to Bombay ; consequently I 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 471 

have changed the route, and instead of going to Suez by the 
steamer (which, by the way, is too dear for my purse), I shall 
stick myself as comfortably as possible in a small Nile boat, and 
get those lazy Arabs to pull me up as far as they like, trusting 
to Providence for the rest. My present idea, however, is this : 
I shall be able to cross the desert easily at Thebes or (illegible) to 
Cossine, and there charter a vessel to Mocha, whence, in about 
two or three weeks, there will be plenty of return vessels starting 
for Bombay. 

" As for my sketches, my father and sister may choose any of 
the places I have been in, Italy, Malta, Sicily or Egypt, and 
I shall find an opportunity of forwarding them when I arrive at 
Bombay." 

William Hibbert crossed the desert mounted on a 
camel, followed by an Arab guide on another camel 
loaded with his luggage, and thus they travelled to the 
Red Sea, a journey fraught with peril at that time, 
for the traveller might have been murdered by roving 
Arabs or others on that vast desert without a single 
clue left which could have led to the discovery of his 
fate. In the Red Sea, he took shipping in one of the 
Hon. East India Company's armed steamers for 
Bombay. The cabin passage in them was 800 rupees. 
These vessels were commanded and officered by com- 
missioned officers of the Indian Navy, and navigated 
under martial law, to which all passengers were amen- 
able. Passengers took their meals at the public table, 
breakfast at half-past eight, dinner at three, and tea 
at sunset, and they might invite any of the officers of 
the ship to dinner, paying the stated fee of six rupees. 

After arriving in India, William Hibbert sent a 
parcel of his sketches to York, and at the same time 
wrote to his sister : 



472 SAMUEL H1BBERT WARE'S 

" You must excuse the quality of some of the sketches, as 
many were hastily taken on the spot, on account of the supersti- 
tion of the Arabs and Turks, who consider that you are going to 
bewitch them, and what is more serious, sketching interferes with 
their religion, Mahomet not being partial to pictures." 

But in his overland journey he did not confine 
himself to his favourite occupation with his pencil, for 
he kept his eyes open to matters that touched upon 
his profession. Writing of Upper Egypt to a medical 
friend, soon after his arrival in Bombay, he says : 

" One of the chief diseases of it appears to me to be sore eyes, 
of which I think I do not exaggerate when I say that about every 
third person of the lower classes had lost one of these valuable 
organs, which the filth, smoke, close atmosphere in their houses, 
and cold nights might easily occasion." 

Following the advice given him by Dr. Davy, the 
young army surgeon not only took notes of facts pre- 
sented to him on his travels overland to India, and 
also in that country, but he kept a regular journal, 
which he illustrated with pencil, pen and ink, and 
water-colour drawings, done in a sketchy style, and 
which even professional artists have praised, par- 
ticularly the drawings of fish, snakes, caterpillars, and 
other objects of natural history. 

He had also sent a paper to Sir James M'Grigor, 
with some observations on the natural history of the 
parts he had passed through, as appears from the 
following reply written some time afterwards by that 
gentleman : 

LONDON, 27th October 1837. 

MY DEAR SIR Along with your letter I had the pleasure 
of receiving the paper you enclosed, and immediately handed 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 473 

the botanical part to Professor Lindley and the others to Pro- 
fessor Jameson, and I rejoice to observe that you have been 
employing your time so creditably to yourself and for the ad- 
vancement of science. Any objects of natural history you may 
send home for the museum we shall always be thankful for. 

I have noted your name in the list of candidates for cavalry, 
but you must not expect a very early appointment. Believe me, 
my dear sir, sincerely yours, J. M'GRIGOR. 

Dr. William Hibbert, 
2d Queen's, Bombay. 

Thus it appears that "William Hibbert had taken 
the advice given to him both by his superiors and by 
his father, who had sent him the following message 
through Miss Hibbert : 

" Are you learning the Hindostanee language f My father 
says the geology of India excites attention more than that of any 
other part of the globe, chiefly on account of the coal-fields and 
the organic remains." 

We have given these details respecting this young 
medical officer, as they, to some extent, show what 
were Dr. Hibbert's sentiments on the education and 
necessary acquirements of a medical man besides, 
they will further show how deeply he must have after- 
wards felt the frustration of all the hopes he had 
entertained of a bright career for his son. 

As soon as the latter had landed at Bombay, he 
received a letter from his uncle, Major Hibbert, con- 
taining advice how to conduct himself in his regiment, 
which was rendered more impressive by a cheque for 
300 rupees. As the advice comes from an old soldier, 
it may be worth extracting : 



474 SAMUEL HTBBERT WARE'S 

" I have a word of advice about your regiment don't call 
them the 2d, or you will mortally offend always ' the Queen's.' 
When you join, don't be too hasty in selecting your more im- 
mediate companions. There are some very gentlemanly young 
fellows, and some, as they say in Italy, cosi, cosi. However, be 
civil to all, attentive to your duty, obedient to your superiors, 
strict in conformity to all orders, and you'll do. You used to be 
a little argumentative. Pardonnez moi, don't be so on points of 
discipline. I shall write to you again, but don't be afraid that I 
shall always plague you with advice. I have one thing to say to 
you about a house or bungalow : if you can get one to suit your 
finances, I would recommend you to buy one for yourself, but if 
you double up with another officer, that is, buy half a house, be 
careful whom you select as your chum. It is generally the custom, 
in this country, to pay for your house by instalments, unless you 
have the ready. One more piece of advice don't get into debt. 
You ought to be able to save money. I hope you did not neglect 
to report yourself to the different officers in Bombay. Don't 
forget to pay your respects to Sir Robert Grant. When you 
leave, report your departure to the same officers." 

Officers in the King's regiments received at this 
time double pay when serving in India, which author- 
ised Major Hibbert to tell his nephew that he might 
save money. Every officer had to buy a house or 
bungalow, which, when the regiment changed its 
quarters, was sold to an officer of the succeeding 
regiment. 

But leaving William Hibbert in India, we now go 
back for a few weeks and return to Dr. Hibbert. 
The History of the Foundations of Manchester again 
began to engage his attention, and indeed continued 
to do so, from time to time, until his death. Mr 
Thomas Agnew, wishing to have this history still more 
complete, solicited the co-operation of Dr. Hibbert ; 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 475 

and the Rev. Daniel Cecil Wray, of the Collegiate 
Church, taking a very lively interest in the subject, 
wrote to him : 

STRANGEWAYS, 2d January 1837. 

MY DEAR SIR Are you likely to be in Manchester soon ? 
I have obtained leave of our collegiate body to have the collegiate 
and Lichfield document out of the college chest for a short time, 
that you may copy it. It is very long and closely written, but 
no doubt you will make it out. I called at Mr. Jordan's on 
Saturday, but his young man, who came to the door, could not 
say when you were likely to be here ; so I thought it best to 
write at once. I remain, yours truly, D. C. WRAY. 

Dr. Hibbert not being able to visit Manchester, 
the Eev. D. C. Wray wrote again to him on the 12th 
of January, informing him that he had obtained per- 
mission from the Warden and Fellows to send him 
the Lichfield document, thinking that he would copy 
it better at leisure, and at his own residence. Among 
Dr. Hibbert's papers, there is a rough draft of his 
reply to the Rev. D. C. Wray, as follows : 

" In the anxious wish I have to make the Collegiate Church 
of Manchester as correct as popular, particularly in reference to 
existing documents, pray accept of my most grateful acknowledg- 
ments for your continued interest in the same cause, and on my 
behalf. Be assured also, that so deeply do I consider this fresh 
proof of the privilege now so handsomely accorded by the Warden 
and Fellows, that I should consider myself as failing, both in 
duty and respect towards them, if I did not take the strictest 
precautions which may be considered expedient to obviate the 
slightest possibility of any contingency which might affect the 
security of deeds of such importance. With regard to the time 
of my visiting Manchester, it is not a question with me on the 
score of leisure but of health. Mr. Jordan and many of my 



476 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

friends have for some years been familiar with the fact that the 
smoke incidental to most large trading places immediately inflicts 
upon me, during the cold months of winter, when smoky vapours 
hang over the town, an asthma of the most severe kind." 

From the above letter, and from other correspond- 
ence, it will now be seen that Dr. Hibbert had once 
more engaged himself in literary labour, a field, 
indeed, in which he toiled to the last with unflagging 
zeal and ardour, and to which he had now added 
Ireland. 

"MY DEAR SIR," wrote Sir William Betham on the 10th of 
January 1837, "The steeples, as far as I can judge from the 
plate in your very interesting and valuable work (on the Shetland 
Isles), are undoubtedly of the same character as our Eound 
Towers. Petrie's essay is a long time on hand and hangs fire 
sadly. He is of very delicate health, and, I fear much, not of 
long continuance with us. This essay is very interesting and 
ably done; but I confess I am not yet satisfied with his conclusions 
as settling the question. I shall communicate to him your note.'' 

The above letter was the commencement of a long 
correspondence, chiefly on Scandinavian and Etruscan 
archaeology, and on the Pelasgi and Phoenicians, who, 
according to Sir William Betham, were colonists of 
Ireland in ancient times. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 477 



CHAPTER LI. 

Dr. Hibbert adds the name of Ware to his patronymic His recom- 
mendation of Mr. David Laing to the post of Librarian to the 
Signet Library Rafn's Antiquitates Americance. 

AMONG Dr. Hibbert 's papers there occurs a draft of 
an unfinished letter, dated April 13, 1837, to the 
following effect : 

" Having recently changed my patronymic of Hibbert for the 
name of Ware, agreeably to the wish of my late mother, who was 
the only surviving child of Robert Ware, Esq., of Dublin, the 
direct lineal descendant of Sir James Ware, the Historian of 
Ireland." 

The editor of this Memoir has been informed, by 
one who had conversed with Dr. Hibbert on the 
subject, that his mother had been ever desirous that 
the name of her family should not be lost, and that, 
on the birth of each of her sons, the name of Ware 
should be added to his Christian name ; but that her 
husband objected, on principle, to a child having more 
than two names. 

Be that as it may, we read in the Dublin Gazette 
of Tuesday, April the 4th, 1837 : 

The king has been graciously pleased by warrant under his 
Royal Signet and sign manual, bearing date at St. James's, the 



478 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

8th day of March 1837, to give and grant to Samuel Hibbert, 
Esq., M.D., eldest son of Samuel Hibbert, Esq., by Sarah, 
daughter, and eventual sole heiress of Eobert Ware, Esq., who 
was only son of James Ware, Esq., only surviving son of James 
Ware, Esq., Auditor-General of Ireland, eldest son of Sir James 
Ware, Knight, also Auditor-General of Ireland, his royal license 
and authority, that he and his issue may take the name and arms 
of Ware, in compliance with the desire expressed by the said 
Sarah Hibbert, alias Ware, his mother, deceased, provided that 
such, His Majesty's royal declaration and concession be first re- 
corded and the arms duly exemplified in the office of Ulster 
King-at-Arms, which has been done accordingly, 

W. BETHAM, Ulster. 

Henceforth the subject of this Memoir will be 
known as Dr. Samuel Hibbert Ware. 

A vacancy being now about to occur in the office 
of Librarian to the Library of the Writers to the 
Signet of Edinburgh, in consequence of the appoint- 
ment of Professor Napier as one of the principal 
clerks of Session, Mr. David Laing became a candi- 
date, and wrote to his old friend Dr. Hibbert, to 
solicit his interest in his behalf. Any one more 
qualified than Mr. Laing there could not be. In his 
business as a bookseller, he had been all his life con- 
versant with books ; he had been secretary of the 
Bannatyne Club since its first foundation, and had 
edited several of its publications ; while, in the year 
1820, when there was a vacancy of a similar situation 
in the Advocates' Library, he had been advised by 
several literary friends to apply for it, and had been 
supported by Sir Walter Scott and other members of 
the Society of Advocates. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 479 

On the occasion of the present vacancy, Mr. 
David Laing had applied to many gentlemen dis- 
tinguished in the literary world for testimonials of 
his qualifications for the office, and amongst others, 
to William Tennant, Professor of Oriental languages 
in the University of St. Andrews ; James Chalmers, 
Esq., London ; Dr. Dibdin ; Sir Henry Ellis of the 
British Museum ; Dr. Jamieson, the author of the 
Scottish dictionary ; Sir William Hamilton ; J. C. 
'Lockhart, LL.D. ; Sir Frederick Madden, British 
Museum ; and Professor Napier. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware wrote as follows, on the 18th 
of April 1837 ; and we here give the letter in full, as 
it, in a manner, is a sketch of the literary labours of a 
gentleman who, in his time, was one of the most 
learned archaeologists of Edinburgh. The Modern 
Athens may long be proud of the late David Laing, 
LL.D. 

" Most cheerfully," wrote the Doctor, " do I reply to your re- 
quisition. I consider that your pretensions to the office which 
you seek, as Librarian to the Society of Writers to His Majesty's 
Signet, are of no common kind. To these qualifications I speak 
from a long and intimate acquaintance with them, which dates 
from the time when, in first consulting you upon certain depart- 
ments of ancient Scottish literature, I remember but too well 
how agreeably surprised I was to find an individual so familiar 
as you appeared to be with the valuable manuscripts of your 
country which still subsist, and with the history of your national 
press, from its very dawn or oldest state. Nor was I less grati- 
fied with the simple and unostentatious liberality with which 
your knowledge was communicated. 

"These were the first impressions which I entertained re- 
garding you, and, during the course of my very long residence in 



480 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Edinburgh, ample opportunities have been afforded me of seeing 
them confirmed. Your extensive and correct bibliographical 
information has been acknowledged by authors whose past 
labours are deservedly recorded in the brightest pages of the 
literary history of Scotland ; and in making this assertion, I need 
only refer to the friendly intercourse which you have so long 
maintained with illustrious savants, such as Mr. George Chalmers, 
Dr. Jamieson, and Sir Walter Scott. 

" But your peculiar and favourite researches have even ex- 
tended beyond the limits of Scottish authorship, you have made 
bibliographical tours in France, Holland, Germany, and Scandi- 
navia ; and various testimonials, honourable to your talents and 
industry, have been incidentally published by learned foreigners. 

"Nor ought your claim to be overlooked on the score of the 
valuable services which you have rendered to the public scientific 
institutions of your country. I lament, for your sake, the absence 
of Mr. Drummond Hay, Consul of Algiers, whose name is still 
held in grateful remembrance as the very learned secretary of 
the Antiquarian Society, and who, together with myself, his 
predecessor in the same office, had the means of knowing how 
actively interested you were in the cause of archaeology. The 
same zeal has again been manifested in another quarter your 
exertions as secretary of the Bannatyne Club, have been most 
assiduous and unremitting ; and in this office you have given 
material assistance to the editing of manuscripts or scarce publi- 
cations of the utmost value to the Scottish historian, which 
might otherwise have long mouldered in the recesses of private 
or even of public libraries. And lastly, as the faithful editor 
and biographer of Dunbar, justly designated by critics the 
CHAUCER OF SCOTLAND, yet till of late years comparatively un- 
known and neglected, you have earned for yourself a meed of 
national gratitude, which, in addition to former obligations 
rendered to Scottish literature, constitute an appeal so forcible 
as will not, I trust, be made in your native city in vain. 

" In short, I consider that your education and habits are those 
of a zealous and well-informed bibliographer, which, independently 
of other intellectual acquirements, particularly recommend you 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 481 

to the duties and responsibilities incidental to the guardianship 
of so important a National Library as that of the Society of 
Writers to His Majesty's Signet." 

The late Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, 
President of the Geological Society of London, having 
discovered fossil remains in fresh-water limestone in 
the coal formations in Staffordshire similar to those 
at Burdiehouse, Dr. Hibbert Ware, as a member of 
the same Society, sent him a copy of his work on the 
limestone of the latter place, and that distinguished 
geologist, writing in reply, on the 12th of February 
1838, says: 

" I lose no time in writing to thank you sincerely for your 
most interesting Memoir on Burdiehouse, which I received 
yesterday. Your discoveries in that district have interested me 
very much, and have induced me to examine our coalfields in 
search of similar remains. I find Megalichthys (here occur in the 
letter three or four more tremendous names which are quite illegible), 
common to our coal-fields of North Staffordshire, South Lanca- 
shire, North Wales, Dudley, and Anglesea, and some of the 
species apparently identical with some of the Burdiehouse 
specimens. I have now a large collection from these localities, 
containing many rare and highly interesting objects, which I am 
in hopes to submit to Agassiz before long. 

" I have just completed a catalogue of the fossil fishes in Dr. 
Cole's (?) and my own collection, of which I will forward you a 
copy the first opportunity. Believe me, yours very truly." 

The death of this venerable geologist is recorded 
in the Athenceum of the 9th of April 1881. 

Although Dr. Hibbert Ware had now left Scotland 
with the intention of making his residence in England, 
he could not give up his intercourse with his friends 
in the north, and he regularly spent his winters in 

2 i 



482 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Edinburgh ; nor did they, on the other hand, forget 
him, for this year he was gratified by receiving from 
the Orkney Natural History Society a testimonial 
intimating to him that, in consideration of " his 
eminence in science and valuable work on the Shet- 
land Islands/' they had unanimously elected him an 
honorary member of the Association ; while the 
different learned Societies in Edinburgh to which he 
belonged were desirous that he should continue to 
contribute papers as formerly. Professor James Forbes, 
writing to him on the 2d of May 1838, says : 

" I shall always look back with gratitude to your personal 
kindness at a time when I wanted advice, and required support 
and encouragement more than I do at present. 

" I trust that we shall soon have palpable evidence, in the 
shape of communications to the Eoyal Society, of your active 
return to your old pursuits, in which you have earned such just 
fame. 

" I mean to prosecute the subject of hot springs, and publish 
at some future time a second paper, similar to the first, which 
shall include most of the commonly known hot springs of 
Europe." 

This year also Dr. Hibbert Ware received from 
his Danish friend Rafn, the learned secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen, a copy of the 
very valuable and erudite work of the latter, entitled, 
Antiquitates Americance, along with a letter from 
the author, from which we make the following interest- 
ing extract, showing how he had laboured over it : 

" It is now brought to a close," wrote the learned Dane, 
"after seven years being expended. The uncommon faintness 
of the MS. in particular was such as to require much time, and 
occasion great straining of the eyes. That you will take up the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 483 

work with feelings of some expectation is what I can easily 
imagine, and it will give me no small satisfaction if your expecta- 
tions shall be in some measure realised." 

The highly satisfactory accounts respecting William 
Hibbert which, from time to time, came from India 
were among the greatest gratifications which Dr. 
Hibbert Ware had. The young surgeon, taking his 
father's advice, had applied himself assiduously to the 
performance of his medical duties, and had given 
great satisfaction to his superior officers. This is 
evidenced by the following extract taken from a 
medical despatch, dated 24th of April 1838 : 

" Dr. Hunter," it is written in the despatch, "must be further 
pleased to communicate to Dr. William Hibbert the high opinion 
the Deputy Inspector-General entertains of that officer's zeal and 
attention to his duties, which the Deputy Inspector-General will 
not fail to bring under the notice of the Director-General." 

This satisfactory account of William Hibbert was 
a great consolation to his father, who had not yet 
recovered from the affliction the death of his wife had 
given him. 



484 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



CHAPTER LII. 

Accident to the Governor of Goa William Hibbert sent there 
Embarks with the " Army of the Indus " March along the banks 
of that river. 

WE closed the last chapter in noticing that one of the 
greatest gratifications received by Dr. Hibbert Ware 
was from the continued good reports sent from India 
of his son William. We will therefore now give a 
few details of the career of that young medical officer, 
whom his father had educated most carefully, accord- 
ing to his own notions of the education essential for 
a medical man, though he himself had never practised 
his profession ; and then we will narrate how the fond 
hopes held by Dr. Hibbert Ware of his son's success 
in life were unexpectedly frustrated in a heartrend- 
ing manner. 

Many must be the leisure hours which a medical 
officer of a regiment, even when on foreign service, 
has, unless there should be an extraordinary amount 
of sickness. Such leisure hours, however, William 
Hibbert did not spend in idleness, for he employed 
much of his time with his pencil. Not only did he 
execute many highly -finished sketches in water-colours 
of Indian scenery, temples, costumes, and games of 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 485 

the Hindoos, dancing snakes, etc., but he also 
illustrated, by these sketches, regimental "life in 
India " in its various phases, representing his brother- 
officers at dinner, at balls, at smoking parties, on 
guard, and even at their toilette. In none of the 
sketches, however, though many of them were carica- 
tures, was there a single trace of ill-nature, or any- 
thing calculated to cause pain ; mirth and amusement 
would at once have been excited in the breasts of the 
originals of the likenesses. These sketches were full 
of humour, and the young medical officer was a 
frequent guest at the private tables and parties of 
General Salter, and Colonel Baumgardt of the Queen's, 
and others, on which occasions his portfolio was 
always called for. 

That the likenesses are very faithful is almost 
evident from the fact that, throughout the series of 
drawings, each face is recognisable at a glance in all 
the varied scenes that are represented ; and the follow- 
ing note from the Colonel's lady corroborates this 
supposition : 

7th May 1838. 

MY DEAR MR, HIBBERT Thank you very much for the 
pleasure you have afforded us by the sight of your drawings just 
received. You have indeed been happy in the likenesses, as 
you will think when I tell you that we discovered at the first 
glance for whom the figures were intended. I will, if you please, 
keep them until the Colonel returns, as I am sure he will enjoy 
seeing them. Believe me, very truly yours, 

MARIA BAUMGARDT. 

The young surgeon's talents were not limited to 
the pencil only ; for, like his uncles, he was very fond 



486 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

of music ; he was a fine player on the flute, and took 
an active part on the Band Committee of his regiment, 
often arranging the music. 

"My horses behaved so ill at the band," writes the same 
lady, " the evening I went to hear the air 'you kindly took the 
trouble to have arranged, that I could not remain. I fear they 
have not a taste for music." 

We fear, however, that William Hibbert had been 
boasting too much to his uncle of the musical pro- 
ficiency of the band of the Queen's Royals, for he re- 
ceived from that officer the following caustic reply : 

"Thank you for your kind commiseration, but we have a 
very good band-master, as well as a very good band ; and, from 
what I have heard of Her Majesty's 2d or Queen's Royals' band 
when in Bombay, I have my doubts whether that of the ould 
40th is not the better of the two." 

From the middle of June in this year, as the 
Bombay Gazette informs us, the Portuguese Province 
of Goa had been exposed to revolution. The object 
of the revolutionary movement was to depose the 
Governor, and appoint the former Provisional Govern- 
ment. The plot had been preparing since the Governor, 
the Baron de Sebroys, had met with a serious accident, 
which it was thought might prove fatal. 

He had received a fall from his buggy which had 
resulted in dislocation and fracture of the arm. The 
hurt had been made worse by the very unskilful 
treatment of his surgeons, who, quarrelling amongst 
themselves, left the patient for some days without 
any medical assistance. After a delay of nearly two 
months from the occurrence of the accident, the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 487 

Governor, finding himself getting worse, at the urgent 
request of his friends despatched a messenger to 
General Salter in the Bombay Presidency, begging 
him to let him have an English surgeon. 

William Hibbert was known to have studied the 
Portuguese language, and to have been very desirous 
of visiting Goa ; so he received the following note 
from the Major of his regiment, and another letter 
from a superior medical officer : 

MY DEAR HIBBERT The Governor of Goa has broken his 
arm, and has written to General Salter to have a medical man 
sent from this to set it for him. Would a trip in that direction 
suit your wishes ? Believe me, yours sincerely, 

J. CARRUTHERS. 

" MY DEAR DR. HIBBERT," wrote Surgeon G. A. Stuart " I 
somehow understood you had a liking for Goa, and knew the 
Portuguese language ; I thought, therefore, that you might be 
disposed to lend your assistance to His Excellency. 

" I spoke, therefore, to the General of the possibility of your 
being willing, and he highly approved of my writing to propose 
the thing to you, saying that, on learning whether you were 
disposed to go, he would immediately put you in orders for it. 
I shall be glad to hear from you in reply at your convenience." 

William Hibbert arrived at Goa on the 8th of 
August, and immediately entered upon his duties. 
" Notwithstanding, however," wrote the editor of the 
Bombay Gazette, " the most unremitting attention on 
the part of that gentleman, owing to the unskilful 
manner in which the fracture was treated previously 
to his being called in, it appears that, unless amputa- 
tion be resorted to, the life of the patient will be 



488 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

imminently in danger;" but the Governor refused to 
have the limb amputated. 

During his leisure time at Goa, William Hibbert 
made many water-colour sketches, executed with skill 
and taste, of Goa harbour and scenery, and an elabo- 
rate drawing of the richly-ornamented altar of St. 
Francis Xavier, the apostle of the Indies, together 
with portraits in water-colour of several ladies in the 
Governor's suite some in walking costume, others in 
deshabille enjoying a cigarette and of officers and 
soldiers in uniform. 

After he had been a few weeks at Goa, rumours of 
war began to pervade the northern parts of India, 
concerning which he received early intimation from 
his friend Captain Keith of the Queen's. 

" MY DEAR HIBBERT," wrote that officer from Belgaum, on 
the 30th of August, " We have great rumours of war. The 
37th of Madras Infantry are on the march to relieve the 22d 
N.I., and all letters for our 41st are detained at the post-office in 
Belgaum until their arrival to relieve us ; but where we are to 
go nobody seems to know. You ought to receive this early on 
the 1 6th. All friends send their salaams. Let us know how the 
poor Governor gets on." 

From another brother officer William Hibbert also 
received a letter dated the 9th of September : 

MY DEAR HIBBERT Paper just come in ; give you a short 
summary of the news. That the Persians were repulsed and 
entirely defeated by the Herat garrison is confirmed. The 
Russian envoy and a battalion of Russians were cut to pieces, 
and Kaan Ram, the chief of Herat, it is expected, will be in 
possession of Kandahar and Cabul before our forces can prevent 
him, and then there will be the devil to pay. There is a general 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 489 

order in the paper for a further increase, of the Bengal regiments 
of the line, of one havildar and ten men per company. 20,000 
men are to be sent to Cabul. Sir John Keane is to command 
Sir Henry Fane having declined. We have received an order 
not to discharge any more men. We are well, except Edwards, 
who is slightly indisposed and coming into camp, and occupies 
Keith's house ! for a month or so. Keith is with Simmons ; 
Jephson goes to-day to the Ghaut. Poor Toby is sick, but 
getting better. I have no time to give you any more, as I am 
late for post. Yours truly, T. WINGATE. 

My best regards to Governor and family. 

On the 16th September the same officer again 
writes : 

MY DEAR HIBBERT I suppose you received extract from 
Bombay Gazette of the 12th September. The news of the total 
defeat of the Persian army is confirmed by accounts received 
from Mr. M'Neil, who states that a Eussian officer attached to 
the Eussian embassy was killed at one of the gates of the fort. 
Mr. M'Neil is off to England as fast as he can travel. 'Tis now 
believed that we shall have a war with Eussia. Only 5000 of 
our troops will be pushed on into Kandahar and Cabul to assist 
in reseating Shah Soojah upon the Guddee. Where the Queen's 
go is not certain; 61st and 58th are ordered from Ceylon to 
Bombay. Poor Toby (a dog) departed this life on the 13th, his 
inside decayed from age. He was buried on your side of the 
garden. Keith desires me to send his salaam. We have light 
infantry drill every morning now. I am making a few sketches. 
Sparke has just come into my tent, and broke the looking-glass, 
upset the oil-tumbler light, and pulled Tony out of bed, and was 
otherwise riotously inclined. 

It is unlucky, and forebodes mishap, to break a 
looking-glass such is the popular superstition. Poor 
Sparke ! his fate, as will be seen later on, was a 
terrible one. 



490 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

On the 23d of September 1838, William Hibbert 
was recalled from Goa to join his regiment, which was 
to form part of the force that was to move towards 
the Indus ; and on the 7th of October he wrote to his 
sister at York : 

" We are all here in light marching order, having received 
an intimation to be ready at a moment's notice to embark for 
field service either in Persia or up the Indus. We expect to 
start on the 1 3th instant, leaving the coast in steamers. Thank 
all for their kind inquiries as to my health ; the climate agrees 
with me admirably, and the country I am as much or even more 
pleased with than ever. The special duty I was sent upon was 
to attend the Governor of Goa. The Deputy-Inspector and Sir 
John Keane have requested his case, and intend sending it to 
Sir James M'Grigor with a view to my benefit. The Governor 
also was exceedingly grateful. He presented me with a hand- 
some horse, a pair of silver candlesticks, etc. etc., besides enter- 
taining me ; and I can assure you I left them with great reluc- 
tance, notwithstanding the antipathy to Portuguese ladies, whom 
I found most agreeable. We had constantly balls, amateur per- 
formances, etc. etc., and indeed I never spent a pleasanter six 
weeks. I fear the poor Governor must sink soon, as he is deter- 
mined to die with his arm on. I have got one language 
namely, Portuguese which I flatter myself I am perfectly master 
of ; and I am much delighted with it. I also intend studying 
Persian, which I have commenced already. 

" We have just received letters saying we are to start on the 
15th. I am all ready two bullock trunks, a hammock, canteen, 
cattle, and a couple of good riding horses. Excuse haste. 
Believe me, my dear Sarah, your affectionate brother, 

"WILLM. HIBBERT." 

As far back as the year 1836, the opening of the 
river Indus to British commerce, and facilitating its 
extension in Central Asia, had been the especial desire 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 491 

of the Anglo-Indian Government, and, to endeavour 
to effect that object, Captain Burnes had been deputed 
in 1836 to Dost Mahomed Khan, the chief of Cabul. 

About the same time a Persian army had, not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of the British envoy 
in Persia, laid siege to Herat, and a conviction began 
to prevail in India that Dost Mahommed favoured 
Persian designs on that stronghold, and that the 
Persians were thought to be expecting a Russian 
reserve, that Dost Mahommed entertained unfriendly 
sentiments towards British interests, and consequently 
that, so long as Afghanistan was under his govern- 
ment, peace with that country would be precarious. 
It had also been ascertained that some Russian officers 
had made their appearance in Cabul ; and it was con- 
cluded that this was with the object of intriguing to 
create disturbances in India, and embarrass, if not 
undermine, British power in that country. 

Dost Mahommed was a usurper, and had driven 
from the throne of his ancestors Shah Soojah, a prince 
who had ever been well disposed to be friendly with 
the English, and who now resided within British 
territories. 

Taking all these circumstances into consideration, 
and with a view to the pacification of a country torn 
by internal dissensions, but especially in order to re- 
establish on the throne of his forefathers a prince 
well disposed to an Anglo-Indian alliance, it had been 
decided that Afghanistan was to be invaded by a 
British force. 

To carry out this design two armies were to be 



492 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

assembled one in the province of Bombay, and the 
other in that of Bengal, each under their respective 
Generals. The Bombay corps was under Lieutenant- 
General Sir John Keane, and was to proceed by sea to 
the mouth of the Indus, and, after landing, fight its 
way to Cabul. This division of the invading army 
was styled " the army of the Indus," which embarked 
at Bombay on the 21st of November 1838 ; the 
Queen's, in which regiment was William Hibbert, was 
in that division. 

H.M. 40th Kegiment was to march from Deesa to 
the Cutch country, and then go by sea to Kurachee, 
which was to be captured. 

On the 27th of the month the transports with the 
Bombay division arrived at the Kujamry mouth of 
the Indus ; and, as the vessels anchored, the regimental 
drums beat for sunset the first roll of British drums 
ever heard on that mighty stream, 

" Qwz caret ora cruore nostro ?" Hon., Ode 1, Book II. 

On the 30th, General Willshire formed his camp 
on the hostile shore, where the army was detained 
until the 24th of December, the Ameers having 
hindered the supply of camels and boats ; but through 
the energy of Captain Outram the difficulty was over- 
come, and the British began their march towards 
Kandahar along the banks of the broad, sluggish 
Indus. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 493 



CHAPTER LIIL 

" improvisa lethi 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentes" 

HORACE, Ode 13, Book II. 

" DREADFUL DEATH OF THREE OFFICERS. The sad intelligence 
has been communicated to us by a take-letter correspondent, in 
an extract from a letter from Scinde, of the death of three officers 
of the ' Queen's.' At the time the letter was written it was not 
known in what manner Lieutenant Sparks, Lieutenant Nixon, 
and Dr. Hibbert had met their melancholy fate ; and, as it was 
suspected that they had fallen by the hands of a dastardly enemy 
who was known to be hovering about the camp, we can well 
imagine that a strong feeling pervaded their brothers-in-arms. 
We find, however, that the three unfortunate individuals perished 
in an awful way, while shooting in a ' Shikar Gaith,' or game 
preserve, where they were suddenly overwhelmed by flames. 
The accident has been thus reported to us : A jungle had 
caught fire, and it being anticipated that the flames would 
force numbers of wild animals from their coverts, the officers of 
the ' Queen's ' posted themselves in a tree, and, as they supposed, 
a secure position with reference to the wind, waiting for the 
escape of deer, etc., when the wind suddenly changing, the trees 
and jungle surrounding the officers took fire, and precluded all 
escape." The Times, Saturday, April 20, 1839. 

The above paragraph Dr. Hibbert Ware cut out of 
the newspaper, and pasted on a sheet of black-edged 
letter-paper, writing under it : 



494 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" This was the first intimation I received of my 
dear son's death. S. H. W" 

What a shock that awful piece of intelligence was 
to him, and how deep and severe his grief, words 
can scarcely tell. Yet, even in the first harrowing 
moments of anguish, the resignation of the true 
Christian, and the submission with which he bowed 
to the decrees of Providence, were plainly manifest. 

Writing on the instant to his eldest son, the 
afflicted father says : 

" My anguish is only alleviated by a firm conviction in the 
goodness of our heavenly Father." 

And, in a longer letter, he says : 

" I will not describe to you what we suffer here. 

" Thanks to Providence that my dear lad died in a proper 
state of mind and in an honourable career, which promised much 
for his own happiness and the advancement of science. Many 
pleasing hopes which I had cherished have taken their departure 
with him. 

" But we are under the superintendence of a most beneficent 
and kind Deity, whose afflictions are intended for our instruction 
and amendment. This world is only a preparatory school for a 
better state, and I have no doubt whatever that the bereavement, 
however painful and almost insupportable it is to bear, has to 
the Good Being, who overrules all events, a purpose in view which 
is ever salutary. Let us then bear the affliction with submission. 

" Sarah had yesterday (which was my birthday) finished a 
letter to her uncle at Deesa, and to-day I have added a short 
note, merely telling him that the news had reached us." 

Dr. Hibbert Ware received many letters of con- 
dolence from his scientific friends in Edinburgh, ex- 
pressing sentiments similar to his own, of resignation 
to God's will, and showing their firm belief in His 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 495 

direct interposition in human affairs suaviter forti- 
terque disponens omnia. How different were the 
religious opinions of the savants of those days to those 
held by the savants of our time the Evolutionists 
and other professors insanientis sapientice, to borrow 
the words of the Eoman poet ! 

The first detailed information which Dr. Hibbert 
Ware received of the fatal event was contained in a 
letter written to him by a lady whose brother was 
one of the unfortunate officers who had also perished, 
and in which were enclosed extracts of letters from 
India, written by officers of the regiment. 

" Scattered through the country are sundry forests with thick 
jungle, called Shirkar Ghars, where large game is preserved for 
the amusement of the Ameers ; only these, of course, we were 
prohibited from entering, but one of them happening to be in the 
immediate vicinity of our present camping-ground, the Ameer it is 
supposed, jealous of interference, caused it to be fired in different 
places. On the morning of the 31st of January three officers of 
the Queen's Koyals went out with their guns, and were seen to 
enter the jungle. In the evening of the same day considerable 
apprehensions were entertained that they had been captured or 
cut to pieces by the enemy, but when the next morning they were 
still absent from parade, I, being myself on the sick-list, immediately 
despatched two intelligent natives, with promise of a good reward 
for their recovery ; and in the afternoon, the circumstance being 
made known to the Coramander-in-Chief, a troop of light cavalry 
under a European officer was also sent in quest of them. About 
six my scouts returned without any information. Two hours 
after, while we were sitting at tea, a soldier came to the tent- 
door crying out they had been found. We were in the act of 
springing from our chairs to give a loud huzza, when the next 
sentence took us aback and curdled the blood in our veins : 
' Their bodies are lying at the quarter-guard of the light cavalry, 



496 SAMUEL H1BBERT WARE'S 

burnt to death.' It was too horribly true. There they lay, 
three blackened, distorted corpses, their clothes burnt off, and 
only to be recognised by their stature and the rings they wore 
on their fingers. After a minute's examination, it became the 
general opinion that their death was purely accidental They 
had lost themselves in the mazes of the burning forest, to find 
an outlet from which would be difficult at the best of times, and 
it is only to be hoped that suffocation took place, or at least 
that their pangs were speedily terminated by the blowing up of 
their powder-horns. Their names were Sparks and Nixon, the 
latter a connection of mine, both lieutenants in the flank com- 
panies, and Hibbert, our assistant-surgeon. I loved them all as 
brothers. They were buried in one grave last Thursday, with 
military honours, with the exception of the last volley, so dear to 
the soldiers' feelings, but a tribute which the custom of war 
could not permit our paying then in the vicinity of the enemy. 
No sight could possibly be more affecting than that funeral pro- 
cession, as it wound its toilsome way to the sad periods of the 
" Dead March" coffinless, wrapt in their flannel shrouds, covered 
with the military trappings which but two days before they had 
worn in all the pride of health. The site of their grave is on 
the summit of a hill overlooking an extensive, sterile plain, 
through which the Indus pours its sluggish waters. Dr. Hibbert 
was an elegant and highly talented young man, a naturalist, 
botanist, and firstrate draughtsman. You may easily suppose 
so heartrending a calamity elicited the deepest feeling from all 
classes. As an instance, I send you a copy of some verses not 
the only ones which were found appended to the rough cairn 
of stones built over the grave. They are supposed to be the 
composition of a private soldier of the regiment. 

" REQUIESCANT IN PACE. 
Dirge. 

Mourn for the brave not slain in battle's hour, 
When fiercely fighting 'gainst a tyrant's power, 
But in the mighty flame's devouring womb 
They found an early, agonising tomb. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 497 

Turn, traveller, pilgrim, whatsoe'er thy state, 
Read this, and learn their melancholy fate, 
That neither beauty, wit, nor worth could save 
My countrymen from this untimely grave. 

Destined for nobler deeds, each manly grace 

Of mind or person found in them its place ; 

Sudden the fiery deluge spreads around, 

And sweeps their corpses blackening to the ground. 

Mourn for our youths, the fair, the wise, the brave, 
Bring cypress leaves, not laurels, to their grave ; 
Weep, Britons, soldiers, weep your comrades dead, 
Till grief is dry, and all your tears are shed. 

(Signed) LEICESTERSHIRE, Queen's Royals. 

These verses may be thought rude and unskilfully 
framed, yet they show that even as far back as 1839, 
before the schoolmaster " was abroad," the noble 
British soldier was not unfrequently as refined in his 
feelings as he was gallant in the field ; and yet, scarce 
two years since, we have read of a low-minded res- 
taurant-keeper refusing to serve a non-commissioned 
officer because he had presumed to come into the 
eating-house clad in the Queen's uniform ! 

But another officer, writing to a friend in England 
on the 30th of April, says : " The account of this 
affair looks very suspicious, and throws a doubt upon 
the melancholy event being so entirely accidental as 
it first appeared." 

The soldiery were firm in their belief that the 
officers had been watched by the enemy entering the 
jungle, and that it had been treacherously fired. 

Dr. Richard Hartley Kennedy, Chief of the 

2 K 



498 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Medical Staff of the Bombay Division of the Army, 
after relating the tragical event in his Narrative of 
the Campaign in Scinde and Cabul in 1838-9, 
published by Bentley, much to the same effect as in 
the private letters referred to, says : 

" Dr. Hibbert was a young man of great acquirements and 
great industry ; and the service, by this most unhappy occurrence, 
was deprived of a very valuable medical officer. His taste and 
skill as a draughtsman were very remarkable, and his promised 
assistance would have given a value to these pages which they 
cannot now possess." 

A sketch of the cairn erected by the soldiers of 
the Queen's Royals over the grave of the three un- 
fortunate officers, and of the surrounding country, 
with the Indus in the distance, and the towns of 
Jerruk and Hyderabad, was made by Captain Win- 
gate of that regiment, and sent to Dr. Hibbert. 

Thus died William Hibbert in the prime of early 
manhood, at the age of twenty-six years and nine 
months, cut off at the beginning of what might 
reasonably have been expected to be a brilliant career. 

As a memorial of his son, Dr. Hibbert Ware 
caused a large earthen mound or tumulus to be 
raised and sodded over in the garden of his house 
at Hale Barns, near Altringham, which he designated 
"'William's Cairn." 

In the course of three or four months after the 
death of William Hibbert, all his sketches and water- 
colour drawings arrived from India. Looking over 
these was a source of deep affliction to his father and 
sister. The least scrap of paper on which he had 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 499 

scribbled or drawn a few lines was scrupulously sent 
home from the regiment. The sketches bore dates, 
almost to the day of his death, and consisted of views 
of different spots taken during the march along the 
Indus, costumes of the native Belochees and Scindians, 
some armed to the teeth, and in gay attire. 

All these sketches, along with others that had 
been sent home by William Hibbert before entering 
upon this fatal campaign, were bound up by his 
father's direction into volumes, and they illustrate in 
a manner all he had seen from the time he had first 
set out from England, in the autumn of 1836, on his 
overland journey, to the last day of his career. 

The year 1839 was destined to be a year of 
affliction and trial to Dr. Hibbert Ware. In the 
early part of June he had taken his eldest daughter 
Sarah to Whitby for a month, with the hope of re- 
establishing her health, which, always delicate, had 
been much shaken by the news of her brother's 
untimely end. The sea-breezes of Whitby, to which 
a line of railway had recently been opened as far as 
Pickering, appeared to have been of great benefit to 
her. The improvement, however, was but illusory, 
and the alarming symptoms, which had before ap- 
peared, now recurred again in a more aggravated 
form, and, within a few weeks after her return 
home, Dr. Hibbert Ware wrote to his eldest son as 
follows : 

" Sarah's otherwise delicate state of health was shaken to the 
very foundation when the news of poor William's tragical death 
arrived. I have this moment seen Dr. Simpson, who has taken 



500 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

a very minute view of the case. He will not quite despair, and 
he has ordered the stimulating food to be even increased." 

A week had scarcely elapsed when an attached 
friend and connection wrote to him the following 
melancholy lines : " All seems a dream but what a 
dream to you ! " 

Dr. Hibbert Ware's eldest daughter had breathed 
her last on the 22d of August, at the early age of 
twenty-five ; and, as in the case of his late wife, he 
was unprepared for the shock, until death had set its 
unmistakable stamp upon her face. He never could 
see, or else he tried to put afar off the thought of a 
fatal termination to any illness, when the sufferer was 
one near and dear to him. Months before her death, 
others had been aware of his daughter's failing health 
when he was blind to it, and often was the remark 
made : " 'Tis strange he does not see it ; she is not 
long for this world ; " but no one liked to alarm him. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 501 



CHAPTER LIV. 

Kurachee, Gkuznee, and Cabul taken Mr. Thomas Edmondston's 
curious claim to the discovery of chromate of iron. 

Miss HIBBERT WARE was buried near the altar in the 
Parish Church of Knaresborough, her father saying : 
" She shall lie in the same vault with my dear wife." 
And fitting it was that this should be so ; for, from the 
day of the death of her stepmother in 1835, Sarah 
Hibbert had acted towards the three young children 
the part of a mother. 

Lady Henry Murray and Miss Murray, writing 
with the most kind sympathy for his loss, requested 
Dr. Hibbert to let them have his little girl, then seven 
years of age. To their loving care she was sent soon 
after the funeral, and by them she was carefully 
brought up and educated. 

The two boys, the older aged twelve, remained 
with their father. 

In order to have the benefit of a change of scene, 
Dr. Hibbert Ware visited Edinburgh towards the end 
of autumn, and there he remained for some weeks in 
the enjoyment of the society of his old literary friends ; 
and on his return home sought to distract his thoughts 
in the company of his books. 



502 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

The letters he received from his brother afforded 
him but little consolation. Major Hibbert was then 
at Kurachee, which had been captured in the month 
of March, a most enervating locality, where the 
thermometer stood at one time at H7J in the shade, 
and where cholera was rife. This fell disease had 
carried off the colonel of the regiment, to the command 
of which Major Hibbert had succeeded. Ghuznee and 
Cabul had been stormed and taken by the Bombay 
division of the army, in which affair William Hibbert's 
regiment, the Queen's, had brilliantly distinguished 
themselves, and the campaign was now considered at 
an end. 

Writing on the 14th of February 1840, Major 
Hibbert says : 

MY DEAR BROTHER Since my last letter, poor William's 
regiment, the Queen's, has arrived, and I am happy to inform 
you that I have now in my possession a small box containing 
some books, papers, a few drawings, and some specimens of 
minerals, which I shall forward, the first opportunity, to my agent 
in Bombay, to be shipped without delay to England. It is most 
gratifying to hear the terms with which William is spoken of by 
every one in the regiment. His high professional abilities gained 
the confidence, and his character the esteem, of all ranks. It is 
my intention, if possible, to visit Jerruk, for the purpose of see- 
ing the cairn. We are hourly expecting the hero of Ghuznee 
here, Sir John Kean, on his return to Bombay. Now that my 
poor dear Sarah is gone, I must look to you, my dear brother, 
for accounts of the family. 

When time had somewhat alleviated the grief of 
Dr. Hibbert Ware, and t*he fine weather of spring had 
set in, Captain Edward Jones, who was then visiting 
his friends, the Fairfaxes of Gilling, induced him to 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 503 

make different short antiquarian tours in Yorkshire. 
This gave a very salutary diversion to his thoughts, 
and tended greatly to improve his health, which had 
suffered seriously under his late afflictions so seri- 
ously, indeed, that his hair, which, before the death 
of his son William, had been only slightly streaked 
with gray, had become quite white. 

He now began also to take the interest, at least to 
some degree, which he had formerly been wont to feel 
in the literary and scientific transactions going on in 
Edinburgh. His friend Mr. John (afterwards Sir 
John) Robinson, who had been for many years 
secretary to the Royal Society, kept him acquainted 
with all that was doing. He told him that M. 
Agassiz, the great naturalist, had returned from a tour 
in Ireland, and was on his way to visit Sir Philip de 
Malpas Grey Egerton ; that Dr. Buckland and Mr. 
Murchison had just left Edinburgh, and that the 
former was to pay a visit to Sir Robert Peel ; that M. 
Agassiz had infected Dr. Buckland with a new glacial 
theory, which was certainly supported in many situa- 
tions by the discovery of fossil and scratched (?) 
stones in great variety ; and that his (Dr. Hibbert's) 
old acquaintance Maclaren, of the Scotsman, had 
accompanied Dr. Buckland in all his explorations, and 
had become converted to the doctrine of the latter, 
after stoutly opposing it at first. 

A circumstance now occurred which, though it 
caused Dr. Hibbert Ware some annoyance and vexa- 
tion of spirit, was perhaps also beneficial to him in 
another way, since it served to occupy his mind 



504 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

to the exclusion, partially at least, of his past 
sorrows. 

Soon after the discovery of the chromate, his old 
friend William Henderson, " the hermit of Roeness," 
informed him as the reader may remember that Mr. 
Thomas Edmondston had occasionally intimated that 
he was the discoverer of that mineral. Now, though 
Dr. Hibbert Ware had treated this claim with con- 
tempt, he nevertheless carefully preserved all the 
letters of that gentleman, as well as those of his 
brother, Dr. Arthur Edmondston, and of Professor 
Jameson. Both of the two last-named gentlemen 
had, as we have before mentioned, written descrip- 
tions of the Shetland Isles, and though they had 
treated of their mineralogy in their works, yet they 
had made no mention of chromate of iron. 

These and the subsequent remarks are necessary 
before we proceed to notice the following singular 
correspondence on the subject. 

In the Shetland Islands there are tracts of land 
called scatholds, which are waste or common lands, 
over which the neighbouring heritors enjoy certain 
rights, proportioned to the value of their estates, such 
as our freeholders have over commons in England. 
These scatholds were strewn over with fragments of 
chromate of greater or less size, in which the neigh- 
bouring proprietors claimed, as of right, to possess 
shares. In order that each proprietor might have his 
just share, and no more, a trustee was appointed to 
superintend the division. It appears that Mr. Thomas 
Edmondston had been accused of receiving more than 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 505 

liis share of the scathold chromate, and to refute this 
charge he published a letter, addressed to the chromate 
proprietors of the scatholds of Ballista and Harolds- 
wick, dated Buness, October 22, 1839. 

Dr. Hibbert's attention was drawn to this letter 
by his Shetland friend, Mr. George Spence, and, when 
asking that gentleman for a copy of it, he wrote, at 
the same time, to the following effect : 

"Many years ago I was strongly advised by my friends to 
carefully preserve all the correspondence connected with my 
discovery of the chromate of iron in Shetland, with a view to 
the publication of the same ; and notwithstanding the many 
provocations I have received, sufficient to justify such an ex- 
posure, it is still doubtful if this correspondence would ever 
have been made public (at least during my own lifetime), unless 
demanded by some more open and direct proceeding on the part 
of Mr. Edmondston. 

"After receiving your communication, I consider that my 
reasons for suppressing the correspondence, which arose chiefly 
from my habitual and extreme dislike to public controversy, now 
no longer exist. 

" Pray oblige me, therefore, by forwarding to me, at your 
earliest convenience, a copy of Mr. Edmondston's letter, to which 
your communication refers. Pray accept the earnest assurance 
of my regard for my former Shetland friends, which time (for I 
am now in the evening of life) has not diminished." 

Dr. Hibbert Ware had caused all the correspond- 
ence between himself, Mr. Edmondston, and Professor 
Jameson, on the subject of the discovery of the 
chromate of iron, to be fair copied and bound in a 
volume, intending, if necessitated so to do, to publish 
the same, or, in case any direct claim adverse to his 
discovery should, after his death, be openly set up by 



506 SAMUEL HTBBERT WARE'S 

Mr. Edmondston, to leave materials in the hands of 
his representatives to refute such adverse claim. 

Mr. George Spence forwarded Mr. Edmondston's 
published letter, and along with it his own published 
reply to that gentleman (from both of which we 
propose to give extracts) ; and he wrote at the same 
time to Dr. Hibbert Ware as follows : 

HAMMAR, 15th October 1840. 

MY DEAR SIR I am happy in having had it in my power to 
testify publicly a sense of the substantial obligation I and others 
of my countrymen are under to you ; and I have further the 
pleasure of- assuring you of the continued respect and kindly 
feeling with which many remember your visits to these islands. 

Agreeably to your request, I enclose Mr. Edmondston's letter 
to the heritors of Ballista, etc. You will see in it that he has 
attempted to do you justice, though tardy, and to serve a 
present purpose. In 1823 the first vein of chromate was opened 
on the common, a little south from Hagdale and in a north-west 
direction from that place, to the top of Crucifield. Several 
veins have been since discovered and wrought; so that above 
3000 tons of chromate have been exported from them. The 
whole of this business was conducted by a trustee, chosen by 
the proprietors of the common. Mr. W. Mouat was the first 
trustee, and at his death in 1835 he was succeeded in this 
trust by his nephew, Mr. W. Cameron Mouat, who died about 
eighteen months ago. When a new trustee was proposed, Mr. 
Edmondston objected to the appointment as unnecessary ; the 
other proprietors, seeing how fatal it would be to their interests 
if each came separately into the market with his chromate, 
appointed your friend Dr. Spence trustee, with liberty to give off 
to Mr. Edmondston his proportion at the pit mouth. In the 
course of this dispute Mr. Edmondston had reason to suspect 
that some, much interested in the chromate, intended to demand 
the value of the ore which, shortly after its discovery, it was 
alleged he had collected from the common ; and it is this which 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 507 

produced the letter I now send you, in which there are several 
pieces of information never heard of before. 

As regards myself, I have to complain of sundry remarks in 
this letter, but chiefly that I concealed the finding of the quarry 
of Hagdale, with an intention to appropriate a large quantity of 
chromate taken out of it ; this is an allegation invented, and 
equally unfounded as it is unprovoked. 

One remark in my letter to Mr. Edmondston will need 
explanation. The last leaf of his letter is evidently an after- 
thought, and fixed to the original with gum. In this letter was 
an attack on Messrs. Hay and Ogilvie, commissioners for the 
Earl of Zetland, which was shown to them before publication : 
upon this Messrs. H. and 0. informed Mr. Edmondston that he 
would be both exposed and prosecuted if he persisted in publish- 
ing what he had printed regarding them. This letter, therefore, 
was submitted to the operation of the scissors, and another leaf 
substituted. I remain, my dear sir, yours with sincere esteem, 

G. SPENCE. 

We will now give the extracts from the published 
letters of Mr. Thomas Edmondston and Mr. George 
Spence, to which we have already referred : 

GENTLEMEN As the chromate of iron has recently been the 
subject of much discussion, and as my relation to it, in its more 
early periods of discovery and sale, appears to have been mis- 
understood, I judge it expedient to acquaint you with the follow- 
ing facts, believing myself competent to throw some light on 
this mysterious (the italics are Mr. Edmondston's) subject ; and, as 
far as my knowledge extends, I shall not only state the part I 
have myself acted, but also the course which has been pursued 
by others. 

In 1817 Dr. Hibbert came to this country on a geological 
and mineralogical tour, and I, as well as many others, had the 
pleasure of becoming intimately acquainted with him during his 
stay. In 1818 he again returned to prosecute the same inquiries. 
He came to my house early in the summer of that year, and it 



508 SAMUEL HTBBERT WARE'S 

was not till then that he communicated to any one, as far as I 
know, that he had discovered the mineral, chromate of iron, the 
former season. I believe I was the first chromate proprietor 
who went out with him in search of this mineral ; but very soon 
thereafter he told me he had communicated his discovery to 
Thomas Mouat, Esq., and to his nephew William Mouat, Esq., 
then on a visit to Belmont, and to Mr. Spence of Hammar. We 
found many surface specimens, and the Doctor said there must 
be some mines or quarries of it, that it was of much value, and 
that he would endeavour to find this treasure in quantity (the 
italics are Mr. Edmondston's). He remained about a fortnight 
at this time, making diligent search for it in quantity, but with- 
out success, after which he set out on his tour to Northmavine. 
I began to reflect deeply on what he had told me about the value 
of the mineral, and thought with him, that when specimens were 
to be found above ground there might be quarries below it ; and 
I therefore searched through the hills for some time, with as 
little success as the Doctor had experienced. 

It then occurred to me to look carefully on my private 
property, in which I was fortunate enough to discover, early, a 
vein of it ; and having extracted some of the ore, I packed off 
specimens, and sent them by an express to Dr. Hibbert, who was 
then at Mossbank. The Doctor, who had not till then seen a 
specimen fresh from the quarry, instantly addressed the speci- 
mens to Professor Jameson for his opinion, and despatched my 
messenger with them to Lerwick to overtake a vessel on the eve 
of sailing for Leith. These specimens reached the vessel, and I 
received a letter from Dr. Hibbert, of date the 29th July 1818, 
from Valla, wherein he says : " I have this moment received a 
letter from Professor Jameson, in answer to the communications 
sent him, and the specimens of chromate of iron, as they were 
first found on the common land of Hagdale and Crucifield, and, 
secondly, by yourself on your own private property ; and the 
answer from the Professor is so flattering that, at the moment I 
received it, I summoned an express to Lerwick to make the com- 
munication to you ; but whatever gratification you may receive, 
it cannot be superior to my own in thus considering myself as 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 509 

the medium of making a suitable return for a hospitality which 
is the more to be admired, as it looked for no recompense beyond 
its own immediate and peculiar satisfaction." Professor Jame- 
son's letter to me is as follows : " I have just received your 
specimens, and am happy to find the appearance so very favour- 
able. The ore is excellent, fully as good as that from North 
America, and will supply the European market. I will see that 
your important discovery is made known to the world, etc. etc. 
I hope soon to be enabled to congratulate you in person as the 
principal individual most likely to be interested in the discovery." 

These circumstances prove the facts that I discovered the 
chromate of iron on my private property a few days after the 
Doctor left Unst, after his first visit this year ; and further, that 
Professor Jameson made no distinction between the specimens 
from the scathold and those from my own property. He says, 
without qualification, that " the ore is excellent." On receiving 
such favourable intelligence regarding my chromate, I quarried 
several tons of it, and about a month after receipt of Dr. Hib- 
bert's letter, he came the second time that season to Buness, and 
was both surprised and delighted to witness the first mine of 
chromate he had ever seen in his life, or that ever had been seen 
in Great Britain. 

During his stay in the island at that time, which lasted 
some weeks, he looked around in every direction with the view 
of discovering the chromate in quantity, but was never able to 
find anything but surface specimens. Be it remembered that 
Dr. Hibbert was, at that period, equally a stranger with myself 
to the commercial value of the one kind of ore or the other. 

Here Mr. Edmondston recounts how he had en- 
deavoured to introduce Shetland chromate into the 
market, from which it would appear that in 1820 a 
ton of the ore fetched 15 ; and then he continues 
to write : 

" Professor Jameson, more than twenty years previous to Dr. 
Hibbert's visit to Shetland, had made a geological tour of the 



510 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Shetland Islands, and had discovered chromate, as a minera- 
logical curiosity, in Unst, and pointed out its geognostic relations. 
Had our predecessors been awake (the italics are Mr. Edmond- 
ston's), they might not have left it to us to have discovered the 
chromate, or reap the benefit arising therefrom. They did not 
disturb themselves by any such inquiries, and the chromate of 
iron remained neglected and unheeded. Dr. Hibbert, after this 
long lapse of years, found it in greater quantity, and did every- 
thing in his power to rouse the proprietors of the ore to attend to 
their own interests. Yet no one but myself paid any attention 
to his friendly warning ; as it will appear hereafter that I was 
between three and four years doing everything in my power to 
discover it in quantity, and introduce it into market, before any 
other individual thought it worth while (sic) to look after it, and 
not until I was supposed to be making money by it." 

After complaining that his exertions ought to 
have induced his brother-proprietors to thank him for 
benefiting them as well as himself, instead of accusing 
him of having pocketed 7000 value of scathold 
chromate ! he proceeds : 

" Chromate of iron has now been long known, and the 
benefits it has conferred have been generally and sensibly felt 
and I do claim the merit of having first discovered it in such 
quantity as to be beneficial in a commercial point of view. Dif- 
ferent bodies of men commonly entertain different modes of 
feeling and acting. The Society of Arts saw proper to reward 
Dr. Hibbert with a gold medal for his discovery of the chromate 
of iron in the island of Unst, though he only found it as inter- 
esting to arts and sciences and not in commercial value ; and it 
did seem to me that we, the chromate proprietors, who were to 
reap the substantial benefit from the discoveries which ensued, 
should present the Doctor with some testimonial of our respect 
and gratitude for having pointed out the path by which we were 
now likely, by our own exertions, to advance our interests and 
improve our condition. Accordingly, at a meeting held at the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 511 

schoolhouse at Unst in 1823, for subscribing the minute ap- 
pointing Mr. Mouat trustee, I made a proposal to this effect. Mr. 
Mouat opposed my proposition, and, as no one else seconded it, 
it fell to the ground. I would still be ready, if the other pro- 
prietors will unite with me, and it is not now too late, after we 
have experienced the benefits that have resulted from his geo- 
logical labours in this country, to present Dr. Hibbert with some 
memorial of our gratitude and esteem." 

Against this paragraph of the letter, Dr. Hibbert 
Ware has written the following sarcastic note : 

Absurdity ! 

To render a man a service voluntarily and expect him to be grate- 
ful for it. 

We cannot refrain from remarking upon Mr. 
Edmondston's extraordinary statement that Professor 
Jameson, twenty years previous to Dr. Hibbert's visit 
to the Shetland Islands, had discovered chromate as a 
mineralogical curiosity in Unst ; and we would ask, if 
such were the case, how it came to pass that the Pro- 
fessor neither mentioned it in his book nor alluded to 
it in the letter he wrote to Dr. Hibbert ? after the 
latter had sent him specimens of the ore, and in which 
he says : " I will see that your important discovery is 
made known to the world." 

To the foregoing letter or statements of Mr. 
Thomas Edmondston, Mr. George Spence published a 
reply, dated Hammar, 28th of May, 1840, from which 
we make such extracts as relate to Dr. Hibbert. After 
confuting Mr. Edmondston's defence of himself, Mr. 
G. Spence proceeds as follows : 

" But though our opinions must differ on this subject, yet 
there can be only one opinion as to Dr. Hibbert. To him the 



512 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

chromate proprietors owe much, even all they have profited by 
this valuable discovery, and it is to be regretted that any cause 
should have hindered them from uniting to give the Doctor a sub- 
stantial proof of those feelings of respect and gratitude which are 
so justly his due. But if union in this laudable measure could 
not be obtained, I cannot see why that should have prevented 
any individual who profited largely by the discovery from, at the 
same time, doing justice to his own feelings and to Dr. Hibbert's 
merits. Whatever might have been the sentiments of the great 
chromate proprietors on the subject, this I know, that had any 
of them made a motion for a testimonial being presented to Dr. 
Hibbert, that motion would have been not only seconded but 
carried by the lesser proprietors. Had such motion been made 
at any meeting of heritors while I was present, it could not have 
escaped my recollection ; for it would have tended to disprove the 
ridiculous report, so very common, of your having said that not 
Dr. Hibbert but you were the person to whom the Society of 
Arts ought to have awarded their gold medal ; and it was also 
said that, so far was the assumption carried, that a friend of 
yours in Edinburgh ' set the Doctor dumb ' when his pretensions 
to the medal were discussed." 

The foregoing letters are the last documents we 
find amongst the papers of the late Dr. Hibbert Ware 
regarding the discovery of chromate of iron in Shet- 
land. It is, however, certain that he never sought 
for any "substantial proof " from the chromate pro- 
prietors of their " gratitude," nor did he ever say that 
he expected one. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 513 



CHAPTER LV. 

Major Hibbert in Afghanistan The Lancaster Runic cross and Mr. 
Kemble's explanation Dr. Hibbert is elected a member of the 
Irish Archaeological Society Appendix to the History of the 
Foundations of Manchester Sir William Hamilton. 

AFTER the fall of Ghuznee, Afghanistan had been 
considered to have been reduced to a state of quiet, 
and Lord Kean's army had been sent back to India ; 
and so Dr. Hibbert Ware had been free from any 
anxiety on his brother's account. But in December 
of 1840 he received a letter from Kurachee, dated 
September the 24th, which somewhat disquieted 
him : 

" Things are again assuming a warlike aspect in Scinde. 
Already have I been ordered to send a wing of the regiment to 
Surkur on the Indus, and I follow with my headquarters about 
the 10th or 15th of next month. A force is now assembling 
there, I presume, for the purpose of putting down the Belochees, 
who are in large bodies in the hills, and also of retaking Kelat. 
The higher authorities are certainly considered the best judges 
of what is proper ; but it strikes me that their judgment was not 
of the best, after the trouble and expense of taking such a fortress 
as Kelat, to leave it only garrisoned by a lieutenant and thirty 
Sepoys. I have entrusted the box with poor William's drawings 
to Captain Naylor, our paymaster, who is going home on leave. 
God bless you, my dear brother, and may you enjoy health and 
happiness." 

2 L 



514 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

During the spring, Major Hibbert wrote more re- 
assuring letters. In the first, dated 14th January 
1841, from the camp at Shirkarpore, in Upper Scinde, 
he says that the country was in a state of tranquillity ; 
that it was believed that the British force was to 
be broken up and distributed in different parts ; and 
that the destination of the 40th was said to be Quetta, 
a town considerably beyond the Bolan Pass. 

We pass over the account he gives, in a letter 
dated the 27th of January, of a fatiguing march to 
that Pass, across a desert of 36 miles, short of water, 
when the days were hot, but the thermometer down 
to 29 at night, to his letter of the 31st, in which he 
mentions an afflicting sort of disease to which the 
soldiers were exposed : 

" Our detachments at Dadur, the entrance to the Bolan Pass, 
are suffering much from a horrid complaint called Scinde boils, 
but improperly so, for they are severe ulcers which eat deep into 
the flesh. Three of the officers arrived in the camp from thence 
to-day, perfect cripples, and are sent on sick certificate to Kura- 
chee, in the hope that the sea air and bathing may be serviceable 
to them. The sores are frightful. Seventy or eighty men, and 
some officers, will be obliged to be carried in doolies a rough 
kind of palanquin attached to every hospital for the sick and 
on camels." 

Early in the next month, February, Colonel 
Wilson, who had been sent with a force to Kujjuck to 
enforce payment of tribute, having been repulsed and 
himself mortally wounded, the 40th was ordered to 
march against that place, distant about forty-two miles. 
Major Hibbert gives a graphic description of the heavy 
rains of that country. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 515 

"At 5 o'clock P.M. we struck tents, and started for Kujjuck, 
bivouacked in the fields about 11 o'clock, intending to halt for 
about an hour ; but, in consequence of a heavy fall of rain and the 
darkness of the night, were obliged to remain till daylight. A 
more uncomfortable night could not be. The ground was up to 
the knees in mud and water, so that the men could not lie down, 
and the officers had only the alternative of sitting on their 
horses. I tried the latter, and, quite wet to the skin, was con- 
stantly in danger of tumbling off, from sleep. I therefore dis- 
mounted into the mud and got a sound sleep, standing with my 
head resting on my arms doubled on the saddle. The rain con- 
tinued all the march to Kujjuck, which we reached on the 23d 
(February), about 9 A.M. We then found that the town had 
been deserted and was in our possession. I don't expect my 
share of prize money will overburden me. We are to leave here, 
as soon as the weather permits, for we are literally stuck in the 
mud, for Meetrie, thence to Dadur, and go through the Bolan 
Pass, about the 15th of March, on to Kandahar. It is now 
raining in torrents, so we have every chance of being again stuck 
in the mud. I might now sing Ye Gentlemen of England" 

These reassuring accounts of the pacification of 
Afghanistan inspired Dr. Hibbert Ware with the 
hope of again ere long seeing his much-loved brother 
in England after so many years' absence, and he was 
now able to give all his thoughts, undisturbed by any 
anxiety about what might be taking place in the far 
East, to his literary labours, with all the delight of 
former years. 

His old friend Captain Edward Jones, who was 
then on a visit at the house of George Weld, Esq., of 
Leagrim, wrote to him on the 24th of February 1841, 
in order to call his attention to the Runic cross, which 
we have before mentioned : 

" I do not like to leave a post," wrote the captain " to inform 



516 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAKENS 

you how the antiquaries are proceeding about the Lancaster 
cross. You will perceive by the enclosed letter that they are 
getting nearer to the right meaning, and I think, with my brother 
Michael, you should write a paper soon on the subject, and let 
our Copenhagen friends have the merit that is due to them." 

The enclosed letter which has just been referred 
to was from Michael Jones, Esq., and we make the 
following extract from it : 

33 MOUNT STREET, GROSVENOR SQUARE, 
22d February 1841. 

DEAR EDWARD I presume you will remain at Leagrim with 
the other gentry this week. I am a little mortified to read in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for this month that, during my absence 
from town in January, some person has anticipated me in 
applying to Mr. John M. Kemble for the interpretation of the 
Lancaster Eunic inscription. I copy the extract from the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for February, p. 1 88. " Society of Antiquaries, 1 4 
January 1841. John M. Kemble, Esq., communicated an ex- 
planation of the Runic inscription upon a stone cross in the 
churchyard of St. Mary's, Lancaster, and now in the Vicar's 
house, which was engraved in Whittaker's Richmondshire, vol. ii., 
p. 230, and more correctly, as well as more recently, in Baines' 
History of Lancashire, but differently and erroneously explained 
in both." 

Mr. Michael Jones then proceeds to give the 
Runic characters, which Mr. Kemble considered Anglo- 
Saxon, and translated as follows : 

Orate pro Cynibaldo Cuthberhti 

But on the 6th of May following, Captain Jones 
again wrote to Dr. Hibbert Ware on the same 
subject: 

" Did T tell you," he inquires, "what a botch Kemble has 

made in publishing a wrong drawing of the Lancaster cross 1 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 517 

To-morrow my brother Michael and myself mean to go to the 
library, and copy from the Archceologia the paper he has written 
upon it, and I will send it to you, as I understand it will be 
some time before the Archceologia is sent out to the subscribers." 

But it was some considerable time before Dr. 
Hibbert Ware wrote the paper on this relic which 
his friend Michael Jones wished him to do ; for now 
he was occupied not only with Irish archaeology, but 
with the History of the Foundations of Manchester. 

On the 10th of July he was elected a member of 
the Irish Archaeological Society ; while the following 
rough draft of a letter, written by him to Mr. Thomas 
Agnew, shows what steps he was taking with regard 
to the Foundations of Manchester : 

" A little time ago, Mr. Wray mentioned that you were dis- 
posed to publish an appendix to the History of the Foundations 
of Manchester upon an economical scale. This project is highly 
advisable, in order to include the additional documents, to which 
access has been lately given, and without which the work is not 
perfect. I do not conceive that anything more is necessary than 
a very few sheets and three or four woodcuts, so as to sell for 
about six or seven shillings. I should think there could be no 
doubt that all, or most, of the subscribers of the work would feel 
it incumbent upon them to purchase the appendix. In this point 
of view, I do not think you would run any risk of loss. I need 
not add that you are welcome to my gratuitous services on 
the occasion." 

In the autumn of this year, Dr. Hibbert Ware 
again visited Edinburgh, where he had the pleasure 
of meeting many of his literary friends. On this 
occasion he was accompanied by his two younger 
sons, whom he wished to introduce to their relatives 
at Dunkeld and elsewhere. From all his old acquaint- 



518 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

ance he received the kindest and most friendly atten- 
tion. His next-door neighbour, when he had lived in 
Manor Place, Sir William Hamilton, was one of the 
foremost in proffering his hospitality. Distinguished 
as that gentleman was by his literary and philosophical 
works, he was not above a thoughtful consideration 
for children, whose enjoyments he kindly studied. 
There was to be a display of fireworks in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Manor Place, and Sir 
William, writing on the occasion to the Doctor, 
says : 

" Your best plan, it strikes me, will be for your whole party 
to drink tea here at seven ; then to see the fire-works, which are 
not far off ; and finally to return here to supper. Should this 
arrangement, however, chance to be inconvenient to you, would 
you and your boys breakfast here on Monday at ten ? Believe 
me, my dear sir, ever truly yours, W. HAMILTON." 

This year closed with further very satisfactory 
news from Major Hibbert, who, writing from Quetta 
on the 5th of October, where the 40th Regiment was 
then encamped, informed his brother that they had 
accomplished their march through the Bolan Pass 
without difficulty, and had remained at Quetta since 
the 2d of April. 

Shah Soojah, the protege of the Indian Govern- 
ment, was seated on the throne of his ancestors ; 
Cabul appeared to be contented; and Russian in- 
trigues and Persian encroachments had been checked. 

Afghanistan was divided into two military com- 
mands, one, the headquarters of which were at 
Cabul, was put under General Elphinstone ; and the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 519 

other, whose headquarters were at Kandahar, was 
under Sir William Nott, whom the 40th was ordered 
to join. 

"Altogether," observed a Bombay paper of the 
day, " there seems to be good reason to suppose that 
Afghanistan will soon be tranquilised, and that the 
refractory chieftains, being convinced of the futility of 
opposition, will cheerfully submit to the influence of 
their legitimate monarch." 



520 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARES 



CHAPTER LVI. 

Afghanistan Letter from Major Hibbert at Kandahar Dr. Hibbert 
Ware placed on the Committee of the British Association for in- 
quiring into the different races of man His collection of skulls, 
etc., and the New Zealander His third marriage. 

EARLY in the spring of 1842 Dr. Hibbert Ware, 
having had occasion to visit Manchester on his 
journey home, took a cold which terminated in a 
very severe attack of bronchitis, and it was not till 
the warm, balmy days of summer had fairly set in 
that his health became quite re-established. While 
he lay ill, he was distressed with the most anxious 
fears for the safety of his brother George. " Poor man, 
I know not whether he be alive or dead at this 
moment," he wrote to his eldest son in London, who 
was then keeping his terms at the Temple ; for 
rumours of dire disasters, many knew hardly what, 
in Afghanistan were at that time causing many a heart 
in England to ache for those near and dear to them 
in that distant land, 

" it Fama per urbes ; 

Fama, malum quo non aliud velocius ullum ; 

Habilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo." ^EN., 4, v. 173. 

As Major George Hibbert, like his brother, was a 
native of Manchester, and was equally attached to the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 521 

place of his birth, it may not be out of place, perhaps, 
to narrate a few of the stirring incidents in which 
he took part, in that wild, distracted, far-off land, 
which still, at this day, interests so much the British 
public. 

Most desponding accounts from India had arrived 
in England. It was reported that all Afghanistan 
was in a state of insurrection, and that a general and 
well organised plan of operations for the expulsion of 
the English, had been laid, in which it was suspected 
that Shah Soojah himself, the English prote'ge', had 
acquiesced. Many-tongued rumour spread all sorts 
of dreadful reports, and men's minds became more 
dark because these reports were vague. Then it began 
to be circulated that General Elphin stone and the 
British army in Cabul had capitulated, and that Sir 
William M'Naughton had agreed to evacuate Afghani- 
stan, on condition that the army should be allowed to 
withdraw in peace. As time went on, the dire news 
arrived of the murder of Sir William M'Naughton; of 
the disastrous retreat from Cabul ; of General Elphin- 
stone's capture, and the frightful slaughter of his dis- 
heartened troops, half-perishing with the cold of a most 
inclement winter, as they wound their toilsome way 
through the Coord Cabul Pass ; of the treachery of 
Akbar Khan, who, having enticed the English General 
and his chief officers to confer with him, made them 
prisoners, and so left their army without leaders. 

Along with this detail of disastrous news came 
a letter from Major Hibbert, which reassured his 
brother so far as to satisfy him that, in the month of 



522 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

January at least, the major was safe and well at 
Kandahar. The letter, written on a small scrap of 
paper, in order that the messenger might conceal it, 
ran as follows : 

KANDAHAR, January 30th, 1842. 

MY DEAR BROTHER This may reach you, but it is doubtful, 
for we are surrounded by enemies. Things look bad, and I think 
we have plenty on our hands. The force went out from here on 
the 12th of January, about six or eight miles off, under General 
Nott, myself commanding the 40th. We met the enemy on the 
river Urghandante, which we crossed, and after a bit of a fight 
drove them off with, I believe, a considerable loss of killed on 
their side, but few on ours. The balls were flying at one time 
about us pretty thickly, much to the annoyance of my horse, 
making him more fidgety than pleasant. One ball struck my 
sword, leaving its mark as a memento. I am quite as well pleased 
it was not the owner of the weapon. Gloomy news from Cabul. 
Report says Sir William M'Naughton is killed. This is a delight- 
ful climate at present, but extremely cold. I am in excellent 
health. Give my kindest love to my nephews and niece, and 
my kind remembrances to all my other friends in Manchester. 
I have added a codicil to my will, which I carry with me, a copy 
of which I will send you the first safe opportunity. God bless 
you, my dear brother. ^Your affectionate brother, 

GEORGE HIBBERT. 

After the insurrection had broken out in the winter 
of 1841-2, the force of General Nott in Kandahar was 
placed in a complete state of blockade, and all com- 
munication cut off on every side, and Sufter Jhung a 
son of Shah Soojah having joined a Ghilzie chief, 
was advancing with a large army against the city. 
General Nott had determined to meet them on the 
12th of January, and this brought on the ''bit of a 
fight " of which Major Hibbert wrote in his last letter. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 523 

Captain Bladen Neill of the 40th, in his book, entitled, 
Recollections of Four Years' Service in the East, thus 
describes the fight : 

" A force consisting of Blood's Artillery, the Shah's Horse, 
H.M. 40th under Major Hibbert, and about five other native 
regiments, advanced to the Urghandante Valley, a spot dotted 
with picturesque villages and luxuriant orchards, where, on the 
other side of the river of that name, were to be seen the Afghan 
force drawn up, their gay and floating banners presenting a very 
imposing appearance. The British army forded the stream, and 
the infantry columns advanced slowly and steadily to the enemy's 
position, who welcomed them with a heavy fire. But when the 
formidable thin red line, with bayonets fixed, was brought to the 
charge, and the British hurrah struck upon the astonished ears 
of the Afghans, they wavered, fell back, and at last broke and 
fled in complete disorder across the plain. The commander of 
the hostile army had been seen riding about, enveloped in a 
shroud, thereby expressing to his followers his determination to 
die in the field rather than yield. He did not die in the field 
he fled." 

But, quitting these scenes of anarchy and blood- 
shed, let us return to the peaceful old cathedral town, 
the once capital of the north of England. 

For some considerable time past Dr. Hibbert Ware 
had devoted much attention to a study, having for 
its subject the different varieties of the human race ; 
and the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, which was to meet at York in the course of 
the summer, sent him, through their secretary, a noti- 
fication, dated the 10th of July 1842, that he had 
been appointed one of the committee, consisting of 
Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. Prichard, Professor Owen, Mr. J. E. 
Gray, Dr. Lancaster, Mr. A. Strickland, Mr. C. C. 



524 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Babington, framed for the purpose of pursuing infor- 
mation with regard to the races of man ; and, alluding 
thereto, Sir William Betham, who had just published 
his learned work, " Etruria-Celtica Etruscan Litera- 
ture and Antiquities Investigated, or the Language of 
that Ancient and Illustrious People Compared and 
Identified with the Iberno-Celtic, and both shown to be 
Phosnician," 2 vols. 8vo (and was in dread, as he said, 
of a " good roasting from the critics ") wrote to Dr. 
Hibbert Ware on the 1 9th of August : 

"I am very glad that the subject of the varieties of the 
human race is in your hands. The Etruscan people were a 
mixed race, as all commercial nations must be. You will find 
fine specimens of intellectual skulls and countenances in Micalis' 
book of plates to his last work on the Ancient People of Italy. 
I hope you will examine those plates." 

Sir William Betham's statement that a commercial 
people are a mixed race suggests a remark we might 
offer upon other assertions that we have heard made, 
namely, that the English are a " Teutonic race," etc. 
With all respect for the Germans, we beg leave to 
deny this fact. The aborigines of Britain were Celts ; 
then the Komans garrisoned the island for some cen- 
turies, and doubtless there was during all that time 
some mixture of the blood of the two peoples ; then 
came the Saxons and then the Danes, who respect- 
ively occupied the kingdom, and who, it is far more 
likely, mixed with the conquered Britons than drove 
them all into Wales ; and lastly, the Normans, 
in far greater numbers than the other invaders, 
possessed themselves of England ; so that it may 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 525 

be asserted of the true-born Englishman that he is 
of a peculiar race, of a hodge-podge of races, and 
no Teuton. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware possessed some fine drawings 
of heads of different nations, and not the least 
valued of these were some excellent portraits in water- 
colour, taken by his late son William Hibbert, of 
natives of different castes in India, and also of Scinde. 

These portraits had been promised by the Doctor 
to the Ethnological Society in London, and were 
accordingly after his death forwarded, along with his 
MS. notes on that subject, to Dr. King. 

But the ardent ethnologist was not satisfied merely 
with drawings : he wished to have something real, 
real skulls in fact ; and as excavations were then 
being made at Clifford's Tower, in York, an oppor- 
tunity was afforded him to gratify this desire. In 
the days of Kichard I. there was a cruel persecution 
of the Jews, and the miserable wretches sought shelter 
in that tower ; but, feeling insecure, they slaughtered 
each other rather than fall into the hands of their 
foes, and were buried where they died. After the 
lapse of ages their remains were dug up when the 
excavations just mentioned were made, and our ethno- 
logist possessed himself of several skulls ; but he had 
even asked his brother to procure him one or two 
Afghan skulls ! and the latter, when writing to his 
nephew, says : 

" By-the-by, tell your father that I have got the head of an 
Afghan for him, one that was killed in the fight on the Urghan- 
dante ; Dr. M 'Andrew prepared the skull for me, with some 



526 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

others. Perhaps I can get the Doctor to give me two for 
him." 

Although we are anticipating a year or more, 
we will here relate an episode connected with eth- 
nology which took place when Dr. Hibbert was 
residing at his house at Hale Barns. 

A New Zealander had come to the village, and 
was exhibiting himself at the Bull's Head Inn, in full 
native costume, dancing his war-dance, and singing 
his war-whoop. Here was an opportunity for our 
ethnologist to handle a real living Maori cranium ! 
and he accordingly sent for the man to come to him. 
On his arrival the Maori showed his feet, arms, and 
legs, all, as well as his entire body, beautifully tat- 
tooed, like his face, with figures of animals, birds, 
plants, etc. Dr. Hibbert Ware first proceeded to 
handle the man's skull, which he did very critically ; 
then he passed his fingers through his hair, smiling as 
he muttered to himself, "It is certainly black, but it 
is fine and wavy." Then he examined with a magni- 
fying-glass the colour of the skin between the tattoo 
marks, and smiled again as he said in a low key, 
"Florid." The Maori, we must observe, appeared 
not to be able to speak or understand much English. 
Next, the man's fingers, which were rather long and 
tapering, were scrutinised ; and then the Doctor moved 
away to a short distance, so as to be able to take a 
general survey of his visitor, and after a few seconds' 
silence he said, in a muttered tone, " A fine specimen 
of a Caucasian head." Then, looking fixedly at the 
man, he exclaimed abruptly, " I'll tell you what, my 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 527 

good fellow, you are no New Zealander ! " The 
would-be Maori was so taken off his guard that, with 
an unmistakable brogue, he confessed to the impeach- 
ment, owning that he was an Irishman, and that 
when a boy he had been wrecked off New Zealand ; 
that a chief, instead of eating him, had adopted him 
as his son, and, after causing him to be tattooed, had 
married him to his daughter; and that after the death 
of his wife he had escaped to England, where he had 
been exhibiting himself ; " and I hope," concluded the 
Hiberno-New Zealander, " that you will not spoil my 
living." 

"No, no," replied Dr. Hibbert Ware, laughing, 
" you are a capital good make-up, and you will do as 
well as a real Maori ; and 111 come and see you perform 
at the Bull's Head." 

In the month of August 1842, Dr. Hibbert Ware 
surprised his friends by entering into the state of 
matrimony for the third time. The lady he made 
choice of was Miss Elizabeth Lefroy, the eldest 
daughter of Captain Anthony Lefroy, a brother of the 
Lord Chief-Justice of Ireland. But if nearly all the 
Doctor's friends were taken by surprise at the an- 
nouncement of this event, it was not so with his 
eldest son, who had heard divers rumours when in 
Manchester. At first he pooh-poohed them as the 
idle gossip of a cathedral town, for he could not 
believe that another marriage was within the range of 
probability ; but ere long, when, on receiving a letter 
from his father desiring him to call at Scarr and Petty's 
in St. Ann's Square and order a black dress-coat for 



528 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

him, he read the lines, "and tell them to be sure and 
make it fashionable, for you know they shove us old 
boys off with anything," he became aware that, for 
once at least, gossip had not lied. 

This direction to his tailors was only the re-enact- 
ing, on the part of the Doctor, of episodes of his 
younger days namely, when courting, to bloom into 
a full-blown dandy from being ordinarily careless in 
dress. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 5 29 



CHAPTER LVII. 

Kandahar General Nott's march to Cabul The return of Nott and 
Pollock to India. 

WHILE Dr. Hibbert Ware was occupied with the 
study of ethnology and the races of man, and entering 
into the matrimonial state, his brother, Major Hibbert, 
was one of the actors in the startling events that were 
taking place in Afghanistan. 

During the whole of the dire winter of 1841-2 the 
garrison of Kandahar had been kept in constant alarm, 
day and night, by threatened attacks of the enemy ; 
but nothing could daunt the courage of General Nott. 

In the month of May General England's small 
force had succeeded in making its way to that city, 
and with it came the Rev. Mr. Allen, who, as he 
relates in his published Diary, went by invitation to 
the mess of H.M. 40th Regiment. " I had heard 
much," says that gentleman, " of the estimation in 
which they were held, at every station where they 
had been, for their social virtues ; and no one who has 
read anything of the exploits of the British army will 
need to be told of their gallantry in the field." 

Whosoever has seen the names, worked on the 
colours of that fine old regiment, of the many engage- 

2 M 



530 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

ments in which it took a part, could little doubt that 
it had well earned the glorious soubriquets by which 
it was known " The ould and bould ;" " the old 
Excels" (XL.); "the fighting 40th." But alas! for 
this gallant old corps a favourite regiment of the 
Iron Duke it too has just died of Childers ; and the 
number that knew it once, and of which it was wont 
to be so proud, now knows it no more. 

Long had General Nott been urging on the 
Government the necessity of advancing a British force 
on Cabul; and at last the advance was sanctioned, 
" when he marched forward with his exulting little 
Kandahar army to strike the grand blow for the 
honour of dear Old England." 

On the 9th of August they broke ground, able to 
look back with pride and satisfaction on their occupa- 
tion of Kandahar in the unfortunate winter of 1841-2, 
during which they had maintained the honour of 
British arms under the most trying difficulties and 
privations. 

On the march to Cabul, General Nott halted to 
destroy the fort of Goaine, whilst Shumshoodeen Shah, 
in great force, was on the ridge of the surrounding 
hills. At length his army advanced into the plain, 
beating their tom-toms and uttering the most discord- 
ant yells. The British infantry advanced in line to 
where the enemy were in position, and the irresistible 
British charge of the bayonet quickly decided the fate 
of the Afghan army : they wavered, turned, and fled. 

The victors then captured Ghuznee, the scene of 
the sufferings of our imprisoned officers and soldiers, 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 531 

and avenged our past disasters by blowing up the 
fort and carrying off into India that invaluable trea- 
sure of the Moslem the celebrated sandal-wood gates 
of Somnauth, the memorials of the ascendancy in India 
of the great Sultan Mahomed, eight hundred years ago. 

On the 17th of September General Nott reached 
Cabul, where he was joined by the force under 
General Pollock ; and here also came the " hero of 
Jelalabad," Sir Eobert Sale, and most of the European 
prisoners, whom the enemy had now set at liberty 
the male captives dressed in the costume of the 
country, the loose, flowing, picturesque drapery of the 
East. 

All the grand objects of the advance of the British 
forces had now been achieved : the armies of Nott 
and Pollock had met in triumph at Cabul, and the 
prisoners had been recovered. 

When the first snows of winter were beginning to 
appear on the distant mountains, towards the middle 
of October, the British forces commenced their home- 
ward march, General Pollock's division taking the lead, 
and the Kandahar division following the day after. 

It was a dismal and harrowing march, as Captain 
Neill, in his Four Years' Service in the East, which 
we have before made use of, tells us ; for scarce had 
the armies quitted Cabul before they were saddened 
by seeing the vestiges of the disasters of General 
Elphinstone's ill-fated force. On either side of the 
road still lay numerous skeletons, and mingled with 
them tattered fragments of clothes, gloves, socks, 
Sepoys' hair-combs, and broken china. 



532 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

On entering the narrow passes, whose craggy and 
fantastic rocks towered perpendicularly to so enor- 
mous a height on both sides as almost to exclude the 
light of the sun, the cold became so intense that most 
of the officers had to dismount and walk to keep 
themselves warm, whilst the narrow thoroughfares 
were literally strewn with the horrid remains of men 
skeletons many of them could hardly be called, for 
the frozen features were hideously perfect. Mingling 
with the human corpses were those of camels, horses, 
and beasts of burden. In some places the slain lay 
in heaps, showing where they had made a gallant but 
ineffectual stand; in other places they were to be 
seen crowded in the caves and crevices, whither they 
had fled from one sure death, there to meet another 
even more dreadful lingering starvation. Added to 
these sad relics of a past disaster were the putrefying 
corpses of stragglers of Pollock's advanced division, 
who had been cut off by the foe, while vultures and 
crows soared heavily overhead watching the prey. 

The painful feelings connected with the march 
through this scene of death were further harrowed by 
the fact of its being almost impossible, from the 
narrowness of the way, to avoid driving the heavy 
guns over the sad remains of slaughtered comrades 
the wheels of which, as they rolled along, gave forth a 
harsh agonising sound. Here a horse and his rider 
lay side by side ; and at another spot were to be seen 
men clasped in each other's arms, just as when they 
had died, crowding together for warmth. 

At one place where the pass was almost closed in 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 533 

by rocks projecting from either side, the way was 
literally choked with corpses of men, horses, and 
camels, indicating that the fierce Afghans crowning 
the heights had there poured a tremendous volley 
amongst them. 

During this terrible march the booming of guns in 
the distance, and the sharp rattle of musketry in front 
and in rear, would ever and anon tell that the 
advanced and rear guards of the force were engaged 
with the enemy. At one time the latter guard was 
so hard pressed that Major Hibbert was sent with a 
wing of H.M. 40th and two companies of H.M. 41st 
to check the enemy. With a loud cheer the men 
ascended the hill in front, from whence the foe was 
making his attack, and cleared it. 

On the road the troops came up to the dreadfully 
mangled body of an unfortunate straggler from 
Pollock's force, who lay with his throat cut The 
poor fellow's faithful dog sat watching by his side, 
snapping at and resisting every one who attempted to 
come near the body of his dead master. 

That long, dreary march was not, however, alto- 
gether confined within dark, rugged, narrow passes ; 
sometimes the scene would be diversified, and the 
little armies would encamp in a hilly country, 
extremely picturesque. 

At Ingdullock another most mournful sight har- 
rowed the feelings of Pollock's and Nott's gallant 
troops ; for near that place was a round fort, the 
memorable spot where the last desperate stand had 
been made by the remnants of the ill-fated 44th and 



534 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

the other European troops, as the heaps of dead bodies 
lying all about sadly testified. 

It was here also that General Elphinstone and his 
chief officers were treacherously made prisoners. 

Onwards through the narrow, rocky gorge of the 
Kyber Pass, with its lofty overhanging rocks, marched 
the divisions of Pollock and Nott towards Ali Musjid, 
perched high on a hill. Scarcely had the last of the 
advancing armies passed the spot when a concussion 
was felt, a tremendous explosion succeeded, and high 
in the air, amidst clouds of dust and smoke and 
flames, were hurled the defences of that strong fort ; 
and thus, in the sight of the Afghan foe, were our 
slaughtered countrymen avenged. 

At last all the formidable passes were cleared, and 
the two armies entered triumphantly into British 
territory, where they were welcomed by the Governor- 
General, Lord Ellenborough, and a brilliant staff, 
with a salute of batteries. 

Among the officers honourably mentioned in the 
despatches of General Nott, occurred more than once 
the name of " Major Hibbert, commanding Her 
Majesty's 40th Regiment." 

Rewards, well earned, were given to both officers 
and men, and Major Hibbert was promoted to the 
vacant Lieutenant - Colonelcy of the old 40th, and, 
along with all the other officers, received the Afghan 
medal of " Victoria Vindex." 

Having now obtained leave of absence to visit 
England soon after his arrival, he was honoured with 
the following letter from the Duke of Wellington : 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 535 

HORSE GUARDS, 31 si December 1842. 

SIR I have the satisfaction to acquaint you that the Secre- 
tary of State has, upon my recommendation, submitted to the 
Queen your appointment to be Companion of the most honourable 
Military Order of the Bath, of which Her Majesty has been most 
graciously pleased to approve. I have the honour to be, sir, 
your most obedient, humble servant, WELLINGTON. 

Lt -Colonel George Hibbert, 
40th Foot. 



536 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

The Runic cross of Lancaster and Professor Finn Magnusson of 
Copenhagen The Chetham Society founded Dr. Hibbert 
Ware's Memorials of Lancashire in 1715. 

WHEN Lieutenant - Colonel Hibbert first landed in 
England, his brother and Mrs. Hibbert Ware were in 
Edinburgh, where they intended to spend the winter, 
and thither he proceeded to see them. As was to be 
expected in the case of two brothers so much attached, 
each was overjoyed at clasping the hand of the other. 

Immediately after his marriage Dr. Hibbert Ware 
had broken up his house in York, with the intention 
of settling at his estate, Hale Barns, in Cheshire, 
in order to be near Manchester ; but he proposed to 
continue spending his winters in Edinburgh. 

The Eunic cross of Lancaster, of which we have 
written in former chapters, again engaged his atten- 
tion at this time, and at a meeting of the Society of 
Scottish Antiquaries, held on the 27th of March 1843, 
he laid before them a communication of Professor 
Finn Magnusson, the distinguished Danish antiquary, 
explanatory of the Runic inscription on it. The 
Memoir of Dr. Hibbert Ware was accompanied by the 
accurate drawings of Captain Edward Jones, and casts 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 537 

taken of the Runes. After briefly recounting the 
history of the finding of the cross, to the effect we 
have before given, and lamenting that it should for 
many years have been thrust into " the dusty corner 
of a showman's museum " at Kendal, where he had 
seen it in 1834, and further lamenting the accident 
that had prevented Professor Magnusson's interpreta- 
tion coming to him in time to enable him to have it 
recorded in Mr. Baines' valuable History of Lancashire, 
the Doctor proceeds to narrate the different interpreta- 
tions that had been given to the Runic characters, 
namely, those of William Humper, Esq., of Birming- 
ham, an Anglo-Saxon scholar ; of Dr. Whittaker in his 
Richmondsliire, of John Mitchell Kemble, Esq. , which 
we have given in a former page ; and that of Professor 
Magnusson of Copenhagen. But on 'the comparative 
merits of all the different interpretations Dr. Hibbert 
Ware did not profess himself competent to give an 
opinion, except that the question of preference evi- 
dently lay between the interpretation of the Danish 
antiquary and that of Mr. Kemble. 

From the following letter, written by Professor 
Magnusson to Dr. Hibbert a few years ago, the learned 
Dane's opinion will be seen : 

COPENHAGEN, 13th July 1836. 

MY DEAR SIR "When I read English I understand it toler- 
ably well as a mere Autodidactos, but to write I am never wont, 
and therefore I most intimately beg that you will please to 
excuse the many grammatical faults in which these few lines 
(and perhaps some others which I might write you hereafter) 
without doubt will abound. I cannot describe the deep sorrow 
I just felt as I read an article of your letter to Professor Rafn, 



538 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAEE's 

and to have perceived that you are fully unacquainted with the 
lamentable death of our brave and learned friend Mr. Macdougall, 
which happened at Largs, in Scotland, in the course of October 
1835, by setting off from the shore for a steam packet, when, by 
a most unlucky case, the boat was overturned by a hard gale. 
This dreary accident was shortly described in the Times " He 
left an amiable widow and four or more small children. What 
tidings for them ! " As our late friend had landed in Hull, and 
from thence was gone to Scotland, I suppose that he, as he 
proposed, had rendered you a visite, and consequently had 
delivered to you my new interpretation of the Runic inscription 
on a stone cross from Lancaster, which I had sent to him from 
Roskeld (where I lived the last winter), with a Danish letter of 
1st October, wherein I desired that he, on my behalf, would pay 
you my due thanks for your kind letters of 28th of May and 
28th of June 1835, with an authentic drawing, and three such 
different casts of the Lancaster Runic inscription. As I yet 
understand that this has not could be effected, I now shortly 
repeat the said interpretation. 

The letters of the inscription are true Anglo-Saxon, and 
especially Northumbrian Runes (as described in my disquisition 
on the obelisk at Ruthwell in our . . . report, which I hope 
you soon will receive). I read them now thus [here the 
Professor copies the Runic characters on the cross]. The true 
meaning of the whole inscription will thus literally be : Oremus 
nancisi (oblinere) quietem Cunibaldum (bene) notum castri (dvitatis) 
incolam (civem aut prcefedum.) 

Both the form of the letters and the ornamental style of the 
monument seem to indicate that its erection must be ascribed to 
the eighth or ninth (if not already to the seventh) century. 

I ever remain, with due regard and esteem, my dear sir, your 
most obedient and humble servant, FINN MAGNUSSON. 

As an ancient relic found in Lancashire, Dr. 
Hibbert Ware had therefore more particularly inter- 
ested himself about this Eunic cross ; but, in truth, 
whilst he lived, in the retirement and quiet of his 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 539 

house in Cheshire, he occupied himself almost ex- 
clusively with the archseology and history connected 
with his native county. 

At the request of Mr. Leigh Richmond, the agent 
of Lord Stamford, he sent that gentleman a copy of 
his treatise on the Customs of the Manor of Ashton- 
under-Lyne to deposit in his Lordship's manorhouse 
in that town, until a public library should be formed 
there. 

About this time, namely, in the spring of 1843, 
a number of gentlemen in Manchester had determined 
to form themselves into a society, to be called the 
Chetham Society, the object of which was to publish 
scarce remains, historical and literary, connected with 
the counties of Lancaster and Chester ; and at one 
of the first meetings of its provisional committee, 
William Fleming, M.D., the honorary secretary, was 
directed to write to Dr. Hibbert Ware and invite him 
to become one of the council. 

Of course he accepted this honour with pleasure. 

Of all the fourteen members of this first council 
none are now living except one, an old friend of Dr. 
Hibbert Ware we allude to the present president of 
the Chetham Society, the learned James Crossley, 
Esq., F.S.A. This gentleman, who, in his youth, had 
been a frequent contributor to Blachvood's Magazine, 
has edited for the Society works of a most interesting 
nature, namely, Pott's Discovery of Witches, The 
Diary and Correspondence of John Worthington, etc. 

This Society has, since its first formation, issued 
109 volumes. 



540 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

The continuation of, or appendix to, the History 
of the Foundations of Manchester also began seriously 
to occupy the attention of Dr. Hibbert Ware, and on 
the 5th of September 1843 the Rev. Canon Wray 
wrote to him : 

" MY DEAR SIR I have now the keys of our Chapter-house 
chest, and if it be convenient for you to meet me in the Chapter- 
house at twelve o'clock, I will let you have some of the old 
deeds. I remain, yours faithfully, C. D. WRAY. 

The deeds were, of course, made use of before the 
Doctor left Hale Barns to spend the winter in Edin- 
burgh. 

When in the Modern Athens again, we find him 
busily occupied with his former literary friends ; tak- 
ing tea with Professor Forbes, where he met the 
former competitor of that gentleman for a chair in the 
University, Sir David Brewster ; and on another 
occasion, writing a letter of some length to the trea- 
surer of the Antiquarian Society, containing various 
suggestions relative to its then present state and 
future prosperity, which was read at a subsequent 
meeting, held on the 13th of May 1844, by that 
officer, who stated that the suggestions were of great 
importance. 

Soon after his appointment to be one of the council 
of the Chetham Society, Dr. Hibbert Ware had been 
called upon to edit a curious collection of original 
and scarce documents relative to Lancashire and the 
Insurrection of 1715, in favour of the exiled House 
of Stuart; and on his return to Hale Barns in the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 541 

summer of 1844, he commenced arranging his materials 
for the work. Probably the following letter to him 
from the Rev. Canon Raines may have had some 

relation to it : 

MILNROW PARSONAGE, ROCHDALE, 
July 15th, 1844. 

DEAR SIR I enclose the extracts from Mr. W. Stout's 
journal, which was lent to me by Mrs. Butler of Kirkland. I 
consulted with Mr. Parkinson respecting the publication of it by 
our Society, assuming that my good friend Mrs. Butler would 
not be opposed to such a step. I shall take an opportunity of 
informing Mr. Beever of your present engagements, and I am 
sure he will be glad to hear of the letters to which you allude, 
if he has not yet seen them. He has in his possession the 
original speeches (I have copies) delivered by Townley, Chadwick, 
Deacon, etc., in 1745 ; and although copious extracts are to be 
found in print, I am not aware that the whole of the speeches 
have been published. Much valuable local information respect- 
ing this turbulent era remains to be collected, and I should be 
sorry if your generation should pass away without its being 
done. Believe me, with much regard, your faithful, humble 
servant, F. R. EAINES. 

The Mr. Beever mentioned in the preceding letter 
is Mr. James F. Beever, now retired from practice, 
but formerly the head of an eminent firm of solicitors 
in Manchester, which we believe is now represented 
by Messrs. Taylor, Kirkman, and Collet. 

During the winter of 1844-5, when in Edinburgh, 
Dr. Hibbert Ware worked assiduously at the Memo- 
rials of Lancashire of 1715, which work the Council 
of the Chetham Society in their Annual Report an- 
nounce as follows : 

" The Journal of Peter Clarke, relating to the Insurrection, 
begun in Scotland and concluded at Preston, Lancashire, Nov. 



542 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

14, 1715, now first published from an original manuscript, and 
edited, with an introduction and notes, and an appendix of 
supplementary papers by Samuel Hibbert Ware, M.D., F.E.S.E., 
etc." 

The Keport then continues : 

"The Eebellion of 1715, edited by Dr. Hibbert Ware, will, 
the Council feel assured, be hailed by the members as an import- 
ant addition to the history of a period not as well known as its 
interest deserves, and with respect to which the materials are 
rather scanty, so far at least as Lancashire is concerned. The 
name of the editor will be a sufficient guarantee that nothing will 
be wanting in the shape of illustration which can add to the 
value of the materials he has collected. Dr. Hibbert Ware also, 
with a liberality which entitles him to be considered as a bene- 
factor to the Society, announced his intention, some time ago, of 
presenting to the members a publication to be printed at his own 
expense, to form part of the series of its works, ' An Essay on 
the State of Parties in Lancashire in 1715,' and accordingly, ' The 
State of Parties,' which the members are to consider as Dr. 
Hibbert Ware's free and liberal contribution, will, in all prob- 
ability, be included in the second volume of the Society for the 
past year." 

While in Edinburgh, hard at work on the Memorials 
of Lancashire, he took a severe cold, which was 
followed by so serious an attack of bronchitis (to which 
he was subject), that Dr. Alison gave little hope of his 
recovery; and even, after he had, contrary to all 
expectation, baffled the disease, his medical adviser 
warned his friends that any future attack, however 
slight, might probably be fatal. 

In the spring of 1845, the Memorials of Lanca- 
shire 0/1715 was issued by the Chetham Society to 
its members. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 543 

The work commences with introductory chapters 
on Whig and Tory distinctions at that period ; then 
treats of Lancashire during the Rebellion, and the 
events of Church and State which preceded and 
accompanied it, Jacobite plots, etc., to which several 
chapters are devoted. In the next part there is an 
account of the march of the Highland army from 
Scotland until they reach Penrith, the junction with 
them of the unfortunate Lord Derwentwater and many 
of the Catholic aristocracy ; then follows the curious 
narrative of Peter Clarke, who, in his Diary, gives 
details of the march from Penrith to Preston and of 
the " Preston Fight," all which Dr. Hibbert links to- 
gether and annotates upon, concluding his work with 
several chapters on the Lancashire events, trials, 
executions, and so forth, which followed the surrender 
of the insurgents at Preston, together with remarks 
upon the state of parties in Lancashire subsequent to 
1715. A copious index completes the work. 

In the preface Dr. Hibbert Ware acknowledged 
that he could not avoid sometimes treading upon 
rather delicate ground in order to explain the party 
views and principles of Whigs, Tories, and High 
Churchmen ; but he disclaimed any object imbued with 
party spirit, his aim only being to furnish a guide 
explanatory of the strange events recorded in the his- 
torical collections (Peter Clarke's Journal) he was pre- 
paring for publication for the first time, from an 
original manuscript then in the possession of David 
Laing, Esq., of Edinburgh. 

Although the author was obliged to tread upon 



544 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" rather delicate " ground, he gave offence to neither 
Whigs nor Tories, while Catholic readers declared that 
he had done full justice to their party. Many years 
after the publication of this work, Mr. O'Callaghan 
in a note at p. 394 of his comprehensive and inter- 
esting History of the Irish Brigades in France, says : 
" I have derived much useful light on English Jacobite 
politics, contributed to the publications of the Chetham 
Society by the learned and liberal Dr. Samuel Hibbert 
Ware." 

After having sufficiently recovered from his late 
severe illness to be able to travel, he returned to Hale 
Barns, where he remained for the rest of his life, 
almost in seclusion ; for he saw few friends except 
those of his early days, Captain Edward Jones and 
Mr. Joseph Jordan ; but Mr. John Harland of the 
Manchester Guardian newspaper usually visited him 
each Saturday afternoon, and discussed with him the 
appendix to the History of the Foundations of 
Manchester, which he had then begun to write. The 
Doctor in so doing, we may observe, paid but little 
regard to the advice of Mr. Eraser, the printer of 
Edinburgh, who wrote : " We are truly glad to learn 
you are again enjoying good health ; long may it be 
so ; you should keep out of the devils' hands for at 
least one winter." 

From his old friend David Laing he received a 
very pleasing letter, dated the 14th of October, com- 
plimenting him on the Memorials of Lancashire. 

" MY DEAR SIR," wrote that gentleman, " The copies of 
your Rebellion volume were delivered a few days ago, and I am 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 545 

quite pleased with the appropriation of the second copy I stipu- 
lated for. I had no notion you had taken so much pains in 
dovetailing those unconnected materials, but the result is a volume 
of no small importance in Lancashire history. The copy for the 
library will be duly presented at the first meeting of the Society. 
I am not aware of any unpublished documents concerning the 
Earl of Derwentwater. I made a kind of flying visit to the 
north and availed myself of your directions. I took the steamer 
to Lerwick. Now one result of my peregrinations was to suggest 
to you the propriety or expediency of republishing your Zetland 
or Shetland volume in a somewhat abridged and cheap form, 
leaving out a good deal of the scientific details found in the 
volume. When you come to Edinburgh I hope also some plan 
might be devised for bringing out the late Mrs. Hibbert's draw- 
ings of the sculptured stones." 

An equally gratifying letter was received from 
Mr. George Petrie, the learned author of the " History 
of the Round Towers in Ireland and the Ecclesi- 
astical Architecture of that country anterior to 
the Norman Invasion." That gentleman writes as 
follows : 

21 GREAT CHARLES STREET, DUBLIN, 
30th Nov. 1845. 

MY DEAR Sm I beg most earnestly to obtain your pardon 
for not sooner replying to your kind letter of the 6th October, 
and which I deferred doing from day to day, in the expectation 
that I should receive your work, Memorials of the Rebellion, and 
that I might be enabled to inform you that I had presented it to 
the Koyal Irish Academy. It only reached me, however, a few 
days since, and consequently I had no opportunity of complying 
with your wish till last night, when the warmest thanks of the 
Academy were voted to you by acclamation, and with expressions 
of respect and esteem which, if you had heard them, could hardly 
fail of affording you gratification. 

Permit me also to return my warmest thanks for the kind 
terms of approbation which you have been pleased to bestow 

2N 



546 SAMUEL H1BBEKT WARE'S 

upon my work on the Round Towers, and to assure you that 
among the many similar expressions of opinion, which I have 
been so fortunate as to receive, there are none that I more highly 
value than yours. 

Should you ever feel an inclination to revisit Dublin, this in- 
clination may be strengthened by a consideration of the pleasure 
which our museum would afford you, and I can also promise you 
a cordial welcome from many friends, amongst whom none will 
be more delighted to see you than my family ; and I am, my dear 
sir, yours very faithfully, GEORGE PETRIE. 

On the recommendation of his friend W. C. 
Trevelyan, Dr. Hibbert Ware presented a copy of the 
Lancashire Memorials of 1715 to the Philosophical 
Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Hale Barns, where Dr. Hibbert Ware now per- 
manently resided, for he never again visited Edin- 
burgh, which was too cold, was a very different spot 
to the Hale Barns of to-day. At that time it was a 
secluded hamlet, consisting of a mere handful of 
cottages ; and the Hale Koad then, and still called the 
Long Lane, was really a long lane, so ill paved and 
so narrow, even until recent times, that one cart 
could scarcely pass another without drawing to one 
side, and almost into the hedge-backing ; whilst these 
backings were so high, and fringed with such lofty 
trees, that towards the dusk of evening the wayfarer 
was enveloped almost in darkness. The tiny hamlet 
of Hale Barns and its immediate surroundings formed, 
however, a pretty bit of English landscape; there 
were fine trees growing about the Green, a wide, open 
grassy space, while drooping willows overshadowed 
Partington Pool, a large pond at the entrance of Dr. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 547 

Hibbert Ware's property. On the adjoining estate of 
John Leigh, Esq., there grew several handsome 
Spanish chestnuts fronting the Green. But there 
was one building which had ever made Hale Barns 
dear to the Doctor, and from which the hamlet partly 
derived its name, and that was the old Tithe Barn, 
which stood on the ground at the back of the " Bull's 
Head" inn. From a MS. memorandum of his we 
learn that the date of this structure was lost in the 
obscurity of bygone ages, and that in the thirteenth 
century a moiety of the Manor of Bowdon, to which 
Hale belongs, had been gifted to the Benedictine 
Priory of Birkenhead, and that after the Eeformation 
it had become vested in Lord Stamford and the See 
of Chester. The old Tithe Barn was 90 feet long and 
1 8 feet wide ; its interior was formed by massive oak 
timber arches, supported and secured by transverse 
beams and principals, also of solid oak. The height 
of the arches was 17 feet 8 inches from the ground, 
and the spaces between the timber frame-work, which 
formed the outer walls, were wattled and filled with 
mud. Seen in the dusk, the interior of this barn had 
the semblance of an old Gothic edifice. 

Drawings of this venerable structure are still 
extant, Dr. Hibbert Ware's second wife and Captain 
Edward Jones having taken several different views of 
it. The historian of Cheshire, Dr. Ormerod, to whom 
these drawings had been shown, wrote from Sedbury 
Park, on July the 4th, 1844, as follows : 

" Accept my thanks for the very interesting drawing of Hale 
Barns. It is a good specimen of the old style of timber build- 



548 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

ing ' on crooks,' of which some ancient instances occur in 
Cheshire." 

" My stars ! They are pulling down the old 
barn!" exclaimed Dr." Hibbert Ware, as he hurried 
into the house one morning, in a fever of archseolo- 
gical excitement, " The Vandals ! The Huns 1 The 
Goths ! " These were the mildest epithets the enraged 
antiquary applied to no less personages than my 
lord the Eight Honourable the Earl of Stamford and 
our sovereign lady the Queen's bishop of Chester. 
Truly, had he lived a few generations ago, he would 
have rendered himself liable to an action of scan- 
dalum magnatum, nor would his love for antiquities 
have been special matter sufficient to justify his 
words. 

" It would perhaps be a most difficult matter," 
wrote the exasperated antiquary in his MS. notes, 
" to assign a rational motive for this deplorable 
demolition, for we might have expected a prevalence 
of better taste and feeling." Some of the oak timbers 
were taken to Dunham, other parts were destined to 
complete the outbuildings and pigsties of the village 
tailor, or other purposes ! " but it were to consider 
too curiously the base uses to which the ancient 
structure raised by the Prior of Birkenhead may be 
destined," wrote Dr. Hibbert Ware. 

Such was the end of the venerable Tithe Bam in 
which the monks of old had been wont to collect their 
tithes. 

But there was another piece of antiquity, or 
supposed antiquity, at Hale Barns which Dr. Hibbert 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 549 

was wont to speak of, though apparently in jest, and 
this was upon his own estate. Among the fields 
there were two, called the Great and the Little Wall 
fields, containing together eleven statute acres. Their 
shape was oblong, and they were then elevated, in a 
singular manner, about two feet above the adjoining 
fields, though now one side of one of them has been 
made level with the land next it. " There was a 
Eoman road near here, and I have little doubt," the 
antiquary would say with a laugh, though we think 
that he more than half believed in what he asserted, 
" that the Wall field was the site of a Roman camp. 
There is no vestige of a wall near, and I suspect that 
the word 'Wall' is a corruption of the Latin vallum!" 

Hale Barns, forty years ago, might have been 
justly designated as a place " quite out of the world." 
The peasantry, without education and grown up in 
ignorance, were plunged in the usual courses of rural 
dissipation and vice. Drinking, poaching, gambling, 
and fighting were their normal state. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware, being quite alive to this deplor- 
able condition of his humbler neighbours, strove to 
remove it by promoting a better system of education. 
Accordingly he caused to be printed and distributed, 
" A Memorial, relative to the present state of educa- 
tion at Hale, near Altringham, addressed to the landed 
proprietors and others who have an interest in this 
township." 

In this Memorial he had set forth, amongst other 
matters, that in the township there was no other 
foundation for the maintenance of a school but a 



550 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

small dwelling-house and schoolroom, provided very 
many years ago by the members of the old Presby- 
terian Chapel at Hale Barns, vested in trustees, who 
appeared ever " to have considerately left the choice 
of the master to the township at large, aware that the 
emoluments must be derived from individuals differ- 
ing from each other in religious opinions." 

But owing to the inadequacy of the support which 
the school afforded for a master, it languished, and 
Dr. Hibbert "Ware proposed to remedy this state of 
things by an energetic effort of all individuals of pro- 
perty and influence, to secure the appointment and 
provide for the support of an efficient master ; and, 
after advising the establishment of a small village- 
library, he concludes by saying that moral training 
" cannot, however, be deemed complete without going 
hand in hand with RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION, for which 
reason, as well as for other considerations which have 
been stated, a schoolmaster from one of the normal 
schools lately organised is to be desired." 

Copies of this Memorial had been sent by the 
Doctor to different friends whom he knew to be in- 
terested in the education of the poor. We insert here 
the opinions of Sir Walter Calverley Trevelyan and 
Canon Parkinson, which are certainly not in accord 
with the so-styled advanced ideas on education of 
to-day. 

ATHENAEUM, PALL MALL, 18th December 1845. 

MY DEAR SIR Your interesting letter of the 1 3th has been 
forwarded to me from Nettlecomb. I am very glad that you 
are exerting yourself for the improvement of the education in 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 551 

your district. There is no doubt it is one of the greatest 
desiderata at present in most parts of the country. You will 
find the Reports of the Committee of the Privy Council on Edu- 
cation most useful. They furnish, in their books, plans and 
directions for schools of all sizes. What has hitherto been most 
neglected in education, but which is of the greatest importance, 
and without which all that has hitherto commonly been dignified 
with the title of education is worthless, is moral and religious 
training. This has not been attempted in schools, but has been 
left to those who, unfortunately, too often want it as much as 
the poor children themselves. Believe me, ever yours most 
truly, W. C. TREVELYAN. 

And Canon Parkinson writes from Broughton 
Cliffe, on January 9th, 1846 : 

MY DEAR SIR Should you be in the neighbourhood on the 
19th February, when the Chetham Society dine with me at five, 
I hope you will join us and take a well-aired bed with me. Many 
thanks also for your admirable address on the state of education 
at Hale. May it produce the fruits you wish and it deserves. 
Very faithfully yours, R PARKINSON. 

But uneducated and uncultivated as the peasantry 
of Hale Barns at that time were, they were withal 
good-natured and obliging, and grateful for any little 
kind acts done to them, and in return would do any 
service for " t' owd master," as they styled Dr. 
Hibbert Ware, and he and they were ever on the 
most friendly terms. 

Thus time passed quietly, and the recluse enjoyed 
undisturbed leisure, in his country retreat to prose- 
cute the, to him, pleasing labour of writing the 
appendix of the History of the Foundations of Man- 
chester. His health was now tolerably good, and no 
event had happened in his family other than an 



552 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE*S 

agreeable one, namely, the marriage in January 1846 
of his niece, the only daughter of his deceased brother 
Robert. The gentleman she married was Alexander 
Abercrombie Nelson, Esq. of the 40th regiment, now 
Major-General Nelson, C.B., who, when serving with 
that regiment in the Afghan war, had gained the 
marked approbation of General Nott for the efficiency 
with which he had performed the duties of Commis- 
sary-General of the troops at Kandahar. Their eldest 
son, lately deceased, held a captain's commission in 
the old XL's, and their surviving son is now a captain 
in the 5th Dragoon Guards. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 553 



CHAPTER LIX. 

THE IRISH EXILE. 

" Nos patri(B fines, et dulcia linqitimus arva ; 
Nos palriam fitgimus." 

Edoga 1, VIKG. 

A FRIEND had forwarded to Dr. Hibbert Ware a 
Times newspaper of the 27th of March 1846, in 
which, under the head of " The Irish Abroad," was a 
Memoir of a first cousin of his mother. The article 
begins : 

" Died at Tours in the Department of Indre et Loire, France, 
on Thursday, the 5th March 1846, Hugh Ware, colonel en retraite, 
in the 74th year of his age. Colonel Ware was born near 
Rathcoffy, in the county of Kildare, Ireland. His family was 
English in its origin, being that of the celebrated historian, Sir 
James Ware. The vicinity of his residence to Carton, the seat 
of the Leinster family, and consequently within the fascinating 
sphere of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, added to the spirit of liberal- 
ism and disaffection so prevalent in Ireland, in the years 1796-7- 
and 8, accounts for the entrance of Hugh Ware, then an ani- 
mated, resolute, and active young man, into the conspiracy of 
the United [Irishmen, and for his subsequently taking an active 
part in the rebellion. His military qualities were even then 
evident, and led to his being specially appointed by Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald to command the men of a large district of Kildare." 

Dr. Hibbert Ware's mother as a girl had often 
visited at the house of her uncle, Hugh Ware's father, 



554 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

at Kilcock, when Hugh must have been a mere child ; 
and as she never returned to Ireland after her mar- 
riage in 1780, she could have known little of her 
young cousin. Be that as it may, after the rebellion 
had been subdued, many of the rebel chiefs and others 
were executed, and many were banished for life ; 
among the latter was Hugh Ware, who having been 
confined in Kilmainham jail until the Peace of 
Amiens in 1802, was then released, when he passed 
over into France, and took service under the banners 
of the Eepublic, a step so much resented by Mrs. 
Hibbert, that, whenever his name was mentioned, she 
would say, sharply : " Don't speak of him, he is a bad 
man." This was perhaps a prejudice, but a pardon- 
able one in a mother, who then had a son in the 
British army, fighting against that Republic. 

Miles Byrne, chef de bataillon in France, in his 
Memoirs d'un Exile Irfandais, published in Paris 
in 1864, makes frequent mention of Hugh "Ware ; and 
from that work we have culled a few episodes of his 
military career. Miles Byrne gives two lists of the 
chiefs of the rebels, one containing the names of the 
Protestant, and the other those of the Catholic 
leaders ; among the latter is that of Hugh Ware ; for 
the oldest branch of Sir James Ware's family, of which 
he was a cadet, had become Catholic early in the last 
century. 

Cruelly misgoverned as Ireland had been for 
generations past, Hugh Ware, as an educated man 
and a Catholic, should have reflected that his church 
had never sanctioned rebellion ; he should have known 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 555 

her teaching : "By me princes reign, and the law- 
givers decree just things," as saith the Most High ; 
and that " He that resisteth the power, resisteth the 
ordinance of God." 

On his arrival in France he received a commission 
in the Irish Legion. Here he found his cousins, the 
Perrotts, and several friends, Miles Byrne, Fitzgerald 
of New Park, Aylmer of Painstown, William Sher- 
ridan, Edmund St. Leger, and Fitzhenry, and many 
other exiles besides. 

This Legion, like its predecessor, the Irish Brigade, 
was composed exclusively of exiles from the Green 
Isle. The uniform was green. Besides the Eagle- 
bearer, who ranked as an officer, there was the 
Standard-bearer, carrying a green colour, on which 
was inscribed in golden letters, on one side, The 
Independence of Ireland, while on the reverse was 
depicted a Harp without a crown. Whenever the 
regiment marched through a town, its band struck up 
the national tune of St. Patrick's day in the morning. 

Miles Byrne relates the following incident of 
Ware's courage when the Legion was in Spain. At 
the siege of Astorga, having claimed from Junot the 
right, as captain of the grenadiers, to be the first 
to mount the breach, the general replied, smiling : 
" Captain, have I not the right to prescribe the 
manner of attack ? be patient and your turn will 
come." After Ware had withdrawn, Junot turning 
to General Solignac, said : " We are not accustomed to 
have many such demands as this. Who is that bold 
handsome officer ?" 



556 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

After serving two years with distinction in Spain, 
the Irish battalion joined the Grand Army in Germany. 
It was present at the battles of Lowenberg and Gold- 
berg, in July 1813, where Napoleon commanded in 
person. Hugh Ware was promoted on the field to 
the rank of Lieutenant- Colonel, and, with other officers, 
received from the hands of the Emperor the Cross of 
the Legion of Honour. 

When Napoleon abdicated, the Legion lay in 
garrison at Montreuil-sur-Mer. 

On the return of Napoleon from Elba, in the 
spring of 1815, Hugh Ware was promoted to the 
rank of full Colonel. 

With the fall of the Emperor, after Waterloo, also 
expired the Irish Legion, which was then disbanded, 
and its officers were allowed to retire on half pay. 

The Legion had served with distinction for twelve 
years, without any interruption, in Spain, Portugal, 
Germany, and Holland. 

Hugh Ware retired to Tours, there to pass the 
rest of his life, Miles Byrne relates many instances 
of his courage and other good qualities, and sums up 
his character as follows : He was a well-educated 
gentleman, an ardent admirer of country scenery and 
a skilful judge of architecture ; moreover, he was well 
read in history. It was a great advantage, writes 
that author in vol. ii. at p. 398 of his Memoirs, to 
have him as the companion of a march ; for he would 
willingly stop to view castles and like edifices on the 
way, and impart information regarding their anti- 
quity and celebrity. Indeed, the years he had passed 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 557 

in prison in Dublin were not altogether thrown away; 
for, as he read much and possessed an excellent 
memory, he greatly occupied himself in studying 
military tactics, which was of singular advantage to 
him in after life. He was handsome in person and 
well made ; in height he was more than six feet, and 
was strong and active in proportion. None could 
excel him in equitation, a valuable talent for a field 
officer. 

His friend, Miles Byrne, writes thus of his last 
moments : 

" He felt but one regret one only on his deathbed that 
he could not die in his native land. All honour to the ashes of 
the warrior," continues his panegyrist, " I have spoken often of 
him in my account of the campaigns of the Irish in the service 
of France, but I have far from narrated all that I might have 
said of him, car il etait le plus brave des braves" 

Whilst the Titnes correspondent, to whom we 
have alluded at the beginning of this chapter, thus 
speaks of him : 

" In a word, Colonel Hugh Ware was one of those who con- 
tributed most, of late years, to sustain on the Continent the 
claims of his countrymen to respect, by indomitable courage, 
unshrinking constancy, high principle, and undeviating good 
conduct, ' looking like an old nobleman,' as an humble friend 
described him." 



558 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTEK LX. 

The Foundations of Manchester Mr. John Harland Colonel 
Hibbert's death. 

FOR a few months past the health of Dr. Hibbert 
Ware had been failing, so as to prevent him attending 
the meetings and dinners of the Chetham Society ; 
and feeling some delicacy as to whether he ought not 
to resign in favour of some more active member, his 
office on the Council, he hinted his inclination to 
Canon Kaines. That gentleman, in a letter dated 
14th July 1847, after first replying to other subjects 
of the Doctor's communication, writes : 

" Your observations about resigning your office of Coun- 
cillor on the score of not attending the meetings met with no 
response here, and I trust you will long continue to be connected 
with the Council. Your high literary character and distinguished 
reputation in connection with all the institutions of Manchester 
indicate you as peculiarly qualified for the position which you so 
worthily occupy. With every good wish, I remain, my dear 
Doctor, very faithfully yours, F. E. EAINES." 

By taking ordinary care, however, and making 
frequent visits to Blackpool, a watering-place he 
favoured on account of early associations, he kept 
himself tolerably well. At Blackpool, he loved to 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 559 

recall the memory of days long past, spent there as a 
boy, with his mother, at Bailey's Hotel, and the sen- 
sations he had felt when walking along the shore 
of the " far sounding sea." But if he was now no 
longer able to encounter the good dinners of the 
Chetham Society, yet, renovated by the bracing sea- 
breezes, he could visit Manchester three or four times 
a week during the summer, and act the parts of archi- 
tect, clerk of the works, and manager of the joint 
property in St. Ann's Square of himself, his brother 
George, and his niece, Mrs. Nelson, which had fallen 
so much out of repair as almost to require rebuilding. 
In this work he was ably assisted by his agent, Mr. 
Thomas Orme, now the well - known billiard - table 
maker, who, in truth, was more an attached friend 
than an agent. 

We may be excused for recording here a pun he 
perpetrated when engaged in the building operations 
perhaps it was an unfeeling pun; however, he atoned 
for it by giving its object relief. Observing a brick- 
setter holding a handkerchief to his eye, he asked him 
what was the matter. The man replied that he had 
got a bit of brick in his eye. " Oh, then, put a bit 
of mortar to it and you will have a wall-eye," replied 
the Doctor. 

During the progress of these repairs he travelled 
by the omnibus between Altringham and Manchester ; 
on these occasions, before taking his place for the 
latter town, he would often call at the shop of Mr. 
Brown, the hairdresser, to be shaved. We have 
before observed that Dr. Hibbert was a very absent 



560 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

man, so it happened that one day when seated in the 
omnibus, which had just started, a loud cry of Stop ! 
stop ! was heard, and Mr. Brown came up, breathless 
almost, and asked if any gentleman had taken Mr. 
Holland's stock. All denied it, as did the Doctor too ; 
but Mrs. Hibbert Ware observing that his neck looked 
rather more bulky than usual, denounced the culprit ! 
In a fit of absence of mind, he had, after the shaving 
was over, buckled on Mr. Holland's stock, and then 
his own over it. 

This failing of the Doctor was well known to some 
of the dealers in scarce books in Manchester. When 
engaged in the building operations we have just been 
alluding to, he would refresh himself by a visit to the 
shop of Mrs. Mellor, the bookseller in St. Ann's Street, 
where he would pore over her books. If, on some 
occasions, she saw him particularly interested in one, 
she would ask him if she should lay it aside for him, 
when he would reply, " Yes, yes," a mode of reply 
often made by him when he was half-conscious of 
some one speaking to him, but in reality did not know 
what was said. Mrs. Mellor, who had been twice or 
thrice taken in by this vague "Yes, yes," for she had 
found that he did not really want the book that had 
been set aside, learnt to attack him more closely, and 
in reply to his oblivious ejaculation, would say, " 'Yes, 
yes ! ' your ' Yes, yes' won't do for me, Doctor ; do you 
really want the book ?" 

Although his time was now so much occupied 
during the day in these building and repairing 
operations, he indefatigably employed himself in the 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 561 

evenings, generally until the small hours of the night, 
writing and preparing for publication the appendix to 
the History of the Foundations of Manchester, whilst 
on the Saturdays, when he always stayed at home, 
Mr. John Harland would, as we have before said, 
almost regularly come to Hale Barns to take tea with 
him, and discuss the forthcoming work. 

" You would probably see in a recent number of the Guardian, 1 ' 
wrote that gentleman on the 25th of September 1847, "a para- 
graph briefly alluding to your present labours. So long as I was 
cognisant of those labours only from our (to me) agreeable private 
intercourse, I preserved silence respecting your supplement ; but 
I wrote that paragraph purely from information given me by 
Mr. Agnew, who also told me that Sir Oswald Mosley was 
engaged in writing a history of his family. I hope, therefore, 
you will acquit me of having, in the slightest degree, violated 
the tacit confidence of private intercourse, in telling the public 
that they might expect something good from you ere long." 

Before the end of this year, Dr. Hibbert Ware was 
visited with a very great and a very unexpected 
affliction : this was the death in London, from a low 
fever, of his much-loved and last surviving brother, 
Colonel George Hibbert, who breathed his last on 
the 12th of November, at the age of fifty-six, at the 
house of an old friend in London, with whom he was 
on a visit, namely, John Taylor, Esq., of Hyde Park 
Corner, the son of Dr. Charles Taylor, whom we have 
before mentioned in the earlier part of this Memoir. 

The family burying-place had been in the grave- 
yard of the old Presbyterian Chapel in Cross Street, in 
Manchester, and it had ever been Colonel Hibbert's 
expressed wish that if he should happen to die in 

2 o 



562 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

England his remains should be laid alongside those 
of his mother, to whom he had ever been most tenderly 
attached. But the necessity for widening the street 
had caused the town authorities to infringe on the 
Chapel yard, and the fear lest further Town's Improve- 
ments might yet encroach upon the family graves, 
induced Dr. Hibbert Ware and his brother to remove 
the remains of their deceased relatives to a vault at 
Ardwick Green. Therein George Hibbert was laid 
alongside the remains of his dearly-loved mother. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware had intended that the funeral 
should be private ; but an order had been received 
from the Duke of Wellington that, in consideration of 
the rank and military standing in the army, and the 
services of Lieutenant-Colonel Hibbert, all the honours 
of war should be rendered to his remains by the 
garrison of Manchester. 

It was a curious coincidence that the regiment of 
the line then quartered in Manchester was the gallant 
36th, which had entered triumphantly into Cabul 
along with the 40th. 

After the farewell volley had been fired over the 
dead soldier's grave, and the sound of the last roll of 
the drum had died away, there stood among the 
mourners, looking down into the vault, a white- 
headed old gentleman, who sighed a sigh of regret 
as he read on the coffin-plate the name of him whom 
he was wont jestingly to call his "sub." Captain 
Edward Jones remembered, as if it were but recently, 
the time when George Hibbert served as a young 
ensign in his company in the 1st Lancashires. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 563 

Colonel Hibbert's dog, which had been pupped 
in the Bolan Pass, had been sent to Dr. Hibbert 
Ware, and in the course of two or three weeks the 
baggage, consisting of two large black military chests, 
followed. The dog recognised them at once, showing 
great delight, expecting his master's return, nor would 
he quit the room in which they were placed for 
several days. Yet there are some scientific (?) savages 
who would not scruple to practise vivisection on these 
faithful and affectionate friends of man. 

It had been the wish of Colonel Hibbert that his 
youngest nephew, George, should " take the shilling," 
and in this wish Dr. Hibbert Ware concurred. 
Accordingly the latter, soon after his brother's death, 
applied to the Duke of Wellington to place the name 
of his son, then a boy of fourteen years, on the list 
of candidates for commissions in the army. " His 
Grace," wrote Lord Fitzroy Somerset, on the 16th of 
December 1847, "will have much pleasure in noting 
your youngest son for a commission without purchase, 
and will be glad to have the means of providing for 
him, after he shall have attained the prescribed age." 

As regards the young lad, it may here be shortly 
noticed that he received an ensign's commission in the 
97th, that he afterwards served with his regiment 
in the Crimean War from the 5th of November 1854 
until after the capture of Sebastopol, and that he was 
severely wounded, and was promoted to a captaincy 
without purchase. He married Maria Julia, a daughter 
of the late Rev. William Goodenough Bayly, D.C.L., 
of Medhurst, retired from the army, and died a few 
years ago, leaving a widow and family. 



564 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 



CHAPTER LXI. 

The Collegiate Chapter of Manchester and the Churchwardens 
Publication of the Appendix or Supplement to the History of the 
Foundations of Manchester. 

DR. HIBBERT WARE had now outlived all his brothers, 
and the unlooked-for and untimely death of the 
youngest and best-loved of them, whom he had ever 
been wont to care for as if he were a son, gave him 
a considerable shock. He now began to contemplate 
his own demise, which he seemed to feel could not be 
far distant, for he would often say, though with the 
greatest calmness and resignation, " There are several 
things yet I want to do to put my house in order 
before I am called hence." 

Of temporal things he had to do, the most im- 
portant one was the completion of the Supplement of 
the History of the Foundations of his native town, the 
second part of which, namely, " Notes and Additions 
to the History of the Wardens/' was then only in the 
state of a collection of unarranged MS. extracts. He 
was aware that when he should come to notice such 
of the Wardens as had lived in the stirring times of 
1715 and 1745, the family papers of Lancashire 
Catholics would afford much valuable information 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 565 

concerning those periods, and the fairness with which 
he had detailed, in his Memorials of Lancashire in 
1715, the part then acted by the Catholics, tended 
to give them confidence in him as an author. 

Captain Edward Jones had told him that there 
were many family papers relating to 1715 in the 
possession of Miss Dalton, of Thurnham Hall, whose 
ancestor, John Dalton, Esquire, had taken part in the 
insurrection, and that that lady was very anxious 
that he should examine them. 

Writing to Dr. Hibbert Ware on the 12th of 
January 1848, Captain Jones, after conveying to his 
friend an invitation from Miss Dalton to Thurnham, 
goes on to detail some information about the Town- 
leys, as follows : 

" When my brother Michael was last in Manchester 1 requested 
of him, as he was going on a visit to Townley, to inquire of the 
family if they had any papers in their possession relative to the 
years 1715 and 1745, but it appears to have slipped his memory. 
I will copy part of his letter in answer to mine : 'I regret I 
did not receive your letter while I was at Townley, asking me 
to make inquiries of Mr. Townley about any papers relating to 
the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, in which his ancestor Colonel 
Francis Townley was engaged, taken prisoner at Carlisle in 1746, 
and hanged. His head was stuck on Temple Bar a considerable 
time, which the family contrived to remove, and is now carefully 
preserved in a marble vase. His elder brother, Richard Townley, 
who married a sister of Lord Widrington, was persuaded to join 
with him in the rebellion, and was arraigned for treason and con- 
fined in prison, from which he was released. The late Mr. 
Townley told me that he had managed to bribe the jury, and 
pointed out to me a considerable plantation of oaks, now about 
100 years old, which replaces the ancient oaks, cut down to raise 
the money to fee the worthy jurymen perhaps the judge. Lord 



566 SAMUEL HIBBERT WAEE's 

Widrington's estates of Blankney Hall, in Lincolnshire, were 
confiscated and bought by a Mr. Chaplin, a London merchant, 
ancestor of the present occupier of that estate. I will write to 
Mr. Townley for information. 

" Hoping your next letter will be soon, and favourable respect- 
ing the invalids, most truly yours, EDWD. JONES." 

In the February following Captain Edward Jones 
wrote from Claughton Hall : 

" For the last week past I have been domesticated in the 
hospitable mansion of my friend Mr. Brockholes, and I find my 
quarters so comfortable that I propose staying a week longer. 
I was glad to find from your letter that there is at last a chance 
of your visiting the Lady of Thurnham. I have heard from my 
brother Michael As he seems to take great interest in the 
History of the Rebellion of 1715, I have no doubt he is at this 
moment endeavouring to obtain information from Mr. Townley. 
I will copy you an extract from the last letter I received from 
him, dated Tichburn Park, 1st February : ' On my return early 
next week to London, I will write to Mr. Townley for any infor- 
mation he may give about his ancestors engaging in the rebellion 
of 1715. I well remember his late father telling me that the 
jury were bribed, and that a forest of old oaks were cut down to 
raise the money. I will recommend Mr. Townley to become a 
member of the Chetham Society.'" 

In another letter, on the same subject, dated the 
26th of February, Captain Jones says : 

" I have received a letter from my brother. The last time 
he saw Mr. Townley he gave a different version respecting the 
trial of his ancestors, Richard and Francis Townley, but I will 
copy the letter : ' Yesterday I saw Mr. Charles Townley, who 
told me that his father assured him that Richard Townley, im- 
prisoned in 1715, did actually cut down the oak wood, and did, 
with its produce, bribe the GAOLER, who connived at his escape 
on receiving the money ; but that Mr. Townley, on being at 
liberty, reflecting that he must ever be an outcast and liable to 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 567 

recapture, surrendered himself to prison, and that the obstinacy 
of one juryman, in persisting to vote his innocence, induced ulti- 
mately a verdict of not guilty. The gaoler kept the money.'" 

During the winter and spring months of 1848 Dr. 
Hibbert Ware had been busy correcting the proofs of 
the first portion of the Appendix to the History of the 
Foundations, which was now on the eve of being 
published, and he had sent a copy of his address and 
the preface to Canon Wray for his consideration, who 

replied as follows : 

CLUB-ROOM, MANCHESTER, 
10th April 1848. 

MY DEAR SIR I have scarcely had time to look at your 
letter, preface, etc. As you know the position we are in with 
respect to a certain party, I should wish much to see you before 
your preface is published. I think there is an observation of 
yours which might injure our Collegiate Chapter, and this I am 
sure you would not intentionally do. Will you be in Manchester 
any day this week ? I should like to meet you if convenient at 
Messrs. Sowlers' ; but send me a line first. I have such a pen I 
can hardly write. In haste, yours faithfully, C. D. WRAY. 

A brief explanation of the Canon's words, " a 
certain party," in the above letter, will not be out of 
place here. 

Whilst Dr. Hibbert Ware's Supplement was ac- 
tually in the press and nearly ready for publication, 
an event occurred in connection with the Collegiate 
Church which occasioned much angry discussion in 
Manchester. The Kev. Richard Parkinson, D.D., one 
of the canons, had been appointed by Lord Lonsdale 
Principal of St. Bees' College in Cumberland. The 
acceptance of this appointment by him, which would 
necessitate non-residence, raised the question whether 



568 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

or not the cure of souls was attached to the office of 
the Warden and Fellows of the Collegiate Church a 
question which was discussed with great zeal, if not 
bitterness, by two parties : those who maintained that 
the canon was only acting within his rights, and those 
who asserted that he could not lawfully leave his 
residence in Manchester. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware had resolved that he would 
identify himself with neither party in this dispute, 
and he always carefully abstained from expressing 
any opinion on its merits. 

The expected publication of the Supplement to the 
Foundations was now the subject of conversation, 
especially in literary circles, in Manchester. From 
his friend the Rev. Canon Raines the Doctor received 
the following complimentary letter : 

MILNEOW PARSONAGE, ROCHDALE, 

June 2d, 1848. 

MY DEAR SIR I have looked with much anxiety for the 
appearance of your Appendix to the History of the Manchester 
Foundations, and I have heard in two or three quarters that you 
have obtained a large body of fresh materials, and have thus 
enriched and elucidated your subject. It is, indeed, deeply 
interesting to have been the first to have discovered the origin 
of the Parish Church being collegiated, and I doubt not this 
portion of your work will excite much attention with a variety 
of readers. That you will avoid giving offence to the ecclesiastical 
authorities I have little doubt, although the interests of truth and 
candid historical investigation will not be sacrificed by you. 

I trust your health is better, and that Providence will long 
spare you to your family. With great respect, faithfully yours, 

F. R EAINES. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware, Hale Barns, 
Altringham. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 569 

Mr. Thomas Agnew had arranged to bring out 
the work on the 1st of July. Its title was The Ancient 
Parish Church of Manchester and why it was Colle- 
giated. 

Accordingly, the volume appeared on that day, 
while the dispute between the two parties in Man- 
chester was at its height; and Dr. Hibbert Ware 
having sent a copy of the volume to Canon Wray, 
that gentleman wrote as follows : 

ABERYSTWITH, 28 MARINE PARADE, 
IdthJuly 1848. 

MY DEAR SIR Your letter of the 8th instant was delivered 
to me only yesterday, having been forwarded with some others. 
I beg particularly to thank you for your kindness in sending me 
a copy of your last work. I have no doubt that its publication 
will be highly interesting to the investigators of the history of 
ancient Mancunium, though I fear some may endeavour to turn 
the records of our Collegiate Church, which now appear in your 
work, to our injury and even our destruction. But I think they 
will find themselves mistaken, and that all judges of ecclesiastical 
foundations will pronounce the College of Manchester to stand 
on as legal and firm a foundation as the College of Christ Church, 
Oxford ; Trinity College, Cambridge ; or even the Bishopric of 
Chester. I am perfectly satisfied you would not wish to shake 
the foundations of our Church, and the explanations which you 
mention having published in the newspapers prove that fact; 
though, having been from home some time, I have not seen 
them. 

When I am next at Oldfield I will endeavour to see you at 
Hale Barns. With compliments to Mrs. Hibbert Ware, believe 
me, yours faithfully, C. D. WRAY. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware, Hale Barns. 

In his preface to the first division of his Supple- 
ment or Appendix, Dr. Hibbert Ware says : 



570 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

" Of the first contributors to the History of the Foundations of 
Manchester I am now the only survivor ; experiencing the infir- 
mities of age, yet still trusting that I shall be enabled to further 
illustrate the ecclesiastical history of my native town, now 
advanced to the rank of an episcopal see and city, by the com- 
pletion of a fourth and supplementary volume. This will com- 
prise two great divisions, the first of which is now presented to 
the public under the title, The Ancient Parish Church of Man- 
chester, and why it was Collegiated. The second great division will 
contain notes and additions to the History of the Wardens of the 
Manchester College, being intended to supply the deficiencies of 
the former volumes, and ending with the formation of the bishop- 
ric. The histories also of the two other foundations of Man- 
chester will be continued down to the present period." 

Then, after alluding slightly to the unhappy dis- 
pute prevailing between the Collegiate Chapter and 
the other party in Manchester, he goes on to say that 
the documents of the Chapter-house, edited, trans- 
lated, and commented on by him, had been entrusted 
to his inspection long before those disputes had com- 
menced ; and that, in any comments passed upon them, 
he did not identify himself with any party whatsoever. 

The author further observes that the causes which 
led to the publication of this fourth or supplementary 
volume were as follows : the aid afforded by the 
Rev. Canon Wray, to whom the volume was dedi- 
cated, and who, with the consent of the Dean and 
Chapter, had laid all the collegiate charters before 
him ; and secondly, the permission given to him by 
the Rev. Canon Parkinson to copy collections which 
he had made from other sources, and the facilities for 
frequent reference to the Chapter -house muniment 
chest afforded to the author by that gentleman. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 571 

The study of these hitherto inedited documents, 
observed Dr. Hibbert Ware, acquainted him with the 
fact that the motives which gave rise to the col- 
legiating of the old parish church by Thomas La 
Warre, eighth Baron of Manchester, early in the fif- 
teenth century, were twofold the great increase of the 
population of Manchester, and the abuses of patron- 
age. This discovery the author considered to be of so 
great interest that, mistrusting his own capability of 
appreciating its value, he submitted some of the 
extracts made from the charters to the judgment of 
his friend, Sir Walter Calverley Trevelyan, a gentle- 
man possessing a most profound knowledge of the 
history of the English Church, who at once gave it as 
his opinion that high historical importance ought to 
be attached to the facts disclosed by the documents. 

Besides the obligations the author lay under to 
the Rev. Canon Wray and the Rev. Canon Parkin- 
son, he acknowledges those he owed to the Rev. 
Canon Raines ; George Ormerod, Esq., the historian 
of Cheshire; John Harland, Esq., one of the editors 
of the Manchester Guardian ; and his old and valued 
antiquarian friend and former brother officer, Captain 
Edward Jones. 

As indicating the importance attached to the 
dispute between Canon Parkinson and his supporters 
on the one side, and the Churchwardens and their 
party on the other, pamphlets from 'the following 
writers had appeared immediately before the publica- 
tion of the Supplement: Hunter Gordon, Esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn; Thomas Turner, Esq., barrister-at-law ; 



572 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

Mr. Sergeant Wheeler, a gentleman of a family long 
settled in Manchester. 

The second part, however, of the fourth volume or 
Appendix, namely, "Notes and Additions to the 
History of the Wardens of Manchester College," was 
destined never to see the light, for the author died 
with his pen in his hand, so to say. In dismissing 
from our pages the History qf the Foundations, upon 
which, on and ojff, Dr. Hibbert Ware had laboured for 
more than thirty years, we may here observe that a 
few years after the author's death Mr. Thomas Agnew 
called at Hale Barns upon his eldest son, whom he 
informed that Mr. John Harland would undertake the 
arranging and editing of the unpublished MS. Mr. 
Agnew's proposition was acceded to, and all the papers 
were sent to him ; but the death of Mr. Harland 
having occurred, and then that of Mr. Agnew himself, 
nothing has ever been heard of the mass of MS. 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 573 



CHAPTER LXIL 



cinis et manes et fabula fies, 



Vive memor lethi : fugit hora." 

PERSII SATIRE, 5, 152. 

To us also, kind reader, the words of the poet from 
whom we have quoted, for the head of this our last 
chapter, point. In a short time our bodies will be 
dust, our souls far hence, and our lives, perchance, 
may furnish matter for a tale to be told of us by those 
we leave behind. 

After the publication of the Appendix to the 
Foundations of Manchester, his last and favourite 
work, Dr. Hibbert Ware's health began to decline 
rapidly. A few days before Christmas he took a 
cold only a slight cold ; an attack of bronchitis 
accompanied it. This, too, was so slight that he was 
not confined to bed, or even to his bedroom. He was 
attended by Mr. James Stephens of Manchester, the 
nephew of his old friend Mr. Jordan. On the night 
of the 28th of December the patient grew rapidly 
worse, though the fatal termination of the disease was 
not even then expected so soon. The next morning, 
between nine and ten o'clock, he asked Mrs. Hibbert 
Ware to pull up the window blind, and on her telling 



574 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

him that it was up, and that it was quite daylight, he 
quietly said : " Then I know what is coming." 

The words had scarcely passed his lips when he 
fell into a stupor, from which he never recovered. 

The old year had all but died out when the spirit 
of the scholar passed peacefully and quietly away to 
appear before its merciful Judge. He breathed his 
last at two o'clock in the afternoon, on the 30th of 
December 1848, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. 

The musicians and carol singers had ranged them- 
selves under his bedroom window, as had been their 
wont, on the eve of New- Year's Day, singing their 
song of welcome to the coming year; but on being 
told that the ear which had once listened to them 
with so much pleasure could hear them no more, they 
went sorrowing away. 

His remains were laid in the family vault at the 
Ardwick Cemetery, alongside those of his mother and 
his youngest brother George. As he was being borne 
to the grave, his two former brother officers, Captain 
Edward Jones and Mr. Joseph Jordan, and his old 
friends, Mr. James Ainsworth and Friend Peter Clare, 
supported the pall that covered his coffin. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware's features were large but regular, 
and his face, though not handsome, had a rather 
pleasing expression ; his hair was of a darkish brown, 
his nose straight, and his under lip projected some- 
what, while in his blue gray eyes there was often an 
expression of humour indicating how heartily he could 
enjoy a comical remark or a comical scene. He was 
a strong-made muscular man, spare and tall, being six 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 575 

feet high, though a slight stoop of his shoulders, 
which several years' drill in the 1st Lancashires had 
not cured, took somewhat from his height. His con- 
stitution was originally sound, so there is no human 
reason why he should not have passed the threescore- 
years-and-ten of the Psalmist ; but that he did not is 
not surprising, when we reflect upon the hard life he 
had led in his youth and manhood when making 
long antiquarian and geological expeditions, enduring 
fatigue and all sorts of hardships, and frequently 
exposed to all the vicissitudes of the weather ; but 
perhaps what told heavier than all this on his constitu- 
tion, strong though it was, was the habit he had, when 
in his study, of sitting close to a large fire, so close 
sometimes as almost to scorch his shins, and then 
suddenly exposing himself to the weather. 

As we have remarked in the course of this Memoir, 
he was what is termed an " absent man," and when 
spoken to whilst in an absent mood, his invariable 
reply to the person addressing him would be, "Yes, 
yes," or " Well, well," without knowing what he was 
saying. But, absent man though he was, he possessed 
the qualities of order and method in a high degree ; 
he had portfolios for every distinct subject of his 
literary labours, and he had caused to be bound in 
volumes all his family and other letters, arranged 
according to dates, an exactness on his part which 
has rendered the compiling of this Memoir compara- 
tively easy for the Editor. 

When conversing on scientific subjects he was 
modest, even to bashfulness, in displaying his know- 



576 SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE'S 

ledge, but withal he was ever ready to impart to 
younger men the information he possessed. 

He was a man of deep religious feeling, and in all 
his trials and troubles ever bowed with resignation to 
the will of the Almighty. Though he attended the 
Established Church he was undoubtedly much inclined 
towards the old Presbyterianism of his fathers ; yet 
he was a most liberal Protestant, and a consistent one 
too, for he always maintained that each man had the 
right to choose his own religion, and he acted up to 
his principles, for Catholics were among his oldest and 
most esteemed friends. 

In disposition he was excitable, and at times sub- 
ject to what are popularly called fits of " the blues ; " 
nevertheless a very kind-hearted man, no better proof 
of which can be given than his fondness for animals, 
for, from his early youth to the day of his death, he 
ever had some favourite dog. And during the last 
four or five years of his life he had cultivated a friend- 
ship with another favourite, a very little one, it is 
true a robin. The bird had flown for shelter into 
the house one bitter cold day in a very severe winter, 
and, having been fed, continued to pay daily visits ; 
and at length he became so confident and familiar 
that at dinner time he would hop about the table and 
peck from any dish or plate he liked, while at night, 
in severe weather, he would sleep, perched on some 
picture frame, in the room. At the call of " Bobby " 
he would fly to the window from the farther end of 
the field. So tame, indeed, had the bird become, that, 
when in fine weather the window of the bedroom was 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 577 

opened in a morning, Bobby would occasionally fly in, 
hop about the bed, and on to Dr. Hibbert Ware's 
shoulder, whilst he would sing a snatch of Munden's 
old song in the pantomime of Blue Beard : 

" My name is Tippy Bob 
As I walk through the lobby, 
Each girl she calls Bobby ! 
Bobby ! Tippy Bob ! Bobby ! Tippy Bob ! " 

to the notes of which song Bobby would sit listening 
attentively, as he cocked his little head first to one 
side, and then to the other. 

Dr. Hibbert Ware left a widow, his third wife, 
and two sons and a daughter ; his eldest son, a bar- 
rister, being by his first wife, married the writer of 
this Memoir, the youngest daughter of the late Duncan 
Stewart, Esq., author of a Practical Arabic Grammar, 
published in 1841 by Parker of London. The two 
other sons and the daughter of the subject of this 
Memoir died a few years ago. 



2 P 



INDEX. 



ACKERS, George, 125 ; Holland, 49. 

Afghanistan, campaign in, of 1838-42, 
490, etc. 

Agassiz, on Dr. Hibbert's discovery of 
fresh -water limestone deposits, 421, 
481, 503. 

Agnew, Thomas, History of the Founda- 
tions of Manchester, 357, 369 ; the 
Appendix to, 572. 

Ainsworth, James, 158, 199, 574 ; Jere- 
miah, 158 ; John, Captain, 158, 177, 
185, 187 ; Ralph Faucett, M.D., 158 ; 
the Rev. Thomas, 173 ; Thomas, 158 ; 
William Francis, Ph.D., 185, 313, 314, 
400, 445 ; William Harrison, 92, 158, 
185. 

Alderley Edge, witch-knots of, 351. 

American War, Lancashire petition 
against continuance of, 63-4; "Calm 
Address" of Rev. John Wesley, 66-7. 

Anderson, George, of Inverness, 337 ; 
Guide to the Highlands, 338, 343, 412. 

Antiquarian Society of Scotland, its 
dinners, 346, 364, 390. 

Apparitions, Dr. Hibbert's Philosophy 
of, 315 ; the Edinburgh Literary 
Gazette, 315 ; Sir Walter Scott, 316 ; 
Noctes Ambrosiance, 322 ; second 
edition, 353 ; an apparition in Earl 
Grey's house, 361. 

Appeal, for the liberty of the Press, etc., 
241. 

Ardwick Green a century ago, 103. 

Army commissions, traffic in sale of, 178. 

Ashton-under-Line, manorial antiquities 
of, 232 ; customs of its Manor, and 
Sir Walter Scott's opinion of, 310. 

Aston, Joseph, editor of the Manchester 
Exchange Herald, 140, 183. 

Athenaeum, the, 481. 

Atholl, Duke of, 299, 330, 342. 

Attorneys, cost of articles of apprentice- 
ship to, eighty years ago, 132. 

Aytoun, Roger, 49. 



BAGSMEN, the Manchester, 6. 

Bailey, J. E., editor of the Palatine Note- 
Book, 241, 327. 

Baines, Edward, M.P., the History of 
Lancashire, 403, 455 ; the Runic 
Cross, 537. 

Bangor, Mr. Warren, Dean of, 161. 

Bank, Jones, Loyd, and Co., 19. 

Banker's box, machine for raising, 15. 

Barclay, John, M.D., on the hardening 
of children, 226. 

Barnes, Rev. Dr., 114. 

Barnes-Slacke, Rev. William, 59. 

Barrymore, of the Manchester stage, 144. 

Basalt and granite rocks, 340. 

Bayley, Mrs. Ann, 20, 27. 

Bayley, Rev., 91. 

Bayly, Rev. W. Goodenough, 563. 

Beaumaris, its bad accommodation, 109. 

Beever, James F., 541 ; Beever, J. and 
J., 19, 49. 

Bellamy, of the Manchester theatre, 182. 

Belleisle, siege of, 55. 

Betham, Sir William, Ulster Herald, 468 ; 
on Round Towers, 476 ; Races of man, 
524. 

Bickerstaff, Mrs. Eliza, 53, 78, 161-2, 171. 

Blackpool a century ago, 101. 

Bland, Lady, 22. 

Booksellers' shops in Edinburgh, 239. 

Bou6, W., on the discovery of fresh-water 
limestone deposits, 424. 

Bowdon Downs, potatoes growing on, 28. 

Bradley, Rev. C. W., 47. 

Breakfasts, the Edinburgh, 312-14. 

Brewster, Dr. David (afterwards Sir 
David), 276; tests hydrate of mag- 
nesia, 277 ; reads a paper on it, 278 ; 
his assistance to Dr. Hibbert when 
writing his work on Shetland, 292, 319. 
331, 336 ; Edinburgh Journal of 
Science, 339 ; phenomena of vision, 
340, 348, 350, 353 ; the Encyclopaedia, 
384, 386, 404 ; the Chair of Natural 



580 



INDEX. 



Philosophy in the University, 419, 
540. 

Bridgewater, Duke of, his works and 
canal, 41 ; and Hulme Hall, 326-9. 

Brigham, William, surgeon, 236. 

British Association at Edinburgh, 433 ; 
at York, 523. 

Brockholes of Claughton, 566. 

Brogniart, Adolph, 346. 

Browne, General (late 40th), 179. 

Buckland, Professor William, D.D., on 
the Irish fossil elk, 348 ; on the dis- 
covery of fresh-water limestone, 425, 
430, 434 ; his Bridgewater treatise, 
436, 464, 503. 

Burke and Hare, the murders by, 427. 

Bury, George Frederick, 329, 376. 

Bury, town of, a century ago, 149. 

Butler, Charles, conveyancer, 134. 

Byrom, his shorthand writing, 2 ; Mrs. 
and Miss, 49. 

Byron, Captain John, 185, 197, 226, 261. 

CAIRN of Clava, 412. 

Canal, the Duke of Bridgewater's, 42 ; 
travelling on, a century ago, 76. 

Carriages in Manchester a century ago, 75. 

Castlefield, Manchester, in the last 
century, 80. 

Celts, 341. 

Chadwick, John, of Healey, 49 ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, 57 ; Miss, of Mavesyn 
Ridware, 171. 

Chamber of Commerce, 96 ; of manu- 
factures, 100. 

Chambers's Journal, 429. 

Chapel Royal, company at, 82. 

Chetham Society, 158, 539. 

Chorlton Row eighty years ago, 151. 

Christian names, old-fashioned, 53. 

Chromate of iron, discovery of in Shet- 
land, by Dr. Hibbert, 245, 247 ; its 
use in manufactures, 249 ; importance 
of the discovery, 256 ; receives the Iris 
gold medal for the discovery, 274 ; 
sales of the chromate, 315, 318 ; manu- 
facture of salts of chrome, 343 ; sale 
of, 361, 392, 424. 

Cider riots, 207. 

Clare, Peter, 15, 37, 121, 159, 574. 

Coal fires in Wales, curious, 192. 

Cochrane, Lord and Lady, 359. 

Cock-fighting, 39. 

Combe, George, phrenologist, 271. 

Concerts in Manchester, 38. 

Constable, bookseller, 240 ; Scottish 
Gazetteer, 280 ; cheap literature, his 
Miscellany, 335 ; fails, 357. 

Cotton mills, 151. 



Cottons, the Manchester, 7. 

Cowdroy, William, editor of the Man- 
chester Gazette, 140 ; his daughter, Mrs. 
Clarke, on the Manchester stage, 144, 
183. 

Crampton, John, of Hale Barns, 310. 

Cremation, 10. 

Crimea, campaign in, 563. 

Crompton, Dick, captain, 167, 173 ; and 
Marshal Mortier, 174, 218. 

Crompton, Miss Sarah, 149. 

Crompton, Thomas, 149. 

Cross, the Runic, of Lancaster, 455, 515 ; 
Michael Jones and John M. Kemble, the 
interpretation of the Runes, 516 ; Pro- 
fessor Finn Magnusson's interpretation, 
536. 

Crossley, James, F.S.A., 539. 

Cunliffe, Robert, 176. 

DALTON, John, professor of chemistry, 
etc., at the Manchester New College, 
115, 157, 158, 274, 295. 

Dalton, John, of Thurnham, Miss Dalton, 
565. 

Dancing academy in Manchester, a cen- 
tury ago, 36. 

Davy, Dr. (brother of Sir Humphrey), 
462. 

Deacon, Edward, 49. 

Debating society in Manchester a cen- 
tury ago, 71. 

De la Beche, his Geological Manual, 340. 

Demonology, Sir Walter Scott's, 398. 

Dentists Manchester, a century ago, 90. 

Depositors of money with merchants, 19. 

De Quincey, 86, 152. 

Diligence from Hull to Manchester, 89. 

Dispersion of stony fragments, 339. 

Drinking healths, custom of, 60. 

Drinking-jack, 347. 

Duckworth, George, solicitor, 71, 85, 91, 
92, 117, 132, 158. 

Duel in St. Ann's Square, 6. 

EASON, Dr., of Manchester, 175-6. 

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal (Brew- 
sters) and Journal of Science, 264, 
339, 348, 367, 388, 393, 396. 

Edmondston, Arthur, M.D., his View of 
the Zetland Islands, 246. 

Edmondston, Thomas, on the discovery of 
chromate of iron, 254, 257 ; claims to 
have discovered chromate of iron, 
314 ; his printed letter respecting 
chromate of iron, 507. 

Education, a lady's, in the last century, 

35 ; and a young gentlemen's academy, 

36 ; a dissenting minister on State 



INDEX. 



581 



education a century ago, 117 ; Canon 

Parkinson, Sir Walter Trevelyan, and 

Dr. Hibbert Ware on education of the 

poor, 550. 
Egerton, Sir Philip de Grey, 437, 481, 

503. 

Egypt* e 7 e diseases of, 472. 
Electricity, lectures on, by Peter Clare of 

Manchester, 37 ; experiments, 121. 
Elgin, Lord, 365. 
Elk, the fossil, 344 ; Professor Buckland, 

348 ; Dr. Hibbert's account, 349. 
Emmerson, mechanic and author, 16. 
Episcopal dinner, 201. 
Ethelston, Rev. Charles, 50, 217. 
Exchange, the old Manchester, 48. 

FAIR, a cattle fair in St. Ann's Square, 7. 
Families (Manchester), names of some, 

123. 

Farren, Miss, 143. 
Fisher, Arnold, dancing-master, 36. 
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 553. 
Flower-shows in last century, 39. 
Forbes, James, elected Professor of 

Natural Philosophy in the University 

of Edinburgh, 419, 482, 540. 
Fossil bones in the south of France, 393 ; 

in fresh-water limestone, M. Agassiz, 

Charles Lyell, 421-2. 
Frazer, W., printer, his letter respecting 

the Pirate, 281. 
Funeral sermon, fee for, a century ago, 

21 ; expenses of a funeral, 104. 
Fustian tax, 100. 

GABRAT Hall and Lane, 152. 

Gazetteer, Scottish, the chromate of iron 

and hydrate of magnesia, 280. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 237, 456. 
George III. at Greenwich, 80 ; George IV., 

284 ; his visit to Edinburgh, 301-4. 
Ghent occupied by the English army, 234 
Glengarry, the chief of, 352. 
Glover, Mrs., 143-4. 
Goa, insurrection at, 486. 
Gold, ancient bar of, 398. 
Goldsmide, John Louis, editor of the 

Morte $ Arthur, 231. 
Golland, Thomas, 142, 285. 
Greenock, Lord, fossil tooth, 422 ; his 

letter, 440. 
Greville, Dr. Robert Kay, 314 ; pro 

jected encyclopaedia, 335, 346, 356. 
Grey, Earl, an apparition in his family 

361. 
Guardian, the Manchester, 7, 123 ; 01 

Dr. Hibbert's Shetland Isles, 291 ; th 

Foundations of Manchester, 561. 



HACKNEY coaches, 38. 
Hadfield, John, wine merchant, 29, 50. 
Hairdresser for ladies a century ago, 32. 
Hale Barns Green, 87, 305 ; forty years 
ago, 546 ; the old tithe barn, 547 ; 
state of education, 549. 
lall, Samuel, 50. 
lamilton, Sir William, 354. 
lanson, Joseph, Colonel of the Man- 
chester Rifle Volunteers, 159, 242; 
William, 117, 159. 
lanway, Jonas, introduces the use of 

umbrellas, 34. 
Hardman, William, 19, 50. 
Harland, John, F.S.A., 38, 42, 544, 

561. 
Harrison, Rev. Ralph, 66, 92 ; William, 

66. 

Satfield, Thomas, 50, 65, 117. 
Hats, manufacture of, in Manchester, 34. 
3ay, Sir John, 361 ; Auriol, 365, 368. 
tlenderson, William, of Bardister, 268 ; 
his diary, 270, 280, 282, 286, 292, 
301, 317 ; his death, his ghost, 334. 
Benrick, Dr., on perpetual motion, 14. 
Henry, Thomas, F.R.S., 50, 157-8; 

William, M.D., 274, 294-5, 352. 
Heriot's Hospital, 298. 
Heron, Mr. , lectures on heads a century 

ago, 37. 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, 159 ; James, 
50, 65 ; Thomas, surgeon, 21 ; Thomas, 
banker, 383, 392 ; the ballad of " Lady 
Bessy" and Sir Walter Scott, 393, 400, 
402. 

Hibbert of Jamaica, 444. 
Hibbert of Marple, Birtles, Godley, etc. , 
1 ; George, his library, 293 ; Sylvanus, 
his Brief Inquiry into the State after 
Death, 11 ; Titus and the Rev. John 
Wesley, 68, etc. 

Hibbert, Samuel, junior (Hibbert Ware), 
his birth, 93 ; at school, 107 ; at the 
Manchester academy, 114 ; his literary 
tastes, 140 ; his theatrical tastes, 143 ; 
his first marriage, 149 ; is elected a 
member of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society, 157 ; and of the 
Society of Arts, London, 159 ; reads 
a paper on the " Early Importance of 
Music," etc., 160; his .treatise on 
Commercial credit, 169 ; receives a 
lieutenant's commission^ in the 1st 
Lancashire Militia, 182 ; quits the 1st 
Lancashires, 222 ; matriculates at the 
Edinburgh University, 225 ; his pub- 
lication of the ballad of Tarquin, 231 ; 
his Manorial Antiquities of Ashton- 
under-Line, 232 ; death of his father, 



582 



INDEX. 



237 ; removes to Edinburgh, 239 ; takes 
the degree of M.D., 240 ; visits the 
Shetland Islands in 1817, 243; discovers 
chromate of iron, 245, 249 ; is elected 
a member of the Wernerian Society, 
247 ; visits Shetland again in 1818, 
250 ; contributes to the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal, 264 ; the her- 
mit of Roen.ess, 265 ; phrenology and 
George Combe, 271 ; receives the Iris 
gold medal from the Society of Arts 
for his discovery of chromate of iron, 
274 ; hydrate of magnesia, 276, 278 ; 
is elected a member of the Antiquarian 
Society of Scotland, 279 ; Sir Walter 
Scott's Pirate, 281; Dr. Hibbert's 
Description of the Slietland Isles, 290 ; 
death of his first wife, 296 ; the Court 
at Holyrood, 302 ; customs of the 
manor of Ashton and Sir Walter Scott, 
311 ; publishes his Philosophy of Ap- 
paritions, 315 ; is elected secretary of 
the Antiquarian Society, 319 ; lectures 
on Geology in Manchester, 329, 332 ; 
is elected a member of the Geological 
Society of London, 339 ; Brewster's 
Edinburgh Journal of Science, 340 ; 
Dr. Hibbert's second marriage, 342 ; 
his connection with the Medical Jour- 
nal, 345 ; the fossil elk, 349 ; Society 
of Arts of Scotland, 351 ; second edi- 
tion of the Philosophy of Apparitions, 
353 ; the History of the Foundations 
of Manchester, 357 ; visits the Conti- 
nent on a geological tour, 369 ; geolo- 
gical lectures at Manchester, 376-83 ; 
returns to Edinburgh, 390 ; history of 
the extinct volcanoes on the Rhine, 
397, 414 ; the Royal Commission on 
the Universities of Scotland, 399 ; the 
History of the Foundations of Man- 
chester, 400 ; spectral illusion at Dr. 
Brewster's, 404 ; elected a member of 
the Geological Society of France, 418, 
and of the Society of Antiquarians of 
Copenhagen, 420 ; discovers fresh- 
water limestone at Burdiehouse, 421 ; 
Memoir on, 435 ; leaves Edinburgh, 
and death of his second wife, 439 ; 
tour in Ireland, 467 ; Appendix to the 
Foundations of Manchester, 475 ; 
takes the name Ware, 477 ; tragical 
death of his son William, 493 ; his 
oldest daughter dies, 500 ; is put on a 
Committee of the British Association 
to investigate the races of man, 523 ; 
his third marriage, 527 ; is placed on 
the Council of the Chetham Society, 
539 ; the Memorials of Lancashire of 



1715, 540-2 ; education of the poor, 
550 ; death of his brother Colonel 
George Hibbert, 562 ; publication of 
the Appendix to the Foundations of 
Manchester, 569 ; death of Samuel 
Hibbert Ware, 574. 

Hibbert, Mrs. Charlotte Wilhelmina 
(second wife of Samuel Hibbert), dis- 
covers fossil bones in the south of 
France, 394 ; sketches of figured 
stones, 408 ; sketches in the volcanic 
district of the Rhine, 415, 547. 

Highland chiefs, policy of, 5. 

Highlanders in Manchester in 1745, 3. 

High School of Edinburgh, education, 
etc., fifty years ago, 272. 

Holland, Robert, 70; Rev. Mr., 86. 

Holme, Edward, M.D , 157-8. 

Holoptycus Hibberti, 465. 

Holt, John, of Walton, author of a work 
on Lancashire Agriculture, letters of, 
73. 

Hoops of ladies, 31. 

Horrocks, Samuel, of Preston, 159. 

Howard, Charles, M.D., of Manchester, 
451. 

Hughes, W., teacher of music in Man- 
chester, 151, 183. 

Hull, John, M.D., 157-8. 

Hulme Hall, Manchester, its old oak 
panels, 320, 326 ; Sir Walter Scott's 
opinion of them, 328. 

Button, William, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
his Flora, 437. 

Hydrate of magnesia discovered in Shet- 
land by Dr. Hibbert, 276. 

INDIA, overland journey to, 465, 469 ; 

its coal-fields, 473. 
Innoculation, 199. 
Ireland, Act of Union, bitter feeling 

against, 133. 

Isle of Man, permits to travel from, 337. 
Italian nightgown, 78. 

JAMESON, ROBEBT, Professor of Natural 
History, 245 ; notices Dr. Hibbert's 
discovery of chromate of iron in the 
Annals of Philosophy, 247, 249, 250 ; 
his opinion of the importance of the 
discovery, 256 292, 295. 

Jamieson, Dr., 347. 

Jardine, Sir Henry, 398. 

Jones, Captain Edward, 148, 185, 193, 
218, 224, 261 ; and Squire Waterton 
the naturalist, 262 ; Captain Marryat, 
the novelist, 262, 320, 328, 388, 455, 
467, 502, 515, 544, 547, 562, 565, 574. 

Jones, John, and Company, 19, 50. 



INDEX. 



583 



Jones, Loyd, and Company, 134, 160. 

Jones, Michael, 566. 

Jones, Samuel, 117. 

Jordan, Ensign, 58 ; William, 50 ; Joseph, 
surgeon, of Manchester, 141, 186, 199, 

} 235, 215, 221, 224-5, 242, 261, 275; 
elected surgeon to the Manchester Infir- 
mary, 453, 544, 574. 329. *?*-,/# 

Junot, General, in Portugal, 164 ; at the 
battle of Vimiera, 166. 

KEMBLE, JOHX, 143. 

Kirkmau, 167, 235 ; Miss, Mr. John, 

176. 
Knox, Robert, M.D., of Edinburgh, 345, 

427. 

LAIXO, bookseller, 240 ; Laing, David, 
LL.D., 279, 292, 333, 345, 408 ; can- 
didate for the office of librarian to the 
Signet Library, 479, 544. 

Lancashire, Memorials of, of 1715, 541 ; 
reception of, by the Irish Academy, 
545. 

Lancashire witches, 403. 

Latham, William, 186, 197, 209, 226, 
260, 275. 

Lauder, Sir Thomas Dick, The Floods of 
Morayshirc, 411. 

Lefroy, Captain Anthony, Miss Elizabeth, 
527. 

Leigh, John, 50, 547. 

Letters, quaint style of, 77-9. 

Libraries, circulating, a century ago, 37. 

Lindley, John, Professor, 437, 473. 

Linen yarn, 17 ; prices of Irish, 79 ; im- 
portation and use of Irish and Foreign, 
95. 

Linton, landscape painter, 262. 

Lisbon, billets of British officers in, 172. 

Littlewood, his Academy at Ardwood, 
106. 

Liverpool a bathing place, 150. 

Living, cost of, a century ago, 24. 

Lloyd, George, 242. 

Loyd, Lewis, banker, 134, 452 ; Wil- 
liam, 176. 

Louis XVIII. at Ghent, 234. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, on the discovery of 
fresh-water limestone, 426, 429. 

MACAuLEY, Auley, shorthand -writing, 
2, 26. 

Macculloch, Dr., his book on the High- 
lands, and the wrath of the High- 
landers, 338. 

Maclaren (of the Scotsman), 503. 

Manchester, description of, in 1745, 7 ; 
street nuisances, 47 ; improvements 



of, 48 ; its charity and patriotism, 99 ; 

the Manchester Academy or New 

College, system of education at, 114 ; 

names of the promoters of, 117 ; the 

Manchester Royal Institution, 326. 
Manchester, History of the Foundations 

of, 357, 391, 393 ; is published, 400 ; 

reviewed in the Gentleman' 's Magazine, 

456 ; the Lichfield deed, 475, 517, 

540 ; publication of the appendix, 

569. 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical 

Society, 157 ; some of the members, 

159, 329 ; Manchester cottons, 7. 
Manchester marines, old song, 137. 
Marple, 1, 45. 
Marryat, Captain, the novelist, sketched 

by Captain Jones, 262. 
Marsland, 91, 92 ; Henry and sons, 

117 ; James, 173, 235 ; Samuel, 242. 
Meadowbank, Lord, 346. 
Medicine, Journal of, 345 ; squabbles, 

356. 

Megalichthys Hibberti, 421. 
Militia, the Lancashire list of officers of, 

a century ago, 57 ; list of officers of 

the 1st Lancashire Militia seventy 

years ago, 184. 
Milligan, Dr., 345, 356. 
Mitchell, John, M.D., of Manchester, his 

treatise on the Apocalypse, 241. 
M'Grigor, Sir James, army medical 

board, 441, 457. 
M'Kenzie, Sir George, of Coul, vitrified 

forts, 331 ; phrenology, 354. 
Mortier, Marshal, an alumnus of the 

Manchester New College, 116 ; be- 
comes a French general, 136 ; and 

Dick Crompton, 174. 
Morton, Lady, an apparition, 361. 
Mosleys, the lords of the Manor of 

Manchester, 22. 
Mottershead, Rev. Joseph, of Cross 

Street Chapel, Manchester, 21. 
Mouat, W., Shetland, 361. 
Murray, Lord George, 4 ; Lord Henry, 

342 ; the warden of the Coll. Church 

of Manchester, 386. 

NEILL, Patrick, naturalist and printer, 

247, 280, 283, 347. 
Nelson, Major-general, C.B., 552. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, theatre at, 157 ; 

Philosophical Society of, 546. 
New Orleans, repulse of the English at, 

230, 235. 

OFFICERS, education of an infantry officer 
eighty years ago, 153. 



584 



INDEX. 



Oldfield Lane doctor, 129. 

Olivant, John, 50. 

Oratorio, 70. 

Orme, Aaron, and sons, 50, 66 ; Thomas, 

559. 
Oysters, the pickling of, in Wales, 192. 

Palatine Note-Book, 151. 

Parkinson, Rev. Canon Richard, 551 ; 

the non-residence question, 567. 
Parry, artist, of Manchester, 292. 
Passports for travellers between Ireland 

and England, 124 ; and the Isle of 

Man, 337. 
Peace of Amiens, rejoicings over, 129 ; 

is broken, 136. 
Peel, Robert, 159. 
Peninsular War, departure of troops for, 

164 ; battles of Roleia and Vimiera, 

165 ; Toulouse, 229. 
Percival, Edward, M.D., of Manchester, 

116; Elizabeth, 20; Thomas, M.D., 

20, 50, 117. 

Perpetual motion, machine for, 13. 
Petrie, George, author of the History of 

the Round Towers, 467, 545. 
Philips, George, 159, 242; Sir George, 

385 ; Nathaniel and Faulkner, 50 ; 

Nathaniel and John, 18 ; Robert, 242. 
Phrenology, George Combe, 271 ; Sir 

George M'Kenzie, Sir William Hamil- 
ton, 354. 
Pillions, 31. 

Pirate, the, in the press, 281, 293, 295. 
Pitcairn, Robert, the Demonology of Sir 

Walter Scott in the press, 399. 
Plungeon, family of, 22. 
Poolfold, ducking-stool at, 22. 
Potatoes a luxury a century ago, 28. 
Presbyterian Chapel (Manchester), 22. 
Press, Manchester appeal for the liberty 

of, 241. 
Prisoners of war, 89 ; a prison at Bristol, 

188 ; disturbance in, 189. 

QUINCBT, see De Quincey. 

RAFN (Danish antiquary), his Antiqui- 
tates Americance, 482. 

Raines, the Rev. Canon, 541, 558, 568. 

Ramsay, Allan, 239. 

Ranelagh gardens, 81. 

Recruiting in Manchester seventy years 
ago, 136. 

Regiments "The Manchester," or 72d, 
99 ; the 1st Royal Lancashire militia, 
182 ; list of its officers seventy years 
ago, 184 ; its school, 186 ; old tradi- 
tional song of, 227; disembodied at 



Lancaster, 261 ; the 40th (old XL.'s), 
150 ; its character, 153, 154, 529 ; 
at Monte Video, 162 ; in the Penin- 
sular War, 165, 229 ; in America, 230 ; 
the Duke of Wellington's compliment 
to the regiment, 235 ; at Waterloo, 
236 ; in the Afghan campaign of 1838- 
41, 513, etc. 

Reviews, military, at Hastings, 154 ; at 
Manchester, by the Duke of Gloucester, 
155. 

Riding school a century ago at Man- 
chester, 31. 

Rigby, William, 242; Major Edmund, 
184, 261. 

Riley, the "Itinerant," at Harrogate, 
146. 

Roads, bad state of, a century ago, 42. 

Robson, Miss Mary, of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, authoress, 157. 

Roeness, the hermit of, 265-6. 

Russians, their schemes, Sam. Hibbert's 
verses on, 126 ; their intrigues in 
Afghanistan, 488. 

Rymer, Thomas the, his thorn blown 
down, 226. 

ST. ANN'S CHURCH, its steeple, cupola, 
and tower, 26-7 ; St. Ann's Square, 6, 
7,25. 

Scarborough, the bellman of, and teeth, 89. 

Scarr and Co. of Manchester, pun on 
them, 217. 

Scinde ulcers, 514. 

Scoresby, Captain, and his young sur- 
geons, 264. 

Scott, Mrs., 342 ; William, Receiver- 
General of the Isle of Man, 345 ; Major 
William Douglas, 448. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 232 ; elected President 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
277; his Pirate in the press, 281, 293 ; 
the King's visit to Edinburgh, 304 ; 
the manor of Ashton, 311 ; appari- 
tions, 316 ; on the Hulme Hall panels, 
328 ; the black leather drinking-jack, 
347 ; his vision of Lord Byron, 363 ; 
the ballad of " Lady Bessy," 392 ; the 
Demonology in the press, 399, 400, 
403. 

Sedan chairs in Manchester, 38. 

Servants, their wages a century ago, 30 ; 
Scotch and Manchester, 205 ; their 
wages in Edinburgh forty years ago, 
357. 

Shaw, John, of Manchester, 51. 

Shetland, the islands of, sixty years ago, 
244, 251 ; simplicity of the islanders, 
246 ; the hermit of Roeness, 265 ; 



INDEX. 



585 



wrecks, 287 ; herring fishery, 360 ; 

scatholds, 504. 
Siddons, Mrs., 143. 
Skene, James, of Rubislaw, 346, 368. 
Slack, John, of Slack Hall, 20, 59, 70-71, 

85, 87, 106, 111 ; Thomas, M.D., 59 ; 

Eev. William Barnes-Slacke, 59. 
Snow, severe storm of, a century ago, 

70. 
Sowler, Messrs., the Manchester Courier 

office, 567. 
Spence,W., salts of chrome, 343 ; George, 

his reply to Mr. Thomas Edmondston 

respecting the discovery of chromate of 

iron, 511. 

Spinet, price of one, 35. 
Stage-coaches in the last century, 43, 85, 

89, 103. 
Stephens, James, surgeon, Manchester, 

573. 
Stewart, Dugald, 5 ; Duncan, author of 

an Arabic grammar, 577. 
Stonyhurst College, 161, 263; its mu- 
seum, 276. 

Strangeways Hall, Manchester, the dis- 
persion of stony fragments near it, 

339. 

Strathallan, Lord, 450. 
Street improvements in Manchester, 

names of subscribers to, 49, etc. 
Sutton, Charles W. , chief librarian of the 

Manchester Free Library, 73. 
Syddall, Thomas, 51. 
Sylvester, Colonel of the 2d Manchester 

Volunteers, 128 ; Colonel John, 1st 

Manchester Local Militia, 170. 

TARQUIN, ballad of, edited by Samuel 
Hibbert, 231. 

Taxes and rates a century ago, 27 ; and 
during the last French war, 140. 

Taylor, Dr. Charles, secretary of the 
Society of Arts in London, 153, 159, 
223. 

Theatre of Manchester, prices at, a cen- 
tury since, 37 ; managers of, 38 ; its 
talented actors eighty years ago, 143. 

Thistlewood, Arthur, the conspirator, 
155. 

Tim Bobbin and Miss Ware, 60. 

Tings of Shetland, 300. 

Tithe-barn, description of the old one at 
Hale Barns, 547. 

Townley, Richard and Charles, of 
Towuley, 565-6. 

Trade, great depression of, in Manchester, 
6, 175. 

Travelling a century since, 42 ; to Lon- 
don, 80, 85 ; from Hull to Manchester, 



89 ; to Dublin, 108 ; discomforts of, in 
stage-coach, eighty years ago, 133. 

Trevelyan, Walter Calverley (afterwards 
Sir Walter), 314, 344, 546 ; on the 
education of the poor, 550, 571. 

Tynwald Courts, Isle of Man, 299, 300. 

UMBRELLAS, use of, introduced, 34, 
Uniform, military, a century ago, 58 ; 

cost of volunteer officers eighty years 

ago, 128. 

VACCINATION seventy years ago, 219. 
Valentine's Day in the last century, 87. 
Velverets (called " Manchester "), 33. 
Vitrified forts, 331, 337 ; paper of Dr. 

Hibbert on, 343, 408, 419. 
Volcanoes, History of the extinct, of the 

Lower Rhine, 414. 

WADE, Richard, on the rise of Noncon- 
formity, 21. 

Wales, curious coal-fires in, 192. 

Walker, Thomas, repeal of the fustian 
tax, 100. 

Walmesley of Westwood, 276. 

Walton Hall, the seat of the Watertons, 
263. 

Ward, Tommy, of the Manchester theatre, 
143, 182. 

Ware (see Hibbert, Samuel, or Hibbert 
Ware), Sir James, 59, 344, 468, 478, 
554 ; Hugh, colonel in the French ser- 
vice, 553 ; Robert, at the siege of 
Belleisle, 55 ; paymaster of the Lanca- 
shire Militia, 57, 58, 72, 84, 468. 

Warren, Mr., Dean of Bangor, 161. 

Watchman, night watch a century ago, 27. 

Waterloo, battle of, 236. 

Waterton, Charles, the naturalist, at 
Rome, 263. 

Watson, Holland, 107 ; James, "of Man- 
chester, umbrella-maker, 34 ; Jimmy, 
or Doctor, 140 ; his death, 142, 182. 

Watson's Hospital, Edinburgh, 297. 

Wedge wood, Josiah, of Etruria, 117. 

Weld, George, 515. 

Wellesley, Sir Arthur, embarks for the 
Peninsular War, 163-4. 

Wellington, Duke of, his compliment to 
the 40th Regiment, 235, 535, 562-3. 

Wernerian Natural History Society, 247. 

Wesley, Rev. John, his prophecy, 40 ; 
" Calm Address," 66. 

Wheeler, Mr. Sergeant, 572. 

White, Charles, of Manchester, surgeon, 
157. 

Whit worth doctors, 129. 



586 



INDEX. 



Wied, Prince of, his letter to Dr. Hibbert, 

418. 

Wilkinson, Dr. Eason, 176. 
Willan, Joseph, on perpetual motion, 14. 
William IV., 444. 
Winter, Benjamin, 51, 174 ; Gilbert, 

326. 

Witham, Henry Maire, 423. 
Wood, George William, 326, 383 ; Otti- 

well, anecdote of, 61, 66. 



Worsley, Miss, 200. 

Wray, Rev. Dr., 51 ; Rev. Daniel Cecil, 

475, 540, 567-9. 
Wrecks, abuses relating to, in Shetland, 

287. 

YARDWOOD, Mark, a boy born without 

forearms, 305, 310. 
Young, Charles, one of the managers of 

the Manchester theatre, 142-3. 



THE END. 



Printed by R. & R. CLARK, Edinburgh. 




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